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Tuesday, 26 November 2013

Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD): The Symptoms

The prevalence of upper gastrointestinal (GI) diseases is increasing in subjects aged 65 years and over. Pathophysiological changes in esophageal functions that occur with aging may, at least in part, be responsible for the high prevalence of
1. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) in old age.
2. The incidence of gastric and duodenal ulcers and their bleeding complications is increasing in old-aged populations worldwide.
3.  H. pylori infection in elderly patients with H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease and severe chronic gastritis
4.  Almost 40% of GU and 25% of DU in the elderly patients are associated with the use of NSAID(1) and/or aspirin(2).(a)
I.  Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), gastric reflux disease, or acid reflux disease, is defined as a chronic condition of liquid stomach acid refluxing back up from the stomach into the esophagus, causing heartburn. According to the study of “Updated guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease.” by DeVault KR, Castell DO; American College of Gastroenterology, GERD is defined as symptoms or mucosal damage produced by the abnormal reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus.

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Symptoms

1. Heartburn
Heart burn is one of common symptom of Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in adult, as a result of acid reflux cause of burning sensation or pain in the middle of the chest mostly after meal.
2. Regurgitation
In gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), regurgitation is the expulsion of a small amount of digested foods to the mouth from esophagus. frequent or prolonged regurgitation can lead to acid-induced erosion of the teeth, bad breath or damage to the esophagus.
3. Trouble swallowing
It is caused by damage of the muscles and tissues that must flex for swallowing, as a result of prolonged period of acid reflux that has left untreated.

4. Nausea
It is one of uncommon of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), but is is associated to some people with the disease.
5. Pain when swallow
It may be caused by the damage or infection of the esophagus.
6. Asthma
In a study of The association between gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and asthma: a systematic review” by B D Havemann, C A Henderson, H B El-Serag, posted in a international journal of gastroenteroloy and hepatology, researchers found that this systematic review indicates that there is a significant association between GORD and asthma, but a paucity of data on the direction of causality.
7. Etc.
For common types of diseases of Ages of 50+, please visit http://medicaladvisorjournals.blogspot.ca/p/better-of-living-health-50-over.html
For other health article, visit http://medicaladvisorjournals.blogspot.ca
  
Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15588798
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16001646
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22542157