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Monday, 11 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Fruits - Apple (Malus domestica)



Apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, a species of the rose family Rosaceae. It is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits. The tree is originated in Central Asia.

Nutritional supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Fiber
4. Fat
5. Protein
5. Vitamin A equiv.
6. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
7. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
8. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
9. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)
10. Vitamin B6
11. Folate
12. Vitamin C
13. Calcium
14. Iron
15. Magnesium
16. Phosphorus
17. Potassium
18. Zinc
19. Etc

Health Benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1.
Helicobacter pylori
In the investigation of polyphenols of apple peel and theirs effect on Helicobacter pylori found that In a short-term infection model (C57BL6/J mice), two levels of APPE doses (150 and 300 mg/kg/day) showed an inhibitory effect on H. pylori attachment. Orally administered apple peel polyphenols also showed an anti-inflammatory effect on H. pylori-associated gastritis, lowering malondialdehyde levels and gastritis scores, according to "In vitro and in vivo effects of apple peel polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori" by Pastene E, Speisky H, García A, Moreno J, Troncoso M, Figueroa G.(a)

2. Anti cancers
In the study of the inverse relationship between the consumption of apples and the risk of several cancers found that APE treatment resulted in a marked increase in maspin, a tumor suppressor protein that negatively regulates cell invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Our data suggested that APE possesses strong antiproliferative effects against cancer cells, and apple peels should not be discarded from the diet. Detailed mechanistic studies, especially in appropriate in vivo animal models, are needed to further examine the antiproliferative and preventive effects of APE against cancer, according to "Antiproliferative effects of apple peel extract against cancer cells" by Reagan-Shaw S, Eggert D, Mukhtar H, Ahmad N.(b)

3.
Anti-inflammatory effectIn the assessment of apple peel polyphenol extract (APPE) and its powerful antioxidant activity in protective effect against gastrointestinal damage found that APPE also displayed anti-inflammatory effects by preventing neutrophil infiltration in the mucosa, as evidenced by the lower myeloperoxidase activity. These protective effects of APPE resulted in the prevention of macro- and microscopic damage and of barrier dysfunction along the gastrointestinal tract of the indomethacin-treated animals. This study supports the concept that apple peel polyphenols may be useful in the prevention and/or treatment of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-associated side effects, according to "Apple peel polyphenols protect against gastrointestinal mucosa alterations induced by indomethacin in rats" by Carrasco-Pozo C, Speisky H, Brunser O, Pastene E, Gotteland M.(c)

4. Cholesterols
In the evaluation of consumption of a pear, an apple and 200 ml orange juice, during 26 days and theirs effect cholesterol found that fruit consumption increased TAC in non-smokers, but not in smokers. In non-smokers, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol increased significantly; while in smokers, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol decreased. We may conclude fruit/juice supplementation showed different effects, depending on the smoking habit: in non-smokers it increased TAC and cholesterol; in smokers it reduced cholesterol, without inducing a TAC increase, according to "Daily consumption of apple, pear and orange juice differently affects plasma lipids and antioxidant capacity of smoking and non-smoking adults" by Alvarez-Parrilla E, De La Rosa LA, Legarreta P, Saenz L, Rodrigo-García J, González-Aguilar GA.(d)

5. Antioxidants
In the observation of intake of apple and grape juice and theirs antioxidant effect found that apple and grape juice consumption did not influence lymphocyte damage upon hydrogen peroxide treatment. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine content was not affected by 2 weeks of fruit juice intervention. These findings indicated that concomitant intake of apple and grape juice was efficient in enhancing the body's antioxidant status, according to "Impact of apple and grape juice consumption on the antioxidant status in healthy subjects" by Yuan L, Meng L, Ma W, Xiao Z, Zhu X, Feng JF, Yu H, Xiao R.(e)

6. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration

1. Dietary fiber
Daily intake of right amount of fibers can prevent and treat
a. Diabetes, as Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(I)

b. Cholesterol and cardivascular diseases, as the soluble fiber content of legumes and vegetables has also been shown to decrease LDL-C. Current investigations continue to explore this area in depth and examine potential synergies between dietary fiber and other phytochemicals that may lower cholesterol, according to the study of "Effects of soluble dietary fiber on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary heart disease risk" by Bazzano LA.(II)

2. Vitamin CBesides is essential in preventing the breaking off small vein cause of hardening of the vessel wall, vitamin C also improves the digestive system in maximum absorption of vital nutrients. Overdoses can cause diarrhea, It also plays an important role in enhancing immune system fighting against the forming of free radicals that cause muscle damage, according to the study of "Does antioxidant vitamin supplementation protect against muscle damage?" by McGinley C, Shafat A, Donnelly AE., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19902983)

3. MagnesiumMagnesium not only important for bone health, according to the study of "Magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium levels in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Can magnesium play a key role in osteoporosis?" by Odabasi E, Turan M, Aydin A, Akay C, Kutlu M(III) but also play and important role in protecting against Alzheimer's disease, according to the study of "Altered ionized magnesium levels in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease" by Barbagallo M, Belvedere M, Di Bella G, Dominguez LJ.(IV)

4. PhosphorusBeside providing strength to bones and teeth by working together with calcium according to the study of `[The effect of one year therapy with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on growth velocity, calcium-phosphorus metabolism, bone mineral density and changes in body composition in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD)].[Article in Polish]`by Zak T, Basiak A, Zubkiewicz-Kucharska A, Noczyńska A., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20529605), it also works with riboflavin and niacin to improve the digestive system in absorbing vital nutrients.

5. PotassiumPotassium beside is important for sympathetic function in regulating body fluid, it also plays an essential role in enhancing the nervous system in information transmitting within the nerves in the brain. According to the article of "POTASSIUM DEFICIENCY IN THE RABBIT AS A CAUSE OF MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY " by E. L. HOVE AND JOHN F. HERNDON Department of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition, Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn, researchers wrote in summary that Potassium-deficient rabbits usually developed a severe and rapidly progressing muscular dystrophy, with a closely associated creatinurea.
Link
6. Etc.
C. Other health benefits
1. Colon cancer and Cancers
Research suggests that apples may reduce the risk of colon cancer, according to "Modified apple polysaccharides could induce apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells" by Li Y, Niu Y, Wu H, Sun Y, Li Q, Kong X, Liu L, Mei Q.(1) and several types of cancer, according to "Antiproliferative effects of apple peel extract against cancer cells" by Reagan-Shaw S, Eggert D, Mukhtar H, Ahmad N.(2)

2. Immune system
Since it contains a measurable amount of antioxidant, it improves the immune system functioning in preventing and scavenging the forming of free radical, leading to reduction of DNA damage in Caco-2 cells according to "Polyphenolic apple extracts: effects of raw material and production method on antioxidant effectiveness and reduction of DNA damage in Caco-2 cells" by Bellion P, Digles J, Will F, Dietrich H, Baum M, Eisenbrand G, Janzowski C.(3)

3. Nervous system
Apple increases the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine that prevents potential decline in cognitive performance that accompanies dietary and genetic deficiencies and aging, according to "Apple juice concentrate prevents oxidative damage and impaired maze performance in aged mice" by Tchantchou F, Chan A, Kifle L, Ortiz D, Shea TB.(4)

4. Other health benefits
Since apple contains high amounts of quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 which help to reduce the risk of heart disease, cancerabe polyphenol, resveratrol, is believed to have potent anti-aging effects.

5. Etc.

Side effects
1. Oral allergy syndrome is an allergic reaction some people, leading to symptoms of itching and swelling around the mouth and lips, etc.
2. Amygdailin
The seeds are mildly poisonous, since it contains a small amount of amygdalin.
3. Etc.
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Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20486708
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20432173
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21548634
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20109132
(e) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21639820

(I) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20713332
(II) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18937894
(III) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18695768
(IV) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21951617

(1) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01781.x/suppinfo
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20432173
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20455581
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16340085