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Saturday, 30 November 2013

Encephalitis - The Phytochemicals

Encephalitis is defined as a condition of irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the brain, as a result of virus, bacteria and others invasion.
Phytochemicals against Encephalitis
Phytochemicals enhances the immune system and promote cognitive effect should be helpful in preventing the occurrence of Encephalitis
D.1. Carnosol 
1. Anti-inflammatory effects
In the study of The increased adhesion of monocytes to injured endothelial layers and the effect of carnosol and rosemary essential oils found that the essential oil inhibit the adhesion of TNFalpha-induced monocytes to endothelial cells and suppress the expression of ICAM-1 at the transcriptional level, according to "Dual mechanisms of NF-kappaB inhibition in carnosol-treated endothelial cells" by Lian KC, Chuang JJ, Hsieh CW, Wung BS, Huang GD, Jian TY, Sun YW(65)

2. Antimicrobial activity
In the determination of EtOH/H2O extracts from the leaves and stems of Rosmarinus officinalis L and it antimicrobial effects found that antimicrobial activity of the extract from the leaves of R. officinalis may be ascribed mainly to the action of carnosic acid (2) and carnosol (3), according to "Antimicrobial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis against oral pathogens: relevance of carnosic acid and carnosol' by Bernardes WA, Lucarini R, Tozatti MG, Souza MG, Silva ML, Filho AA, Martins CH, Crotti AE, Pauletti PM, Groppo M, Cunha WR.(66)

D.2. Quercetin is a member of flavonoids, found in fruits, vegetables, leaves and grains. It is also one of antioxidants with property of protecting our body in fighting against forming of free radicals cause of mutation of cells`DNA.
1. Oxidative Stress
According to the study of `The protective effect of the flavonoids on food-mutagen-induced DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes from colon cancer patients.`by Kurzawa-Zegota M, Najafzadeh M, Baumgartner A, Anderson D. (Source from Genetic and Reproductive Toxicology Group, Division of Biomedical Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that flavonoids (quercetin (Q) and rutin (R)) reduced oxidative stress caused by food mutagens in vitro in lymphocytes of healthy individuals and colon cancer patients. Thus, dietary supplementation with flavonoid-rich vegetables and fruits may prove very effective in protecting against oxidative stress.

2. Anti-cytogenotoxic effects
In a study of `Assessment of anti-cytogenotoxic effects of quercetin in animals treated with topotecan.`by Bakheet SA. (Source from Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that quercetin has a protective role in the abatement of topotecan-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in the bone marrow cells of mice that resides, at least in part, on its antioxidant effects. Based on the data presented, strategies can be developed to decrease the topotecan-induced bone marrow suppression and secondary malignancy in cancer patients and medical personnel exposing to topotecan.

3. Free radical scavenger
In a study of `Dietary chromones as antioxidant agents-the structural variable.`by Dias MM, Machado NF, Marques MP. (Source from Research Unit "Molecular Physical Chemistry", University of Coimbra, Portugal.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that from the eighteen tested compounds, three-fisetin, luteolin and quercetin-are shown to act as effective antiradicals. Consistent structure-activity relationships (SARs) were established regarding the antioxidant role of this type of chromone-based system. 

D.3. Tangeritin, one of the flavones, is found in tangerine and many citrus peels
1. Neuroprotective effects
In the evaluation of neuroprotective effects of a natural antioxidant tangeretin, a citrus flavonoid and its effect on Parkinson's disease found that tangeretin crosses the blood-brain barrier. The significant protection of striato-nigral integrity and functionality by tangeretin suggests its potential use as a neuroprotective agent, according to "Tissue distribution and neuroprotective effects of citrus flavonoid tangeretin in a rat model of Parkinson's disease" by Datla KP, Christidou M, Widmer WW, Rooprai HK, Dexter DT.(67) 

2. Antioxidants
In the comparison of hand-pressed juice of polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) and flavanone glycosides (FGs) and the peeled fruit of 'Sainampueng' tangerines ( Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng) antioxidant effects found that hand-pressed juice of C. reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng serves as a rich source of PMFs, FGs, carotenoids, and antioxidants: 4-5 tangerine fruits ( approximately 80 g of each fruit) giving one glass of 200 mL hand-pressed juice would provide more than 5 mg of nobiletin and tangeretin and 36 mg of hesperidin, narirutin, and didymin, as well as 30 mg of ascorbic acid, >1 mg of provitamin A active beta-cryptoxanthin, and 200 microg of alpha-tocopherol, according to "Polymethoxylated flavones, flavanone glycosides, carotenoids, and antioxidants in different cultivation types of tangerines ( Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng) from Northern Thailand" by Stuetz W, Prapamontol T, Hongsibsong S, Biesalski HK.(68)

