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Wednesday, 6 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Fruits - Papaya (Carica Papaya)




Papaya

Papaya is a species of Carica Papaya, belongs to the family Caricaceae and native to the tropics of the Americas, and was first cultivated in Mexico and several centuries

Nutritional Supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Fiber
4. Protein
5. Vitamin A
6. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
7. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
8. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
9. Vitamin B6
10. Vitamin C
11. Vitamin E
12. Vitamin K
13. Calcium
14. Iron
15. Magnesium
16. Phosphorus
17. Potassium
18. Sodium
19. Etc

Health Benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Anti-tumor activity and immunomodulatory effects
In the investigation of
extract of Carica papaya Linn. (CP) and its anti-tumor activity and immunomodulatory effects found that the CP leaf extract may potentially provide the means for the treatment and prevention of selected human diseases such as cancer, various allergic disorders, and may also serve as immunoadjuvant for vaccine therapy, according to "Aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves exhibits anti-tumor activity and immunomodulatory effects" by Otsuki N, Dang NH, Kumagai E, Kondo A, Iwata S, Morimoto C.(I)

2. Anti-inflammatory activities
In the
assessment of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves and its anti-inflammatory activity effect found that the extracts significantly reduced the persistent oedema from the 4th day to the 10th day of the investigation. The extracts also produced slight mucosal irritation at high doses. The study establishes the anti-inflammatory activity of Carica papaya leaves, according to "Anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves" by Owoyele BV, Adebukola OM, Funmilayo AA, Soladoye AO.(II)

3.
Hyperlipidemia
In the classification of
anti-hyperlipidemic effect of the ether- and water-soluble fractions of C. papaya ethanol extract found that The study dose-dependently inhibited the total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) level, and significantly increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of fats in the ether fraction, whereas the water fraction revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, glycosides. UV ?(max) was found to be 217?nm with a melting point of 41?C for the isolated component, according to "Effect of ether- and water-soluble fractions of Carica papaya ethanol extract in experimentally induced hyperlipidemia in rats" by Iyer D, Sharma BK, Patil UK.(III)

4.
Cellular oxidative stress
In the investigation of the papaya epicarp extract against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced oxidative stress in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells found that Papaya epicarp extract ameliorated glutathione depletion, restored total antioxidant capacity and augmented the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidases and superoxide dismutase). In conclusion, papaya epicarp extract can be used as a functional dietary ingredient that might help in reducing the neurological health problems associated with various oxidative stress insults, according to "Papaya epicarp extract protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells" by Guizani N, Waly MI, Ali A, Al-Saidi G, Singh V, Bhatt N, Rahman MS.(IV)

5.
Acute gastric damage and blood oxidative stress
In the determination of Carica papaya leaf (CPL) aqueous extract and its effect on alcohol induced acute gastric damage and the immediate blood oxidative stress level, found that CPL extract offered some protection with reduction in plasma lipid peroxidation level and increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity. Carica papaya leaf may potentially serve as a good therapeutic agent for protection against gastric ulcer and oxidative stress, according to "Protective effect of Carica papaya L leaf extract against alcohol induced acute gastric damage and blood oxidative stress in rats" by Indran M, Mahmood AA, Kuppusamy UR.(V)

6. Etc.

B. Health effects
according to the concentration in Papaya
1. Antioxidants
Vitamin C is considered as one of powerful free radical scavenger among vitamin by fighting against the lipidperoxidation and preventing the irregular growth of cancers, including breast cancer, according to the study of "Effect of vitamin C on lipidperoxidation and antioxidant status in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients" ralikrishnan G, Amanullah S, Basha MI, Boopalan S, Vijayakumar S, Shakeel F (1)

2. Neural tube defects
For women capable of becoming pregnant, intake of folate reduces the risk of Neural tube defects, according to the study of "Micronutrients and women of reproductive potential: required dietary intake and consequences of dietary deficiency or excess. Part I--Folate, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6" by Simpson JL, Bailey LB, Pietrzik K, Shane B, Holzgreve W.(2)

3. Bone health
Potassium beside is best known for its function of balancing the ration of sodium in regulating the lymphatic fluid circulation, it also plays an important role in reducing the risk of bone loss, according to the study of "Invited review: Dairy intake and bone health: A viewpoint from the state of the art" by Caroli A, Poli A, Ricotta D, Banfi G, Cocchi D.(3)

4. Conlon Cancer
Papaya contains natural enzymes and fibers which enhance the strong digestion and remove the built up waste from the body that reduces the risk of colon cancer, according to the study of "Influence of dietary fiber on inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer: importance of fermentation pattern" by Rose DJ, DeMeo MT, Keshavarzian A, Hamaker BR.(4)

4. Vitamin A, E, C
It is found that consumption of foods rich in Beta carotene, vitamin C and E have been associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease and rates of cognitive change in older women due to their antioxidant effects, according to the study of "Vitamin E, vitamin C, beta carotene, and cognitive function among women with or at risk of cardiovascular disease: The Women's Antioxidant and Cardiovascular Study" Kang JH, Cook NR, Manson JE, Buring JE, Albert CM, Grodstein F. (5)

5. Vitamin K
Vitamin K found abundantly in Papaya may associated in the prevention of osteoporosis and arterial calcification with few adverse effects, according to the study of "Vitamin K in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis and arterial calcification" by Adams J, Pepping J.(6)

B. Other health effects
1. Immune enhancerAqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves inhibits the cancer cell by enhancing the immune system in fighting against the forming of free radical cause of neurodegenerative diseases and cancer,according to the study of "Nutritional Antioxidants and Adaptive Cell Responses: an Update" by A S, J C, A S, F C.(a)

2. FlavonoidsSince it contains high amount of flavonoids which help to prevent the oxidation of cholesterol, thus decreasing the risk of heart diseases and stroke and improving the lung function in oxygen absorption, according to the study of "Antiatherogenic properties of flavonoids: implications for cardiovascular health" by Mulvihill EE, Huff MW.(b)

3. Ayurvedic medicine
Nephroprotective in papaya protects the kidney in a renal ischemia-reperfusion induced injury and kidney cells from the renal toxins.

4. Folk medicine
Since green papaya is considered as a cold food, it is used for contraception and abortion in some folk medicine.

6. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Do NOT consume green papaya if you are pregnant, it may cause miscarriage.
2. It may cause latex-fruit allergy syndrome for some people due to substance chitinases.
3. Since it contains high amount of phytochemicals may suppress the effects of progesterone. If you take progesterone medicine, please consult with your doctor.
4. Etc.


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Sources
(I) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19961915
(II) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18759075
(III) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22077166
(IV) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21893571
(V) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19566009
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20714147
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20373888
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22032348
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17345958
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19451353
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16030366
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21999148
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20386755