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Saturday, 30 November 2013

Encephalitis - The Diet

Encephalitis is defined as a condition of irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the brain, as a result of virus, bacteria and others invasion.
Diet against Encephalitis
A. Diet enhances the immune system and neuroprotectors should be helpful in preventing the occurrence of Encephalitis
A.1. Kidney beans
1. Antiradical and antioxidant activity
In the analyzing the effects of solid state fermentation (SSF) on physicochemical, nutritional and antioxidant properties of common bean flour found that tempeh flour had 2.2-fold more phenolics than the bean flour and exhibited antiradical activity (43%) and antioxidant activity (38%) correlated with total phenolics content. Common bean tempeh flour may be considered for the fortification of widely consumed legume-based food products and also for the prevention of pathologies associated with oxidative stress, according to "Physicochemical, nutritional and antioxidant properties of tempeh flour from common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.)" by Reyes-Bastidas M, Reyes-Fernández EZ, López-Cervantes J, Milán-Carrillo J, Loarca-Piña GF, Reyes-Moreno C.(39)

2. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities
In the study of Hulls obtained by mechanical abrasive dehulling from four bean and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, found that bean hull water extracts were stronger inhibitors of lipoxygenase, 15-LOX, than corresponding acetone extracts. Anti-inflammatory activity of bean hulls was dependent on their phenolic content and antioxidant activity that were significantly affected by cultivar and extracting solvent, according to "Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) hulls" by Oomah BD, Corbé A, Balasubramanian P.(40)

3.  Immune system
Kidney bean contains eight basic form of amino acid which not only helps to the nervous system in relay information between themselves and cells in other parts of the body (according to the article of "Amino Acids: How They Affect the Brain and Nervous System" posted in http://www.greendivamom.com/) it also improves the immune system to generate B lymphocytes by rapid dividing and replicating for the body's antibody defense mechanism. In stuyd of "Branched-chain amino acid supplementation does not enhance athletic performance but affects muscle recovery and the immune system" by Negro M, Giardina S, Marzani B, Marzatico F., (41), researchers found that The BCAA (branched-chain amino acids) also modifies the pattern of exercise-related cytokine production, leading to a diversion of the lymphocyte immune response towards a Th1 type. According to these findings, it is possible to consider the BCAA as a useful supplement for muscle recovery and immune regulation for sports events.

A.2. Whole wheat
In the classification of Anthocyanins of whole purple wheat, unpolished red rice, and partially polished red rice before and after processing to produce infant cereals and it antioxidant efect found that purple wheat infant cereals had higher cellular antioxidant activity than unpolished red rice ones (p < 0.05). Whole purple wheat infant cereals showed higher antioxidant activity than the commercial infant cereal, suggesting a possibility of improving infant antioxidant status by incorporating this grain in their diet, according to "Comparative Evaluation of the Antioxidant Potential of Infant Cereals Produced from Purple Wheat and Red Rice Grains and LC-MS Analysis of Their Anthocyanins" by Hirawan R, Diehl-Jones W, Beta T.(42)

A.3. Eggplant
1. Antioxidant compounds
In the assessment of Thermal treatment of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its effect on human neutrophil burst found that successive extract dilutions showed a significant activity up to 1.25 microg/mL after cooking, while raw fruits resulted in an activity up to 10.00 microg/mL. These results showed that the thermal treatment commonly used before consumption can increase the content and biological activity of antioxidant compounds of eggplants, according to "Thermal treatment of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) increases the antioxidant content and the inhibitory effect on human neutrophil burst" by Lo Scalzo R, Fibiani M, Mennella G, Rotino GL, Dal Sasso M, Culici M, Spallino A, Braga PC.(43)

2.
Brain homogenates
In the classification ofAntioxidant activity of nasunin, an anthocyanin in eggplant peels and theirs effect on lipid peroxidation found that Nasunin protection against H(2)O(2)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate was measured at 586 nm using the indicator of malonaldehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals. Nasunin (<50 microM) protected against lipid peroxidation of brain homogenates. The findings suggest that nasunin is a potent O(2)(-) scavenger and has protective activity against lipid peroxidation, according to "Antioxidant activity of nasunin, an anthocyanin in eggplant peels" by Noda Y, Kneyuki T, Igarashi K, Mori A, Packer L.(44)

