Nutritional supplement against syncope
a. Vascular smooth muscle tone
In the investigation of the comparative effects of omega-3, omega-6 and omega-9 fatty acids on vascular smooth muscle tone, showed that Docosahexaenoic acid (1-255 microM) and eicosapentaenoic acid (31-255 microM) inhibited phenylephrine-induced contractions, (8-63%) and (20-65%), respectively, which were not altered by indomethacin, NDGA, or by removal of the endothelium. Linoleic acid (18:2n6) and arachidonic acid (20:4n6) also induced significant relaxation. Therefore, fatty acid-induced relaxation of the rat aorta is specific to polyunsaturated fatty acids, 20:5n3, 22:6n3, 18:2n6 and 20:4n6, according to "Effects of omega-3, omega-6 and omega-9 fatty acids on vascular smooth muscle tone" by Engler MB.(47)
b. Systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol
In the ccomparison of the cardiovascular risk-reduction potential of three major polyunsaturated fatty acids in a double-blind study. showed that for the diet supplemented with EPA plus DHA compared with the linoleic acid diet systolic blood pressure fell 5.1 mm Hg (p = 0.01); plasma triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol fell by 39% (p = 0.001) and 49% (p = 0.01), respectively; and LDL cholesterol rose by 9% (p = 0.01). There were no significant changes with the diet supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid. The net effect on cardiovascular risk therefore is complex and the systolic blood pressure reduction was substantial, according to "n-3 fatty acids of marine origin lower systolic blood pressure and triglycerides but raise LDL cholesterol compared with n-3 and n-6 fatty acids from plants" by Kestin M, Clifton P, Belling GB, Nestel PJ.(48)
c. Cardiovascular effects
In the comparison of the effects of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3) to those of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy elderly subjects, found that Both n-3 fatty acid diets did not change concentrations of total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol and apoA-1 when compared with the oleic acid-rich diet. However, after the EPA/DHA-rich diet, LDL-cholesterol increased by 0.39 mmol/l (P = 0.0323, 95% CI (0.030, 0.780 mmol/l)) when compared with the ALA-rich diet. Intake of EPA/DHA also increased apoB concentrations by 14 mg/dl (P = 0.0031, 95% CI (4, 23 mg/dl)) and 12 mg/dl (P = 0.005, 95% CI (3, 21 mg/dl)) versus the oleic acid and ALA-rich diet, respectively. Except for an EPA/DHA-induced increase in tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) of 14.6% (P = 0.0184 versus ALA diet, 95% CI (1.5, 18.3%)), changes in markers of hemostasis and endothelial integrity did not reach statistical significance following consumption of the two n-3 fatty acid diets, according to "Effects of alpha-linolenic acid versus those of EPA/DHA on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy elderly subjects" by Goyens PL, Mensink RP.(49)
d. Cognitive effects
In the assessment of the cognitive effects of fish oil supplementation at college age, hypothesizing benefits on affect, executive control, inhibition, and verbal learning and memory. College-aged participants, indicated that the benefits of n-3 PUFA on RAVLT performance derived more from depreciated placebo performance than improved performance due to fish oil. The placebo gain on TMT performance likely derived from a learning effect. Together, these results present limited cognitive benefits of n-3 PUFA at college age; however, the treatment may have been subtherapeutic, with a larger sample needed to generalize these results, according to "Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognition in a college-aged population" by Karr JE, Grindstaff TR, Alexander JE.(50)
2. Antioxidant for heart health
2.1. Antioxidants and ischemia(51)
a. Nitric oxide (NO)
Nitric oxide (NO), one of the antioxidant and peroxynitrite can inhibit pathways of oxygen radical generation, and, in turn, oxidants can inhibit NO synthesis from NOS.
b. glutathione and vitamin E
Reduced form of glutathione may act as a first line of defense against oxidative stress during ischemia–reperfusion while vitamin E may act later on during severe oxidative stress by rendering resistance to the heart against the ischemic–reperfusion injury
Deficeiency of of a co-enzyme selenium, which is required in maintaining the glutathione redox cycle, also promote more susceptible to oxidative injure.