3. Antimicrobial activity
In the study of antibacterial and antifungal properties of wax and hexane extracts of Citrus spp. peels found that antimicrobial activity especially against M. canis and T. mentagrophytes: 4',5,6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone (tangeritin) and 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxyflavone (nobiletin) from C. reticulata; and 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (also known as escoparone, scoparone or scoparin) from C. limon, according to "Antimicrobial activity of wax and hexane extracts from Citrus spp. peels" by Johann S, Oliveira VL, Pizzolatti MG, Schripsema J, Braz-Filho R, Branco A, Smânia Jr A.(69)

D.4. Catechin is phytochemical of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in white tea, green tea, black tea, grapes, wine, apple juice, cocoa, lentils, etc.
1. Antioxidant activity
In the research on polyphenolic compounds (included catechins) in the berries of edible honeysuckle and their biological effects, including recommended utilization, are reviewed found that These berries seem to be prospective sources of health-supporting phytochemicals that exhibit beneficial anti-adherence and chemo-protective activities, thus they may provide protection against a number of chronic conditions, e.g., cancer, diabetes mellitus, tumour growth or cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, according to "Phenolic profile of edible honeysuckle berries (genus lonicera) and their biological effects" by Jurikova T, Rop O, Mlcek J, Sochor J, Balla S, Szekeres L, Hegedusova A, Hubalek J, Adam V, Kizek R.(70)

2. Anti-inflammatory effect
In the preparation of the gel of Chinese medicine catechu, and to observe the release mechanism in vitro and anti-inflammatory activity in rats, found that the optimum condition of extraction from catechu was as follows, the concentration of ethanol, ratio of raw material to solvent, ultrasonic time, and extraction temperature were 50% , 1: 12, 35 min and 60 degrees C, respectively. The formulation of catechu gel was carbomer-9 400.5 g, glycerol 5.0 g, the extracts of catechu 50.0 mL, and triethanomine 0.5 mL The gel was semitransparent and stable. The drugs released quickly. The catechu gel reduced the paw edema considerably in dose-dependent manner compared to carrageenan-induced rat, according to "[Preparation and pharmacodynamics studies on anti-inflammatory effect of catechu gel].[Article in Chinese]" by Zheng X, Zheng C.(71)

3. Neuropathic pain
In the investigation of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin in green tea and its effect on intrathecal EGCG in neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation, found that This antinociceptive effect was reversed by intrathecal pretreatment with l-arginine, a precursor of NO. Intrathecal EGCG also blocked the increase in nNOS expression in the spinal cord of spinal nerve-ligated rats, but iNOS expression was not significantly suppressed. These findings suggest that intrathecal EGCG could produce an antiallodynic effect against spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain, mediated by blockade of nNOS protein expression and inhibition of the pronociceptive effects of NO, according to "Role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the antiallodynic effects of intrathecal EGCG in a neuropathic pain rat model" by Choi JI, Kim WM, Lee HG, Kim YO, Yoon MH.(72)

4. Anti-influenza virus activity
In the study of Polyphenolic compounds present in green tea, particularly catechins, and its effect on strong anti-influenza activity, found that therapeutic administration of green tea by-products via feed or water supplement resulted in a dose-dependent significant antiviral effect in chickens, with a dose of 10 g/kg of feed being the most effective (P < 0.001), according to "Anti-influenza virus activity of green tea by-products in vitro and efficacy against influenza virus infection in chickens" by Lee HJ, Lee YN, Youn HN, Lee DH, Kwak JH, Seong BL, Lee JB, Park SY, Choi IS, Song CS.(73)

D.5. Ellagic acid
1. Antiproliferative and Antioxidant
In a study of " In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice" by Navindra P. Seerama, Lynn S. Adamsa, Susanne M. Henninga, Yantao Niua, Yanjun Zhangbc, Muraleedharan G. Nairbc, David Hebera (Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 360-367 (June 2005)), posted in The journal of Ntritional Biochemitry, researchers indicated that Antioxidant effects were evaluated using inhibition of lipid peroxidation and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Pomegranate juice showed greatest antiproliferative activity against all cell lines by inhibiting proliferation from 30% to 100%. At 100 μg/ml, PJ, EA, punicalagin and TPT induced apoptosis in HT-29 colon cells. However, in the HCT116 colon cells, EA, punicalagin and TPT but not PJ induced apoptosis. The trend in antioxidant activity was PJ>TPT>punicalagin>EA. The superior bioactivity of PJ compared to its purified polyphenols illustrated the multifactorial effects and chemical synergy of the action