A.4. White button mushrooms (WBM
1. Immunologic effects
In the analyzing White button mushrooms (WBM) and its effect in immune response, found that WBM promote DC maturation and enhance their antigen-presenting function. This effect may have potential in enhancing both innate and T cell-mediated immunity leading to a more efficient surveillance and defense mechanism against microbial invasion and tumor development, according to "White button mushroom enhances maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and their antigen presenting function in mice" by Ren Z, Guo Z, Meydani SN, Wu D.(45)

2. Neurotrophic action
Found that
the neurotrophic action of cobalamin (Cbl) in the central nervous system (CNS) of totally gastrectomized (TGX) rats is mediated by stimulation of the epidermal growth factor(EGF) synthesis in the CNS itself. It thus appears that Cbl inversely regulates the expression of EGF and TNF-alpha genes in the CNS of TGX rats, according to "Epidermal growth factor as a local mediator of the neurotrophic action of vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) in the rat central nervous system" by Scalabrino G, Nicolini G, Buccellato FR, Peracchi M, Tredici G, Manfridi A, Pravettoni G.(46)

3. Immune system
Since it contain high amount of vitamin C, it not only helps to improve the immune system in fighting against the foreign invasion, such as virus and bacteria, but also helps to inhibits fatty acid synthase expression as a result of the presence linoleic acid, thus reducing the risk of tumors and breast, colon and prostate cancers, according to the study of "The 10t,12c isomer of conjugated linoleic acid inhibits fatty acid synthase expression and enzyme activity in human breast, colon, and prostate cancer cells" by Lau DS, Archer MC.(47)

A.5. Garlic
1. Antioxidant effects
In the study of the Extracts of aged fresh garlic that are aged over a prolonged period and its antioxidant effects found that the ability of AGE to protect against oxidant-induced disease, acute damage from aging, radiation and chemical exposure, and long-term toxic damage. Although additional observations are warranted in humans, compelling evidence supports the beneficial health effects attributed to AGE, i.e., reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, cancer and aging, including the oxidant-mediated brain cell damage that is implicated in Alzheimer's disease, according to "Antioxidant health effects of aged garlic extract" by Borek C.(48)

2. Common cold
In the searched from January 1966 to September 2009 combining the key words common cold or influenza with echinacea, garlic, ginseng, probiotics, vitamin C, and zinc. Clinical trials and prospective studies found that for prevention, vitamin C demonstrated benefit in a large meta-analysis, with possibly increased benefit in patients subjected to cold stress. There is inconsistent evidence for Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) and North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius). Allicin was highly effective in 1 small trial. For treatment, Echinacea purpurea is the most consistently useful variety; it was effective in 5 of 6 trials. Zinc lozenges were effective in 5 of 9 trials, likely owing to dose and formulation issues. Overall, the evidence suggests no benefit from probiotics for prevention or treatment of the common cold, according to "Complementary and alternative medicine for prevention and treatment of the common cold" by Nahas R, Balla A.(49)

3. Tuberculosis
In the investigation of the garlic extracts and the increasing incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and particularly of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) found that Allium sativum offers a hope for developing alternative drugs. The involvement of traditional healers (TH) in the TB health management could facilitate the administration of garlic extracts to the infected patients, according to "The potential role of garlic (Allium sativum) against the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis pandemic: a review" by Dini C, Fabbri A, Geraci A.(50)

A.6. Tomato
1. Antioxidative and Cancer Cell-Inhibiting Activities
In the research of Tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) plants synthesize nutrients, pigments, and bioactive compounds and their benefit in nutrition and human health found that Tomato extracts promoted growth in normal liver (Chang) cells, had little effect in normal lung (Hel299) cells, mildly inhibited growth of lung cancer (A549) cells, and first promoted and then, at higher concentrations, inhibited growth in lymphoma (U937) cells. The relationship of cell growth to measured constituents was not apparent, according to "Free Amino Acid and Phenolic Contents and Antioxidative and Cancer Cell-Inhibiting Activities of Extracts of 11 Greenhouse-Grown Tomato Varieties and 13 Tomato-Based Foods" by Choi SH, Kim HR, Kim HJ, Lee IS, Kozukue N, Levin CE, Friedman M.(51)