a. Bioflavonoids or vitamin P
Discovered by Szent-Gyorgyi and his colleagues back in the 1930`s. In Laboratory tests, B
bioflavonoids help to reduce the fragility and “permeability” in capillaries and prevent the clotting up of arterial as a result of oxidation.
b. Vitamins C and E, beta-carotene
Recent research findings have suggested that antioxidants such as vitamin C, E and beta carotene play an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Data from animal studies showed they are able to prevent oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins (LDL).
Alpha-tocopherol, a antioxidant found abundant in vitamin E, helps to decrease lipid peroxidation and platelet aggregation, adhesion and inflammatory. Epidemiological studies suggest that low levels of antioxidants are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease.
d. Vitamin C and E
Studies showed in take of 500mg of vitamin C and 400 IU of vitamin E helps to retard the progression of coronary atherosclersis.
Antioxidant chorophyll in the green algae shows to inhibit the chemical cadmium of smoking, by preventing from oxidation that cause building up of plaque along the walls of arteries.
3. Coenzyme Q10
Lower CoQ10 is a risk factor to coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure (CHF) and mortality due to CHF suggest that low CoQ10 is another factor explaining the risk to cardiovascular disorder in depression.(53)
a. Acetyl-L-carnitine prevented the marked cognitive decline otherwise observed in normal mice maintained on this challenge diet(54)
b. Many clinical trials have suggested Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) and propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) as potential strategies in the management of peripheral arterial disease, heart and cerebral ischemia, and congestive heart failure(55)
5. Alpha-lipoic acid
Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) is highly effective in preventing the endotoxin-induced oxidative stress in the heart and in improving the glutathione redox system.(56)
6. Allyl sulfides
a. Antioxidant against oxidation
According to the study of " Antioxidant Health Effects of Aged Garlic Extract" by Carmia Borek, posted in (Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131:1010S-1015S.)© 2001 The American Society for Nutritional Sciences, researcher found that AGE contains a wide range of antioxidants that can act in synergistic or additive fashion and protect cells against oxidative damage, thus helping to lower the risk of heart disease, stroke, cancer and Alzheimer’s disease and protect against toxic, tissue-damaging effects of ROS-producing radiation, including UV light, drugs used in therapy and chemicals in the environment and industry.(57)
b. Cholesterol, heart disease and stroke
In an article of "GARLICTHE BOUNTIFUL BULB" by Carmia Borek, Ph.D. posted in Life extension magazine, the author indicated that in the past 15 years, garlic supplementation studies have concentrated on the bulb's effects in reducing blood cholesterol and triglycerides (the form in which fat is transported in the blood). All studies did not agree with one another, given differences in the kind of garlic preparation, quality of standardization, doses and periods of treatment. But most findings showed that garlic slightly lowered blood cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides with a consistent lowering of blood lipids seen in studies that used aged garlic extract as the supplement. For example, while a University of Oxford study showed that garlic powder, given to patients at 900 mg a day for six months, had no protective effects and did not lower cholesterol levels, a study at East Carolina University found that aged garlic extract given at 2.4-4.8 gm a day, for six months, lowered cholesterol by 5-7%, and reduced LDL, triglycerides and blood pressure in men with high cholesterol.(58)
c. Blood circulation
In an article of "Onions, Garlic, and Scallions... Oh My!" By Dr. Leo Galland, M.D., and Jonathan Galland", posted in the Chritian Broacasting Network, the authors wrote that scientists believe the components in onions, garlic, and scallions called allyl sulfides and bioflavonoids are key to their powerful health benefits. For cardiovascular health, clinical experiments have shown regular consumption of garlic may help improve circulation and help decrease calcium deposits and the size of arterial plaque in coronary arteries. As for detoxification, one study found that eating fresh garlic and onions each day can help remove toxins from the body.(59)
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