2. Oxidative stress
According to the article of "BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONALITY OF ELLAGIC ACID: A REVIEW" by D.A. VATTEM and K. SHETTY , Article first published online: 30 JUN 2005, posted in Wiley Online Library, researchers indicated that in abstract, in this article, we have revised the existing models and have proposed a comprehensive model for the antioxidant response-linked mechanism of the action of ellagic acid from fruits at the early stages of host cellular response by the modulation of enzyme response to maintain cellular homeostasis in eukaryotes and by inhibiting the survival in pathogenic prokaryotes.

3. Anti-inflammation
In a study of " Antinociceptive effect of Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil. independent of anti-inflammatory activity of ellagic acid. by Nascimento MV, Galdino PM, Florentino IF, Sampaio BL, Vanderlinde FA, de Paula JR, Costa EA. (Source from Instituto de Ciências Biológicas-2, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil. posted in PubMed. researchers found that Pre-treatment with naloxone did not reverse the antinociceptive effect. Only the ethyl acetate fraction showed antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Our results also showed that this extract contains compounds with analgesic action independent of anti-inflammatory activity.

D.6. Stilbenoids are type of chemical compound, belonging to the family of phenylpropanoids, including Resveratrol, Pterostilbene and Piceatannol found in grape skins and seeds, wine, nuts, peanuts, etc., According to the article of "Production of stilbenoids and phenolic acids by the peanut plant at early stages of growth." by Sobolev VS, Horn BW, Potter TL, Deyrup ST, Gloer JB. (Source from National Peanut Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, P.O. Box 509, Dawson, Georgia 39842, USA., posted in PubMed.
 1. Neuroprotective Activity
in a study of "Neuroprotective effect of resveratrol against methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic apoptotic cell death in a cell culture model of neurotoxicity" by Kanthasamy K, Gordon R, Jin H, Anantharam V, Ali S, Kanthasamy AG, Kanthasamy A. (Source from Dept. of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1250.), posted in PubMed, researchers mentioned in abstract that . Notably, treatment with resveratrol almost completely attenuated MA-induced caspase-3 activity, but only partially reduced apoptotic cell death. We conclude that the neuroprotective effect of resveratrol is at least in part mediated by suppression of caspase-3 dependent cell death pathways. Collectively, our results demonstrate that resveratrol can attenuate MA-induced apoptotic cell death and suggest that resveratrol or its analogs may have therapeutic benefits in mitigating MA-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

2. Anti-Inflammation
In a study of "Resveratrol, MicroRNAs, Inflammation, and Cancer." by Tili E, Michaille JJ. (Source from Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology, and Medical Genetics, Ohio State University, Biomedical Research Tower, 460 W 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.), posted in PubMed, researchers mentioned in abstract that the above microRNAs are thought to link inflammation and cancer. Recently, resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a natural polyphenol with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties, currently at the stage of preclinical studies for human cancer prevention, has been shown to induce the expression of miR-663, a tumor-suppressor and anti-inflammatory microRNA, while downregulating miR-155 and miR-21.

3. Oxidative stress
In a study of " Resveratrol up-regulates SIRT1 and inhibits cellular oxidative stress in the diabetic milieu: mechanistic insights." by Yun JM, Chien A, Jialal I, Devaraj S. (Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.), reseachers wrote in abstract that In this study, we tested the protective effect of resveratrol on cellular oxidative stress through the SIRT1-FOXO pathway under high-glucose conditions. Human monocytic (THP-1) cells were cultured in the presence of mannitol (osmolar control) or normoglycemic (NG, 5.5 mmol/l glucose) or hyperglycemic (HG, 25 mmol/l glucose) conditions in absence or presence of resveratrol (3 and 6 μmol/l) for 48 h. We first examined SIRT1 activity and oxidative stress in monocytes of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients compared with healthy controls. In T1DM patients, monocytic SIRT1 expression was significantly decreased and p47phox expression was increased compared with controls. Under HG in vitro, SIRT1 and FOXO3a were significantly decreased compared with NG, and this was reversed by resveratrol treatment, concomitant with reduction in HG-induced superoxide production and p47phox. Under HG, SIRT1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited FOXO3a, and there was no beneficial effect of resveratrol in siRNA-treated HG-induced cells.

D.7. Etc. 
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