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Monday, 11 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Fruits - Grapes (Vitaceae)


Grapes
Grape is a woody vines of the genus Vitis, belong to the family Vitaceae, native to southern Turkey.

Nutritional Supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Dietary fiber
4. Protein
5. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
6. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
7. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
8. Pantothenic acid (B5)
9. Vitamin B6
10. Folate (Vitamin B9)
11. Sugars
12. Vitamin C
13. Vitamin K
14. Calcium
15. Iron
16. Magnesium
17. Manganese
18. Phosphorus
19. Potassium
20. Sodium
21. Zinc
22. Etc.

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1.
Polyphenols
In the investigation of grapes and its biological activities found that Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties, according to "Biological activities of polyphenols from grapes" by Xia EQ, Deng GF, Guo YJ, Li HB.(a)

2. Cardiovascular diseases
In the research of grapes consumption and
a mild to moderate drinking of wine, particularly red wine and its effect on cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular risk, found that both wines and grapes can attenuate cardiac diseases such as atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease. Recently, wine was also found to increase life span by inducing longevity genes. It appears that resveratrol and proanthocyanidins, especially resveratrol, present in grapes and wines play a crucial role in cardioprotective abilities of grapes and wines. according to "Grapes, wines, resveratrol, and heart health" by Bertelli AA, Das DK.(b)

3.
Type 2 diabetes
In the investigation of comsuption of
grapes and other fruit and theirs effect on type II diabetes
found that grapes and other fruits contain numerous polyphenols, including the stilbene resveratrol, the flavanol quercetin, catechins, and anthocyanins that have shown potential for reducing hyperglycemia, improving beta-cell function, and protecting against beta-cell loss. Therefore, with a low mean GI and GL, grapes or grape products may provide health benefits to type 2 diabetics, according to "Type 2 diabetes and glycemic response to grapes or grape products" by Zunino S.(c)

4.
Hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, and renal-protective effects
In the identification of
organic and conventional grapevine (Vitis labrusca L.) leaf extracts and theirs effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced stress in the liver, heart and kidney found that the beneficial effects of the V labrusca leaf extract shown in this study could probably be important for formulating dietary supplements, as well as for developing new ingredients with improved antioxidant properties from other plant sources, according to "Hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, and renal-protective effects of organic and conventional grapevine leaf extracts (Vitis labrusca var. Bordo) on Wistar rat tissues" by Oliboni LS, Dani C, Funchal C, Henriques JA, Salvador M.(d)

5. Antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities
In the evaluation of the protection of organic and conventional purple grape juices and theirs effect against the oxidative damage provoked by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) found that in the alkaline version of the comet assay performed on whole blood, it was observed that CCl(4) was capable of inducing mainly DNA damage class 4 and 3 frequencies, which was significantly reduced in groups that received both purple grape juices. This implies that both grape juices have an important antigenotoxic activity, according to "Antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities of purple grape juice--organic and conventional--in adult rats" by Dani C, Oliboni LS, Umezu FM, Pasquali MA, Salvador M, Moreira JC, Henriques JA.(e)

6. Etc.
B. According to the concentration
1. Manganese
a. sperm cryopreservation
Manganese improves the quality/fertility of semen, which will result in enhancing the successful rate in normal conception or in vitro fertilization and artificial insemination, according to the study of "Manganese provides antioxidant protection for sperm cryopreservation that may offer new consideration for clinical fertility" by Cheema RS, Bansal AK, Bilaspuri GS.(1)

b. Damage of DNA
MnTBAP or by over-expression of MnSOD have exerted the antioxidant propperties by preventing mtDNA damage and protecting mitochondrial-encoded genes of renalretinal endothelial cells, exposured to high glucose increased mtDNA(mitochondrial DNA ) damage, according to the study of "Oxidative damage of mitochondrial DNA in diabetes and its protection by manganese superoxide dismutase" by Madsen-Bouterse SA, Zhong Q, Mohammad G, Ho YS, Kowluru RA.(2)

