C. Phytochemicals to prevent Glaucoma
1. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids
Recent notions in connection with oxidative stress and the fat balance of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) families have brought new insight to a probable role of nutritional factors in glaucoma and intraocular hypertony. According to the study by Centre d’Imagerie, Laser, et Réadaptation Basse Vision, a diet with increased omega-3 and decreased omega-6 could thus favor an increase in intraocular pressure reducing synthesis of PG-F2, leading to a decrease in uveoscleral outflow. The true importance of these factors has not yet been solidly determined and studies are in progress to clarify the real implication of these nutritional factors(48).
Other study indicated that since EPA and DHA could modulate impaired systemic microcirculation and ocular blood flow and optic neuropathy, which are the main physiological changes associated with glaucoma(49).
2. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)
Accoridng to the study by Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology, the study of Orally administered epigallocatechin gallate attenuates retinal neuronal death in vivo and light-induced apoptosis in vitro, support the view for the use of EGCG in the treatment of glaucoma based on the premise that any potential neuroprotective agent must be administered orally, have a safe profile and poses a broad spectrum of properties that allows various risk factors (that include ischemia and light) to be attenuated(50).
According to the study by the Oklahoma State University, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked 24-month trial (Ophthalmologica 2012;228:26-35), revealed that oral administration of black currant anthocyanins (BCACs) slowed down the visual field deterioration and elevation of ocular blood flow of open-angle glaucoma (OAG)(51).
According to the study by Duke University Medical Center, resveratrol treatment effectively prevented increased production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS) and inflammatory markers (IL1alpha, IL6, IL8, and ELAM-1), and reduced expression of the senescence markers sa-beta-gal, lipofuscin, and accumulation of carbonylated proteins. Furthermore, resveratrol exerted antiapoptotic effects that were not associated with a decrease in cell proliferation. These results suggest that resveratrol could potentially have a role in preventing the TM tissue abnormalities observed in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG)(52).
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