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Monday, 11 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Fruits - Grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi)

Grapefruit is a species of Citrus × paradisi, belong to the family Rutaceae. It is an ornamental plant with ancestors of sweet orange and pomelo, native to Jamaican and Indonesia receptively.

Nutrition Supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Fiber
4. Fat
5. Protein
6. Vitamin A
7. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
8. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
9. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
10. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)
11. Vitamin B6
12. Folate (Vitamin B9)
13. Vitamin C
14. Calcium
15. Iron
16. Magnesium
17. Phosphorus
18. Potassium
19. Zinc
20. Manganese
21. Etc.

Health Benefits

A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Weight Loss
In the investigation of comsumption of grapefruit juice and its effect on weight loss found that incorporating consumption of a low energy dense dietary preload in a caloric restricted diet is a highly effective weight loss strategy. But, the form of the preload did not have differential effects on energy balance, weight loss or body composition. It is notable that subjects in grapefruit (GF) and grapefruit juice (GFJ) preload groups experienced significantly greater benefits in lipid profiles, according to "Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults" by Silver HJ, Dietrich MS, Niswender KD.(a)

2.
Degenerative diseases
In the classification of grapefruit and its effect on Degenerative diseases found that grapefruit, by virtue of its rich flavonoid content, is beneficial in the management of degenerative diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This potentially explosive subject is reviewed here, according to "The grapefruit: an old wine in a new glass? Metabolic and cardiovascular perspectives" by Owira PM, Ojewole JA.(b)

3. Blood pressure
In the
examination of the effects of ingestion of grapefruit juice or grapefruit on the hypotensive effect and plasma concentration of dihydropyridine calcium antagonists found that a single ingestion of grapefruit juice had no effect on plasma amlodipine concentration, but rapidly increased plasma nifedipine concentration and decreased blood pressure, while the effect on blood pressure was short-lasting. Grapefruit had no effect on either drug. It should be of concern that ingestion of a relatively large volume of grapefruit juice causes rapid decrease in blood pressure when the subject is treated by nifedipine, according to "Effects of ingestion of grapefruit juice or grapefruit on the hypotensive effect and plasma concentrations of dihydropyridine calcium antagonists (amlodipine and nifedipine): a case study" by Nakagawa K, Goto T.(c)

4.
Weight and Insulin resistance
In the evaluation of
the effects of grapefruit and grapefruit products on body weight and metabolic syndrome in obese adult, found that half of a fresh grapefruit eaten before meals was associated with significant weight loss. In metabolic syndrome patients the effect was also seen with grapefruit products. Insulin resistance was improved with fresh grapefruit. Although the mechanism of this weight loss is unknown it would appear reasonable to include grapefruit in a weight reduction diet, according to "The effects of grapefruit on weight and insulin resistance: relationship to the metabolic syndrome" by Fujioka K, Greenway F, Sheard J, Ying Y.(d)

5. Weight loss and cholesterol
In the investigation of
grapefruit (GF), grapefruit juice (GFJ) and its health benefits found that incorporating consumption of a low energy dense dietary preload in a caloric restricted diet is a highly effective weight loss strategy. But, the form of the preload did not have differential effects on energy balance, weight loss or body composition. It is notable that subjects in GF and GFJ preload groups experienced significantly greater benefits in lipid profiles., according to "Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults" by Silver HJ, Dietrich MS, Niswender KD.(e)

6. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to the concentration

1. Vitamin C
a. Irregular cells growth
Since it contains high amount of vitamin C and antioxidant, it improves the immune function against forming of free radical, thus reducing the risk of tumor and cancer caused of irregular cell growth and abnormal DNA replication and cell division, according to the study of "High-dose vitamin C (ascorbic acid) therapy in the treatment of patients with advanced cancer" by Ohno S, Ohno Y, Suzuki N, Soma G, Inoue M.(1)

b. Upper respiratory infection
Vitamin C has exerted its activity as an antioxidant in preventing and treating Upper respiratory infection, according to the study of ' Dietary intake and supplement use of vitamins C and e and upper respiratory tract infection" by Fondell E, Bälter O, Rothman KJ, Bälter K.(2)

2. Dietary Fibers
a. Heart diseases and stroke
Since it contains high amount of fiber, it improves the ratio of good cholesterol (HDL) and blod vessels relaxation, thus decreasing the risk of heart diseases and stroke, according to the study of "Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis" by Brown L, Rosner B, Willett WW, Sacks FM.(3)

b. Diabetes
High amount of fibers in the grapefruits helps ito release glucose into blood strean slowly as they are hard to digest, thus improving glucose metabolism and increasing insulin sensitivity.according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(4)

3. Vitamin A
a. Cervical cancer
Vitamin A intake has exerted it inversely associated with the risk of cervical cancer, according to the study of " Vitamin A and risk of cervical cancer: A meta-analysis" by Zhang X, Dai B, Zhang B, Wang Z.(5)

b. Vitamin A and acute diarrhoea
In the assesesment of ssess the impact of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity from acute respiratory tract infections and diarrhoea in the study of "Impact of massive dose of vitamin A given to preschool children with acute diarrhoea on subsequent respiratory and diarrhoeal morbidity" by Bhandari N, Bhan MK, Sazawal S.(6)

4. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Hypokalemia
Ptassium in the grapefruit is important for maintainging the proper ratio of sodium that promotes the lymphatic function in regulating the fuild in the body, thus reduing the risk of hypokalemia, according to the study of "Prevention of hypokalemia caused by diuretics' by E, Delaney V.(7)

2 Antioxidant Lycopene
Lycopene found adbudant in grapefruit has exerted it antiodant activity as a chemopreventive agent to suppress MMP-7 expression and leptin-mediated cell invasion in human colon cancer HT-29 cells, according to the study of "Cancer Chemopreventive Effects of Lycopene: Suppression of MMP-7 Expression and Cell Invasion in Human Colon Cancer Cells' by Lin MC, , Wang FY, Kuo YH, Tang FY.(8)

3. Limonoids
Limonoids in grapefruit has exhibited the inhibition of the HIV-1 replication in culture of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and on monocytes/macrophages (M/M), according to the study of "Effect of limonin and nomilin on HIV-1 replication on infected human mononuclear cells" by Battinelli L, Mengoni F, Lichtner M, Mazzanti G, Saija A, Mastroianni CM, Vullo V.(9)

4. Etc.

Side effects
1. Since it inhibits enzymes that are necessary for the clearance of some drugs and hormones, leading to an indirected role in increasesing the risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women.
2. Certain pharmaceutical drugs combined with grapefruit juice become more potent, please check with your doctor before consuming grapefruit if you are taking any medicine.
3. Etc.

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Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21288350
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20972517
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20374180
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16579728

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19414313
(2) http://www.jacn.org/content/30/4/248.abstract(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9925120
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20713332(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22005522
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7819847
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8199766
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21923160
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14648393