2. Vitamin C
a. Upper respiratory tract infection
Grape contains high amount of vitamin C of which intake reduces the risk of Upper respiratory tract infection(URTIO) among women, according to the study of "Dietary intake and supplement use of vitamins C and e and upper respiratory tract infection" by Fondell E, Bälter O, Rothman KJ, Bälter K.(3)

b. Breast cancer
Vitamin C has shown the ability to activate a caspase-independent and AIF-mediated cell death pathway in human breast cancer cells, SK-BR3, and Hs578T of human breast cancer cell lines, according to the study of "Ascorbate (vitamin C) induces cell death through the apoptosis-inducing factor in human breast cancer cells" by Hong SW, Jin DH, Hahm ES, Yim SH, Lim JS, Kim KI, Yang Y, Lee SS, Kang JS, Lee WJ, Lee WK, Lee MS.(4)


3. Vitamin B1
a. Cell metabolism
Vitamin B1 play an impotant role in the regulation of cell metabolism at both the coenzymatic and non-coenzymatic level., according to the study of "[Thiamine and its derivatives in the regulation of cell metabolism]. [Article in Polish]" by Tylicki A, Siemieniuk M.(5)

b. Wilson's disease
Vitamin B1 has also demonstrated the activity in treating genetic defect in P-type Cu(2+)-ATPase (Atp7b) mouse model of Wilson's disease by constituting a prophylactic for Wilson's disease-induced hepatocellular carcinoma, according to the study of "Thiamine supplementation attenuated hepatocellular carcinoma in the Atp7b mouse model of Wilson's disease" by Sheline CT.(6)

4. Etc.
C. Other health benefits1. Heart diseases
Grape seed helps to reduce high blood pressure, vascular damage and inctrases the production of vascular damage due to polyphenols, thus decreasing the risk of heart diseases, according to the study of "Cholesterol-lowering activity of the major polyphenols in grape seed"by Ngamukote S, Mäkynen K, Thilawech T, Adisakwattana S.(7)

2. Immune system
It also helps to educe the risk of irregular cell growth (causes of tumor and cancer), according to the study of "A combination of resveratrol and melatonin exerts chemopreventive effects in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis" by Kisková T, Ekmekcioglu C, Garajová M, Orendáš P, Bojková B, Bobrov N, Jäger W, Kassayová M, Thalhammer T.(8) and degeneration diseases such as Parkinson's disease, According to the study of "Formation of dopamine quinone-DNA adducts and their potential role in the etiology of Parkinson's disease" by Zahid M, Saeed M, Yang L, Beseler C, Rogan E, Cavalieri EL(9) and improves the immune function in fighting against the forming of free radicals and foreign bacteria and virus invasion due the presentation of Grape phytochemicals such as resveratrol, according to the study of "The immunomodulating activities of resveratrol glucosides in humans" by Fuggetta M, Mattivi F.(10)

3. Saponins
Saponins are glucosides consisted a polycyclic aglycones attached to one or more sugar side chains. It binds with bile salt and cholesterol in the intestinal tract and secret them through waste., according to the study of "Effect of alfalfa saponins on intestinal cholesterol absorption in rats" by Malinow MR, McLaughlin P, Papworth L, Stafford C, Kohler GO, Livingston AL, Cheeke PR.(11)

4. Osteoporosis
It contains high amount of magnesium which enhances the digestive system in absorbing calcium, an essential minerals for bone health, according to the study of "A case of magnesium deficiency associated with insufficient parathyroid hormone action and severe osteoporosis" by Kanazawa I, Yamamoto M, Yamaguchi T, Yamauchi M, Yano S, Sugimoto T.(12)

5. Coagulation effect
Since it contains high amount of vitamin K, it helps to promote coagulation of blood, thus reducing the risk of excessive bleeding, according to the study of "The neonatal coagulation system and the vitamin K deficiency bleeding - a mini review" by Pichler E, Pichler L.(13)

6. Etc.

Side Effects1. Since it contains high amount of sugar, people who has high blood sugar should consult their doctor before consuming.

2. Eat flesh raisins to avoid artificial sweeteners.
3. Etc.

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Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20386657
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19770673
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19625702
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22146965
(e) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19857077

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20592770
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20088710
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21917705.
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17786340
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21734329
(6)http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21965752
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21694670
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22044852
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22045657
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21428873
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/563169
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18048993
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18677590