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Wednesday, 6 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Fruits - Oranges (Citrus Sinensis)




Oranges
Orange is a species of Citrus Sinensis, belong to the family Rutaceae and native to the Southeast Asia. Orange is round citrus fruits with finely-textured skins, orange in color and one of most popular fruits in the world.

Nutritional Supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Fiber
4. Fat
5. Protein
6. Vitamin A
7. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
8. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
9. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
10. Pantothenic acid (B5)
11. Vitamin B6
12. Folate (Vitamin B9)
13. Vitamin C
14. Calcium
15. Iron
16. Magnesium
17. Phosphorus
18. Potassium
19. Zinc
20. Etc.

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Bioavailability and antioxidant effects
In the reserach of Bioavailability and antioxidant effects of orange juice (OJ) into habitual diet found that after the 3 week intervention, plasma concentrations of vitamins A and E did not change. 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine in white blood cells declined by 16% (p = 0.38; n = 11), and in individuals with high baseline concentrations by 29% (p = 0.36; n = 7), respectively. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-/high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol ratios decreased but cholesterol (HDL, LDL, total) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance plasma concentrations did not change significantly, according to "Bioavailability and antioxidant effects of orange juice components in humans?" by Franke AA, Cooney RV, Henning SM, Custer LJ.(I)

2. Cholesterol
In the investigation of the effects of orange juice on hypercholesterolemia found that Consumption of 750 mL but not of 250 or 500 mL orange juice daily increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations by 21% (P: < 0.001), triacylglycerol concentrations by 30% (from 1.56 +/- 0.72 to 2.03 +/- 0.91 mmol/L; P: < 0.02), and folate concentrations by 18% (P: < 0.01); decreased the LDL-HDL cholesterol ratio by 16% (P: < 0.005); and did not affect homocyst(e)ine concentrations. Plasma vitamin C concentrations increased significantly during each dietary period (2.1, 3.1, and 3.8 times, respectively), according to "HDL-cholesterol-raising effect of orange juice in subjects with hypercholesterolemia" by Kurowska EM, Spence JD, Jordan J, Wetmore S, Freeman DJ, Piché LA, Serratore P.(II)

3. Antiplasmodial activity
In the assessment of plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum. In the present study, the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Citrus sinensis (peel), Leucas aspera, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus acidus (leaf), Terminalia chebula (seed) and theirs effect against Plasmodium falciparum found that components present in the solvent extracts of L. aspera, P. acidus, and T. chebula have antiplasmodial activity. The high antiplasmodial activity observed make these plants good candidates for isolation of anti-protozoal compounds which could serve as new lead structures for drug development, according to "Antiplasmodial activity of botanical extracts against Plasmodium falciparum" by Bagavan A, Rahuman AA, Kamaraj C, Kaushik NK, Mohanakrishnan D, Sahal D.(III)

4. Lung cancer
In the analyzing Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel and its effect on lung cancer cells found that Monodemethylated PMFs were much more potent in growth inhibition of lung cancer cells than their permethoxylated counterpart PMFs. In H1299 cells, cell cycle analyses further revealed that monodemethylated PMFs caused significant increase in sub-G0/G1 phase, suggesting possible role of apoptosis in the growth inhibition, according to "Monodemethylated polymethoxyflavones from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel inhibit growth of human lung cancer cells by apoptosis" by Xiao H, Yang CS, Li S, Jin H, Ho CT, Patel T.(IV)

5. Breast cancer
In the assessment of
flavonoids, especially polymethoxyflavones (PMFs). of Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) peel and yjeirs effect on breast cancer found that bioactive PMFs from orange peel exert proapoptotic activity in human breast cancer cells, which depends on their ability to induce an increase in intracellular Ca(2+ )and thus, activate Ca(2+)-dependent apoptotic proteases, according to "Apoptosis-inducing activity of hydroxylated polymethoxyflavones and polymethoxyflavones from orange peel in human breast cancer cells" by Sergeev IN, Ho CT, Li S, Colby J, Dushenkov S.(V)

6. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin C
a. Capillaries
Since it contains high amount of vitamin C, it reduces the risk of breaking off of the small vessels, thus preventing the risk of infection, inflammation, according to the study of "High-dose vitamin C treatment reduces capillary leakage after burn plasma transfer in rats" by Kremer T, Harenberg P, Hernekamp F, Riedel K, Gebhardt MM, Germann G, Heitmann C, Walther A.(1)

b. Immune system
Vitamin C is considered as on of most powerful free radical scavenger, it helps to enhane the immune system fighting against forming of free radical cause of irregular cells growth due to mutation of cells' DNA, including tumors and cancers, according to the study of "Vitamin C and cancer: what can we conclude--1,609 patients and 33 years later?" by Cabanillas F.(2)

2. Dietary fibers
a. Weight loss and lower cholesterol
Fibers are tough to digest, it can keep the stomach remaining in fulliness stage for such as long time, thus reducing the hunger induced of food intake. On the other hand, fibers also reduce the levels of bad cholesterol, according to the study of " Whole-grain ready-to-eat oat cereal, as part of a dietary program for weight loss, reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with overweight and obesity more than a dietary program including low-fiber control foods" by
Maki KC, Beiseigel JM, Jonnalagadda SS, Gugger CK, Reeves MS, Farmer MV, Kaden VN, Rains TM.(3)

b. Diabetes
Orange contains high amount fiber that helps to release the glucose into bloodstream slowly that helps to reduce the risk of pancreas stress thus controlling blood sugar after meal, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(4)

3. Folate
a. Neural tube defects
Folate deficiency has found to be a major cause of infant mortality and disability as a result of neural tube defects, according to the study of " Promotion of folate for the prevention of neural tube defects: who benefits?" by Bower C, Miller M, Payne J, Serna P.(5)

b. Cancers
Folate plays a vital role in synthesizing DNA, repairing DNA, and methylating DNA, its deficiency may cause the development of several cancers as a result of inflicting its role in cells repair, including cancer of the colorectum, breast, ovary, pancreas, brain, lung and cervix, according to the study ofn"Folate and cancer: how DNA damage, repair and methylation impact on colon carcinogenesis" by Duthie SJ.(6)

4. Etc.

C. Other Health Benefits
1. Iron
Iron in orange is important for the production of red blood cells and formation of hemoglobin that help to carry oxygen and nutrient around the body the needs of cell, according to the study of " Interaction of iron with other nutrients" by Lynch SR.(a)

2. Free radicals
Orange contains high amount of antioxidants, thereby, increasing the immune function in fighting against fogrein invasion of virus and bacteria, including HIV infection, according to the study of "Oxidant/antioxidant status in patients with chronic HIV infection" by Coaccioli S, Crapa G, Fantera M, Del Giorno R, Lavagna A, Standoli ML, Frongillo R, Biondi R, Puxeddu A.(b)

3. Beta-cryptoxanthinResearchers found that Beta-cryptoxanthin has the anti-small cell lung cancer and bronchial epithelial cells effects due to it antioxidant properties by protecting cells from becoming cancerous, according tothe study of " Beta-cryptoxanthin suppresses the growth of immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells and non-small-cell lung cancer cells and up-regulates retinoic acid receptor beta expression" by Lian F, Hu KQ, Russell RM, Wang XD.(c)

4. Etc.

Side Effects
No Side Effects is known


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Sources
(I) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15969493
(II) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11063434
(III) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21079994
(IV) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19065586
(V) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17979096

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20354446
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20799507
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20102847
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20713332
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16269071
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20544289
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9197130
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20393680
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16841329