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Monday, 11 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Fruits - Cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos)



Cranberry
Cranberry is a species of Vaccinium oxycoccos, belong to the family Ericaceae. It is low, creeping shrubs or vines up to 2 m long and 5 to 20 cm in height and found in the cooler part of Northern America.

Nutritional Supplements

1. Fiber
2. Sugars
3. Calcium
4. Magnesium
5. Manganese
6. Phosphorus
7. Potassium
8. Sodium
9. Vitamin C
10. Vitamin A
11. Vitamin K
12. Etc.

Health Benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Kidney stone
In the evaluation of cranberry juice or betaine and its effect on forming of kidney stone found that for prevention of calcium phosphate and struvite stones, urine should be acidified; cranberry juice or betaine can lower urine pH. Antispasmodic medications, ureteroscopy, and metabolic testing are increasingly being used to augment fluid and pain medications in the acute management of kidney stones, according to "Treatment and prevention of kidney stones: an update" by Frassetto L, Kohlstadt I.(a)

2. Infectious disease
In investigation of cranberry or its proanthocyanin constituents effect on infectous diseases found that consumption of various cranberry products benefited young and elderly females in preventing urinary tract infections, and in conjunction with antibiotic treatment in eradicating Helicobacter pylori infections in women. Mouthwash supplemented with an isolated cranberry derivative reduced significantly the caryogenic mutans streptococci, according to "Cranberry components for the therapy of infectious disease" by Shmuely H, Ofek I, Weiss EI, Rones Z, Houri-Haddad Y.(b)

3. Microbial oral diseases
In the classification of seven food/beverages (red chicory, mushroom, raspberry, green and black tea, cranberry juice, dark beer) and their effect on oral diseases found that beverages as important sources of such healthy substances. The fractionation, carried out on the basis of the molecular mass (MM), of the water soluble components occurring in raspberry, chicory, and mushroom extracts (which in microbiological assays revealed the highest potential action against oral pathogens), showed that both the high and low MM fractions are active, with the low MM fractions displaying the highest potential action for all the fractionated extracts, according to "Plant and fungal food components with potential activity on the development of microbial oral diseases" by Daglia M, Papetti A, Mascherpa D, Grisoli P, Giusto G, Lingström P, Pratten J, Signoretto C, Spratt DA, Wilson M, Zaura E, Gazzani G.(c)

4. Metabolic Syndrome
In the observation of the therapeutic roles of strawberries, blueberries, and cranberries in metabolic syndrome, found that low-calorie cranberry juice selectively decreasing biomarkers of lipid oxidation (oxidized LDL) and inflammation (adhesion molecules) in metabolic syndrome. Mechanistic studies further explain these observations as up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity, reduction in renal oxidative damage, and inhibition of the activity of carbohydrate digestive enzymes or angiotensin-converting enzyme by these berries, according to " Strawberries, Blueberries, and Cranberries in the Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Perspectives" by Basu A, Lyons TJ.(d)

5. Cardiovascular health
In the research of polyphenols, especially anthocyanins, micronutrients of berries, including chokeberries, cranberries, blueberries, and strawberries (either fresh, or as juice, or freeze-dried) and theirs effect on cardiovascular diseases found that Underlying mechanisms for these beneficial effects are believed to include upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, decreased activities of carbohydrate digestive enzymes, decreased oxidative stress, and inhibition of inflammatory gene expression and foam cell formation. Though limited, these data support the recommendation of berries as an essential fruit group in a heart-healthy diet, according to "Berries: emerging impact on cardiovascular health" by Basu A, Rhone M, Lyons TJ.(e)

6. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin C
a. Asthma
Vitamin C is one of the key antioxidant vitamins which is abundant in the extracellular fluid lining the lung and low vitamin C intake has been associated with pulmonary dysfunction, such as asthma, according to the study of "Vitamin C supplementation for asthma" by Kaur B, Rowe BH, Arnold E.(1)

b. DNA Damage
Ascorbic acid (AA), known as vitamin C, has important antioxidant vitamin has exerted the activity in preventing (imazalil)IMA-induced cause of DNA damage, according to the stuyd of "The protective role of ascorbic acid on imazalil-induced genetic damage assessed by the cytogenetic tests' by Türkez H, Aydin E.(2)

2. Dietary fiber
a. Obesity
Since it contains high amount of fiber, it makes the stomach feeling fullness longer, thus reducing the risk food craving, according to the study of "The role of dietary fiber in the development and treatment of childhood obesity" by Kimm SY.(3)

b. Diabetes
Carrot contains high amount of fiber which helps to release the glucose slowly into blood stream as it has an inverse relationship with the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and may contribute to both the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitu, according to the study of "[Dietary fibers: current trends and health benefits in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes].[Article in Portuguese]" by Mello VD, Laaksonen DE(4)

3. Manganese
It is one of important trace in preventing osteoporosis, according to the study of "[Study of estrogen deficiency impact on manganese levels in teeth and mandible of rats after ovariectomy]. [Article in Polish]" by Rahnama M, Błoniarz J, Zareba S, Swiatkowski W.(1)and regulating blood sugar level, according to the study of "[An inadequate intake of manganese may favour insulin resistance in girls]. [Article in Spanish]" by Rodríguez-Rodríguez E, Bermejo LM, López-Sobaler AM, Ortega RM.(5)

4. Vitamin K
Long-term vitamin K inadequacy may reduce the function of supporting the carboxylation of at least some of these Gla-protein that can lead the development of degenerative diseases of ageing including osteoporosis and atherosclerosis, according to the study of "Vitamin K, osteoporosis and degenerative diseases of ageing" by Cees Vermeer and Elke Theuwissen(6)

5. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Polyphenol
Cranbery contains high amount of polyphenol antioxidant
a) which enhances the immune system in fighting against cholesterol oxidation from forming plague building up on the arterial wall, causing heart diseases and stroke.
b) Which enhances the immune system in regulating the proper cells division and DNA replication and fighting foreign invasion such as virus and bacteria, thus reducing the risk of infection and inflammation.

2. Urinary tract infections
Cranberries are thought to be an excellent natural cure for urinary tract infections. They work by killing bacteria in your urinary tract. Cranberries contain high doses of Vitamin C, an excellent natural cure for urinary tract infections by increasing the acidity of the urine to kill bacteria.

3. Cholesterol
Cranberry contains high amount of fiber which helps to bind the bad cholesterol (LDL) by secreting them through waste, thus enhancing the levels of good cholesterol (HDL).

4. Proanthocyanidin
Proanthocyanidin, an powerful free radical scavenger antioxidant, in cranberry helps to protect against the effects of internal and environmental stresses such as cigarette smoking and pollution.

5. Etc.

Side Effects

1. If you are taking warfarin, please consult with you doctor before drinking cranberry juice.
2. Oxalation may cause health problems for people with kidney and bladder diseases.
3. No Other known side effect.


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Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22150656
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22088310
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22013381
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22082311
(e) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20384847
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19160185
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21986888
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7494672
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19768242
(5) http://mi.rsmjournals.com/content/17/1/19.abstract
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22072339