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Friday, 29 November 2013

Fainting (Syncope) Treatments In Herbal medicine perspective

Fainting also known as Syncope of "black out" is defined as a condition of sudden loss of consciousness followed by the return to full wakefulness in a short duration as a result of  abnormally low blood pressure. In most cases, it is caused by hypotension, with blood pressure that's lower than 90/60 mmHg.(1). Even though Low blood pressure has mainly been regarded as good health for people who exercise, but recent studies have indicated an association with depression in elderly people. there are epidemiological evidence for an association of low blood pressure with anxiety and depression, which is not caused by cardiovascular disease.(2). In some case, severely low blood pressure can seriously impair adequate blood flow to vital organs and a life-threatening condition called shock.
Treatments
In herbal medicine perspective
1. Bilberry
a.  Antioxidants
Edible berries of bilberry contains high amounts of antioxidant of natural anthocyanin may be used to trigger genetic signaling in promoting human health and disease prevention, according to the study of "Berry anthocyanins as novel antioxidants in human health and disease prevention" by Zafra-Stone S, Yasmin T, Bagchi M, Chatterjee A, Vinson JA, Bagchi D., posted in PubMed(71)


b. Anti-angiogenic, antioxidant, and anti-carcinogenic properties
Anthocyanins, a natural compounds of pigmentation in bilberry is also considered as natural antioxidants have exerted the property of Anti-angiogenisis and genomic DNA repairment and protection in reducing the risk of cancers, according to the study of "Anti-angiogenic, antioxidant, and anti-carcinogenic properties of a novel anthocyanin-rich berry extract formula" by Bagchi D, Sen CK, Bagchi M, Atalay M., posted in PubMed(72)

c. Cardiotoxicity
Bilberry extract significantly inhibited DOX-provoked reduced glutathione depletion and accumulation of oxidized glutathione, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls in cardiac tissues, according to the study of "Protective effect of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) against doxorubicin-induced oxidative cardiotoxicity in rats" by Ashour OM, Elberry AA, Alahdal A, Al Mohamadi AM, Nagy AA, Abdel-Naim AB, Abdel-Sattar EA, Mohamadin AM., posted in PubMed(73)

d. Cholesterol
Oxidative modifications of low density lipoproteins (LDL) can be result of thickening of artery wall as a result of the accumulation of fatty, affecting arterial blood vessels. Vaccinium myrtillus contains high amount of antioxidants which help to block the oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL), according to the study of "Antioxidant action of Vaccinium myrtillus extract on human low density lipoproteins in vitro: initial observations" by Laplaud PM, Lelubre A, Chapman MJ., posted in PubMed(74)

2. Ginkbo Biloba
a. Cardiovascular tissues
Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) has shown the protection of the cardiovascular tissues against HgCl(2)-induced oxidative damage, according to the study of "Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract against mercury(II)-induced cardiovascular oxidative damage in rats" by Tunali-Akbay T, Sener G, Salvarli H, Sehirli O, Yarat A., posted in PubMed(75)

b. Hyperlipidemia
Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGB) has demonstrated the activities of limitation of the absorption of cholesterol, inactivation of HMGCoA and favorable regulation of profiles of essential polyunsaturated fatty acid (EFA), according to the study of "Application of GC/MS-based metabonomic profiling in studying the lipid-regulating effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats" by Zhang Q, Wang GJ, A JY, Wu D, Zhu LL, Ma B, Du Y., posted in PubMed(76)

3. Peppermint
a. Cholesterol effects
In the investigation the choleretic effect and molecular mechanisms of action of peppermint oil (PO), the main component of Danshu capsules (Sichuan Jishengtang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Pengzhou, Sichuan Province, China), found that PO might play a role in upregulating CYP7A1 and FXR mRNA levels, suggesting that the molecular mechanisms are related to gene expression involved in bile acid synthesis, according to "Preliminary experimental research on the mechanism of liver bile secretion stimulated by peppermint oil" by Zong L, Qu Y, Luo DX, Zhu ZY, Zhang S, Su Z, Shan JC, Gao XP, Lu LG.(77)

