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Monday, 11 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Fruits - Apricot (Prunus armeniaca)

The apricot tree is about 8–12 m tall and a trunk up to 40 cm diameter belongs to the family Rosaceae. Apricot is classified with the family of the plum and has yellow to orange, often tinged red on the side which is exposed to the sun.

Nutrients

1. Energy
2. Carbohydrates
3. Dietary fiber
4. Fat
5. Protein
6. Vitamin A
7. Beta-carotene
8. Vitamin C
9. Iron
10. Potassium
11. Tryptophan
12. Carotenoids
13. Etc.

Health Benefit
s
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Antioxidant capacity
In the investigation of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of new apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) genotypes resistant against Plum pox virus (PPV) found that Antioxidant capacities of the genotypes were determined spectrometrically using DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radicals) scavenging test, TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity), and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power)methods. The highest antioxidant capacities were determined in the genotypes LE-3228 and LE-2527, the lowest ones in the LE-985 and LE-994 genotypes. Moreover, close correlation (r = 0.964) was determined between the TEAC and DPPH assays. Based on the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenols content, a clump analysis dendrogram of the monitored apricot genotypes was constructed, according to "Content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in fruits of apricot genotypes" by Sochor J, Zitka O, Skutkova H, Pavlik D, Babula P, Krska B, Horna A, Adam V, Provaznik I, Kizek R.(a)

2. Chronic gastritis
In the research of Japanese apricot (JA) intake and its effect on chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) found that a preventive effect of JA intake on CAG by inhibiting H. pylori infection and reducing active mucosal inflammation, according to "Inhibitory effects of Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Siebold et Zucc.; Ume) on Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastritis" by Enomoto S, Yanaoka K, Utsunomiya H, Niwa T, Inada K, Deguchi H, Ueda K, Mukoubayashi C, Inoue I, Maekita T, Nakazawa K, Iguchi M, Arii K, Tamai H, Yoshimura N, Fujishiro M, Oka M, Ichinose M.(b)

3. Anticancer
In the assessment of Laetrile, a semi-synthetic compound elated to amygdalin, a cyanogenic glycoside from the kernels of apricots found that laetrile or amygdalin have beneficial effects for cancer patients are not currently supported by sound clinical data. There is a considerable risk of serious adverse effects from cyanide poisoning after laetrile or amygdalin, especially after oral ingestion. The risk-benefit balance of laetrile or amygdalin as a treatment for cancer is therefore unambiguously negative, according to "Laetrile treatment for cancer" by Milazzo S, Ernst E, Lejeune S, Boehm K, Horneber M.(c)

4. Anti-amyloidogenic Activity
In the identification of bioactive compounds with anti-amyloidogenicity in apricot fruits using synthetic Aβ(1-42) found that among the peaks in the HPLC chromatogram, lutein showed the strongest inhibitory effect on Aβ fibril formation. The inhibitory effect was dependent on the number and portion of hydroxyl groups on both sides of carotenoids, according to "Apricot Carotenoids Possess Potent Anti-amyloidogenic Activity in Vitro" by Katayama S, Ogawa H, Nakamura S.(d)

5. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin A
Vitamin A is not only important in preventing types I diabetes, according to "A close relationship between type 1 diabetes and vitamin A-deficiency and matrix metalloproteinase and hyaluronidase activities in skin tissues" by Takahashi N, Takasu S.(1) but also may be associated with compromised bone health, according to "Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D" by Ahmadieh H, Arabi A.(2)

2. Vitamin C
In the evaluation of pulmonary dysfunction. and it effects on pulmonary dysfunction found that At present, evidence from randomised-controlled trials is insufficient to recommend a specific role for vitamin C in the treatment of asthma. Further methodologically strong and large-scale randomised controlled trials are needed in order to address the question of the effectiveness of vitamin C in children with asthma but some outcome data showed effectiveness on lung function, symptom scores, IgE levels and inhaled steroid use. One small study showed a significant difference in % drop in FEV1 post-exercise, according to the study of "Vitamin C supplementation for asthma" by Kaur B, Rowe BH, Arnold E.(3)

