B. In herbal medicine perspective
1. Ginkgo biloba extract and bilberry
Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) and anthocyanins are considered beneficial for various vascular diseases. According to the study by the Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, indicated that after anthocyanin treatment, the mean BCVA for all eyes improved from 0.16 (±0.34) to 0.11 (±0.18) logMAR units (P=.008), and HVF mean deviation improved from -6.44 (±7.05) to -5.34 (±6.42) (P=.001). After GBE treatment, HVF mean deviation improved from -5.25 (±6.13) to -4.31 (±5.60) (P=.002). A generalized linear model demonstrated that the final best-corrected visual acuity (logMAR BCVA) was not affected by demographic differences among the groups. These results suggest that anthocyanins and GBE may be helpful in improving visual function in some individuals with NTG(66).
2. Physostigma venonosum
Accoring to the study by Phytotherapy Research Laboratory, University of Nigeria, physostigmine (from Physostigma venonosum) used for the treatment of glaucoma to the recently identified antiviral agents from Ancistrocladus abbreviatus(67).
3. Blackberries & Other Berries
Anthocyanins, members of the flavonoid, are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that are responsible for the red, purple, and blue colors of many fruits, such as Blackberries & Other Berries. According to the study by the Oklahoma State University, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked 24-month trial (Ophthalmologica 2012;228:26-35), revealed that oral administration of black currant anthocyanins (BCACs) slowed down the visual field deterioration and elevation of ocular blood flow of open-angle glaucoma (OAG)(68).
4. Grape seed and skin
Resveratrol is a phytochemical in the class of Stilbenoids, found abundantly in skins and seed of grape wine, nuts, peanuts, etc. According to the study by Duke University Medical Center, resveratrol treatment effectively prevented increased production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS) and inflammatory markers (IL1alpha, IL6, IL8, and ELAM-1), and reduced expression of the senescence markers sa-beta-gal, lipofuscin, and accumulation of carbonylated proteins. Furthermore, resveratrol exerted antiapoptotic effects that were not associated with a decrease in cell proliferation. These results suggest that resveratrol could potentially have a role in preventing the TM tissue abnormalities observed in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG)(69).
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