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Wednesday, 6 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Fruits - Lime (C. Aurantifolia)





Lime (Lemon)
Lime is a species of Citrus Aurantifolia, belongs to the family Rutaceae. It has around shape are with green to yellow in color and 3–6 cm in diameter and native to Southeast Asia.

Nutritional Supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Fiber
4. Fat
5. Protein
6. Water
7. Vitamin C
8. Etc

Health Benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Pancreatic cancer
In the evaluation of the chemopreventive effects of lime juice on pancreatic cancer cells found that antioxidant activity is proportionate to the content of flavonoids and proliferation inhibition ability is proportionate to the content of both flavonoids and limonoids, according top "Bioactive compounds from Mexican lime ( Citrus aurantifolia ) juice induce apoptosis in human pancreatic cells" by Patil JR, Chidambara Murthy KN, Jayaprakasha GK, Chetti MB, Patil BS.(a)

2. Enzymatic saccharification
In the investigation of lime and its effect on the pretreatment of brown midrib sorhgums on enzymatic saccharification found that that bmr is useful to reduce pretreatment costs, because the amount of lime necessary for the pretreatment of biomass can reduced by using bmr mutants, according to "Effect of Lime Pretreatment of Brown Midrib Sorghums" by
Maehara T, Takai T, Ishihara H, Yoshida M, Fukuda K, Gau M, Kaneko S.(b)

3. Antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities
In the analyzing the dichloromethane, ethanol and water extracts prepared from celery [Apium graveolens L. (Umbelliferae)], Jerusalem artichoke [Helianthus tuberosus L. (Compositae)], spinach [Spinacia oleracea L. (Chenopodiaceae)], chard [Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla (Chenopodiaceae)], purslane [Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae)], ispit, or borage [Trachystemon orientale (L.) G. Don (Boraginaceae)], garden rocket [Eruca sativa Mill. (Brassicaceae)], red cabbage [Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra DC. (Cruciferae)], lime flower [Tilia tomentosa Moench (Tiliaceae)], cinnamon [Cinnamomum cassia Presl. (Lauraceae)], and rosehip [Rosa canina L. (Rosaceae)], found that the dichloromethane, ethanol and water extracts of cinnamon showed the best antioxidant effect among the extracts of the tested plants. The ethanol extract of cinnamon exhibited 63.02% inhibition against acetylcholinesterase and 85.11% inhibition against butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at 200 µg/mL, according to "Antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of eleven edible plants" by Boğa M, Hacıbekiroğlu I, Kolak U.(c)

4. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin C
Besides is essential in preventing the breaking off small vein cause of hardening of the vessel wall, vitamin C also improves the digestive system in maximum absorption of vital nutrients. Overdoses can cause diarrhea, It also plays an important role in enhancing immune system fighting against the forming of free radicals that cause muscle damage, according to the study of "Does antioxidant vitamin supplementation protect against muscle damage?" by McGinley C, Shafat A, Donnelly AE., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19902983)

2. Protein
In the research of the importance of dietary proteins influence body weight by affecting four targets for body weight regulation: satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition, found that Ingestion of dietary proteins in diabetes type 1 exerts a delayed postprandial increase in blood glucose levels due to protein-induced stimulation of pancreatic glucagon secretion. Higher than minimal amounts of protein in the diet needed for nitrogen balance may play an important role for the increasing number of elderly obese subjects in our industrialized societies, since proteins exert beneficial effects in the conditions of overweight, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk factors, bone health, and sarcopenia. Adverse effects of increased dietary proteins have been observed in subjects with renal impairment- this problem is frequently observed in the elderly, hypertensive, and diabetic population. Nevertheless, dietary proteins deserve more attention than they have received in the past, according to "Dietary proteins in obesity and in diabetes" by Keller U.(I)

3. Dietary fiber
Daily intake of right amount of fibers can prevent and treat
a. Diabetes, as Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(II)

b. Cholesterol and cardivascular diseases, as the soluble fiber content of legumes and vegetables has also been shown to decrease LDL-C. Current investigations continue to explore this area in depth and examine potential synergies between dietary fiber and other phytochemicals that may lower cholesterol, according to the study of "Effects of soluble dietary fiber on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary heart disease risk" by Bazzano LA.(III)

4. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Immune system
Since it contains high amount of flavonoid, it helps to improve the immune system fighting against forming of free radical causes of tumor and cancer, according to the study of "Dietary intake of selected flavonols, flavones, and flavonoid-rich foods and risk of cancer in middle-aged and older women" by Wang L, Lee IM, Zhang SM, Blumberg JB, Buring JE, Sesso HD., posted in PubMed(1)

2. Vitamin C
Vitamin C in lime not helps to strenghtens the small blood vessels by making them more elastic in transporting blood, according to the study of "High-dose vitamin C treatment reduces capillary leakage after burn plasma transfer in rats" by Kremer T, Harenberg P, Hernekamp F, Riedel K, Gebhardt MM, Germann G, Heitmann C, Walther A., Posted in PubMed(2),but also protects against Rheumatoid arthritis by ehnacing the immune system fighting against the inflammation of the lining of the joints., according to the study of "Clinically significant vitamin C deficiency in rheumatoid arthritis" by Oldroyd KG, Dawes PT., posted in PubNMed(3).

3. Digestive system
Lime stimulates the digestive system in secreting digestive juices, bile and acids , that aids to break foods in the stomach, according to the article of "Healthy Digestive System", posted in Asian Online Recipes(4)

4. Peptic Ulcer
Peptic Ulcer
is an ulcer in the gastrointestinal tract that is usually acidic and thus extremely painful. The phenolic compounds of Flonvoids in lime helps to treat it because of theirs' anti-biotic, anti carcinogenic and detoxifying properties, according to the stuyd of "Role of phenolic compounds in peptic ulcer: An overview", by Sumbul S, Ahmad MA, Mohd A, Mohd A., posted in PubMed(5)

5. Lung enhancer
The peel of a lime if scratch can has a immediate relief in nasal congestion as well as lung cancer due to presence of Kaempferol, a natural flavonol of flavonoid, accorsing to the study of " Kaempferol-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells is mediated by activation of MEK-MAPK" by Nguyen TT, Tran E, Ong CK, Lee SK, Do PT, Huynh TT, Nguyen TH, Lee JJ, Tan Y, Ong CS, Huynh H., posted in PubMed(6)

6. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Since it contains high amount of vitamin C, people with weak stomach or ulcer should consult with their doctor before consuming high amount of lime.
2. Overdose of vitamin C may increase the risk of stomachache and diarrhea
3. Since its contains a measure amount of oxalate, people with kidney diseases should consult with their doctor before taking with high amount.
4. No other known side effect.

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Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19919125
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22146736
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21284538

(I) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22139563
(II) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20713332
(III) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18937894

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19158208
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20354446
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4063626
(4) http://www.asianonlinerecipes.com/health-fitness/healthy-digestive-system.php
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21966156
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12942547