3. Tryptophan
Tryptophan is one of the 10 essential amino acids which the body uses to synthesize the proteins for brain cells need, thus enhancing the nerve cells in information transmitting between themselves and cells in the parts of the body that reduces the risk of anxiety and depression, according to the study of "The effects of tryptophan depletion on neural responses to emotional words in remitted depression" by Roiser JP, Levy J, Fromm SJ, Nugent AC, Talagala SL, Hasler G, Henn FA, Sahakian BJ, Drevets WC.(4)

4. Dietary fiber
Daily intake of right amount of fibers can prvent and treata. Diabetes, as Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(5)

5. Potassium
Potassium beside is important in maintaining the regular contraction and relaxation of the muscle, that helps to reducing the risk of hypokalemia, it also helps the lymphatic system in regulating the levels of fluid in the body, thus lessening the risk of lymphedema, swelling caused by the accumulation of lymph fluid. In a study of "Narrative review: evolving concepts in potassium homeostasis and hypokalemia" by Greenlee M, Wingo CS, McDonough AA, Youn JH, Kone BC., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19414841), researchers found that recent experimental insights into the participation of feedback and feedforward control mechanisms in potassium homeostasis. New data make clear that feedforward homeostatic responses activate when decreased potassium intake is sensed, even when plasma potassium concentration is still within the normal range and before frank hypokalemia ensues, in addition to the classic feedback activation of renal potassium conservation when plasma potassium concentration decreases.

6. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Cardiovascular diseases
Since apricot contains high amount of fiber, that helps to bind the levels of bad cholesterol and expel them through waste removal, thus protecting against the risk of cardiovascular diseases by reducing the levels of bad cholesterol, according to "Cancer and cardiovascular diseases nutrition knowledge and dietary intake of medical students" by Jovanović GK, Kresić G, Zezelj SP, Mićović V, Nadarević VS.(I)

2. Guards against free radical
Since it contains high levels of beta carotene, it helps to prevent the hardening/thickening of the artery walls by reducing the LDL oxidized by oxygen free radicals, according to "Protection of endogenous beta-carotene in LDL oxidized by oxygen free radicals in the presence of supraphysiological concentrations of melatonin" by Bonnefont-Rousselot D, Guilloz V, Lepage S, Bizard C, Duriez P, Lesieur D, Delattre J, Jore D, Gardès-Albert M.(II)

3. Cancerprotective effect
Antioxidant found in the fruit not only helps to fight against forming of free radical, but also enhances the immune system in regulating the cells division and DNA replication, thus reducing the risk of abnormal cells causes of cancers, according to "Differential effects of antioxidants on the in vitro invasion, growth and lung metastasis of murine colon cancer cells" by Ogasawara M, Matsunaga T, Suzuki H.(III)

4. Colon Health
The measurable amount of fiber helps to improve the digestive system in moving waste, thus releasing constipation, thus reducing the risk of inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer, according to "Influence of dietary fiber on inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer: importance of fermentation pattern" by Rose DJ, DeMeo MT, Keshavarzian A, Hamaker BR.(IV)

5. Hemoglobin
Since it contains a measurable amount of iron that enhances the formation of hemoglobin in carrying life-giving oxygen and nutrients to body blood cells.

6. Etc.

Side effects

1. Toxins The seed is consider toxic in TCM. Consume them with high amount should consult with your Chinese herbal partitioner.
2. Sulfite sensitive People who has had sulfite sensitive should not consume fried apricot becuase sulfur- compounds are often added to dried foods as preservatives to prevent them from oxidation.
3. Etc.  

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Sources(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20877223
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20517325
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22071824
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22043804

(I) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22053554
(II) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12804012
(III) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17202688
(IV) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17345958
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21859436
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21967159
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19160185
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19539268
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20713332