b. Cardiovascular effects
In the assessment of Cardiovascular effects of intravenous (i. v.) treatment with the essential oil of Mentha x villosa (EOMV) in pentobarbitone-anaesthetised rats, found that The present study shows for the first time that i. v. treatment with EOMV in pentobarbitone-anaesthetised rats induces hypotensive and bradycardic effects, which appear mostly attributed to the actions of the major constituent of EOMV, PO. These cardiovascular effects appear to be independent since EOMV-induced bradycardia appears dependent upon the presence of an intact and functional sympathetic nerve drive to the heart, while EOMV-induced hypotension appears independent of the presence of an operational sympathetic nervous system. This suggests that hypotensive activity of EOMV may result from its vasodilatory effects directly upon vascular smooth muscle, according to "Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa and its main constituent, piperitenone oxide, in normotensive anaesthetised rats: role of the autonomic nervous system" by
Lahlou S, Carneiro-Leão RF, Leal-Cardoso JH, Toscano CF.(78)

c. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities
In the observation of the antimicrobial activity and free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of essential oils from Mentha aquatica L., Mentha longifolia L., and Mentha piperita L., found that The M. piperita essential oil also exhibited the highest OH radical scavenging activity, reducing OH radical generation in the Fenton reaction by 24 % (pure oil). According to GC-MS and TLC (dot-blot techniques), the most powerful scavenging compounds were monoterpene ketones (menthone and isomenthone) in the essential oils of M. longifolia and M. piperita and 1,8-cineole in the oil of M. aquatica, according to "Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of three Mentha species essential oils" by Mimica-Dukić N, Bozin B, Soković M, Mihajlović B, Matavulj M.(79)

4. Rosemary
Rosemary contains high amount of carnosic acid, a natural benzenediol diterpene which has found to reduce the risk of free radical cause of cancers, according to "Inhibitory effects of rosemary extracts, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid on the growth of various human cancer cell lines" by Yesil-Celiktas O, Sevimli C, Bedir E, Vardar-Sukan F.(80)

5. Lavender
a. Antioxidants
In the observation of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides, according to "Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania"by Spiridon I, Colceru S, Anghel N, Teaca CA, Bodirlau R, Armatu A. (81)

b. Antidepressant-like effect
In the classification of the antidepressant effects of essential oils of Anthemis nobilis (chamomile), Salvia sclarea (clary sage; clary), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), and Lavandula angustifolia (lavender)found that clary oil could be developed as a therapeutic agent for patients with depression and that the antidepressant-like effect of clary oil is closely associated with modulation of the DAnergic pathway, according to "Antidepressant-like effect of Salvia sclarea is explained by modulation of dopamine activities in rats" by Seol GH, Shim HS, Kim PJ, Moon HK, Lee KH, Shim I, Suh SH, Min SS.(82)

c. Cognition and mood
In the evaluation of Aromas of rosemary and lavender essential oils and theirs effect on cognition and mood found that rosemary produced a significant enhancement of performance for overall quality of memory and secondary memory factors, but also produced an impairment of speed of memory compared to controls. With regard to mood, comparisons of the change in ratings from baseline to post-test revealed that following the completion of the cognitive assessment battery, both the control and lavender groups were significantly less alert than the rosemary condition; however, the control group was significantly less content than both rosemary and lavender conditions. These findings indicate that the olfactory properties of these essential oils can produce objective effects on cognitive performance, as well as subjective effects on mood, according to "Aromas of rosemary and lavender essential oils differentially affect cognition and mood in healthy adults" by Moss M, Cook J, Wesnes K, Duckett P.(83)

d.  'Subsyndromal' anxiety disorder
In the investigation of orally administered Lavandula oil preparation and its effect on'subsyndromal' anxiety disorder, found that Lavandula oil preparation had a significant beneficial influence on quality and duration of sleep and improved general mental and physical health without causing any unwanted sedative or other drug specific effects. Lavandula oil preparation silexan is both efficacious and safe for the relief of anxiety disorder not otherwise specified. It has a clinically meaningful anxiolytic effect and alleviates anxiety related disturbed sleep, according to "Silexan, an orally administered Lavandula oil preparation, is effective in the treatment of 'subsyndromal' anxiety disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial"by Kasper S, Gastpar M, Müller WE, Volz HP,
Möller HJ, Dienel A, Schläfke S.(84)

6. Etc. 
Sources
(1) http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/hyp/hyp_whatis.html  
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17183016(71) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17533652
(72) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14972022
(73) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21455099
(74) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9182074
(75) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17072828
(76) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19960012
(77) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21791024
(78) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11582542
(79) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12802721
(80) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20449663
(81) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21707233
(82) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20441789
(83) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12690999
(84) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20512042