2. Lycopene
Lycopene, one of the powerful antioxidant in tomatoes, not only helps the immune system in neutralizing the forming of free radicals in the body and according to Harvard investigation as it found that men who ate more than 10 servings tomato-based foods daily (like cooked tomatoes and tomato sauce,) had a 35 percent lower risk of developing prostate cancer than those who ate the least amount of these foods. The benefits of lycopene was more pronounced with advanced stages of prostate cancer. Also according to the study of "Chemoprevention of prostate cancer with lycopene in the TRAMP model" by Konijeti R, Henning S, Moro A, Sheikh A, Elashoff D, Shapiro A, Ku M, Said JW, Heber D, Cohen P, Aronson WJ.(52)

2. Antiaging
Tomato beside prevents the progressive loss of structure, function or death of neurons, including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s diseases, According to the study of "Role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in neurodegenerative diseases" by Rao AV, Balachandran B(53), it also contains vitamin C that helps to releases of histamine (local immune responses), thus increasing the detoxification of histamine, according to the study of "Effect of ascorbic acid on histamine metabolism in scorbutic guinea-pigs" by I B Chatterjee, S D Gupta, A K Majumder, B K Nandi, and N Subramanian, posted in (54) researchers indicated that The increased histamine content of the urine, blood and other tissues in the ascorbic-acid-depleted condition could be brought back to normal levels by administration of a single dose of ascorbic acid 5 mg/100 g body wt.

3. Detoxification
Liver is a second defense that helps to clean out the toxins accumulation in the blood body. If the liver is over work, it can cause liver congestion, leading to lower of bile production or weaken carbohydrate metabolism. Since tomato contains high amount of Vitamins A and C, it not only supports liver function but stimulates the liver's function in detoxification of toxins., according to the study of "Effects of dried fish on antioxidant levels in rat liver" by Anilakumar KR, Khanum F, Krishna KR, Viswanathan KR.(55)

A.7. Blueberry
In the investigation of Blueberry and blackberry wines commercially available in Illinois and theirs potential health benefits, found that fruit wines made from blueberries and blackberries may have potential health applications and therefore could contribute to the economy of the wine industry. Practical Application: The majority of wines are produced from grapes, but wine can also be produced from other fruits including blueberries and blackberries, which contain phenolic compounds that may contribute to human health, according to "Comparison of Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Commercially Available Blueberry and Blackberry Wines in Illinois" by Johnson MH, Gonzalez de Mejia E.(56)

A.8. Raspberries
1. Neurodegenerative diseases
In the identification of Resveratrol found skin of grapes, raspberries, mulberries, pistachios and peanuts and theirs effect neurodegenerative diseases, found that resveratrol shows effects in in vitro models of epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and nerve injury. However, evidences in vivo as well as in human beings are still lacking. Thus, further investigations on the pharmacological effects of resveratrol in vivo are necessary before any conclusions on its effects on neurodegenerative diseases can be obtained, according to "Resveratrol: a natural compound with pharmacological potential in neurodegenerative diseases" by Rocha-González HI, Ambriz-Tututi M, Granados-Soto V.(57)

2. Degenerative diseases of ageing
Long-term vitamin K inadequacy may reduce the function of supporting the carboxylation of at least some of these Gla-protein that can lead the development of degenerative diseases of ageing including osteoporosis and atherosclerosis, according to the study of "Vitamin K, osteoporosis and degenerative diseases of ageing" by Cees Vermeer and Elke Theuwissen(58)

3.  Antioxidant

Vitamin C or ascorbic acid is a powerful antioxidant which inhibits the forming of the free radical due to oxidative stress. It also enhances the function of immune system in guarding our body against foreign invasion, thus reducing the risk of inflammatory and infectious diseases, according to the study of "Role of ascorbic acid in scavenging free radicals and lead toxicity from biosystems" by Tariq SA.(59)
A.9 Flax seed
Flax seed contains a high amount of antioxidant that helps to guard the body from forming of free radicals by promoting the proper DNA replication and cells division, according to "Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer" by Valko M, Rhodes CJ, Moncol J, Izakovic M, Mazur M.(60) 
A.10. Salmon
1. Antioxidants
In the research of the antioxidant effect of vitamin E after ingestion of salmon found that that megadoses of vitamin E, far from having pro-oxidative activity, actually increase the anti-oxidative capacity of the liver, especially after ingestion of salmon oil, according to "Effects of megadoses of dietary vitamin E on the antioxidant status of rats fed lard or salmon oil" by Flader D, Brandsch C, Hirche F, Eder K.(61)
2. Selenium
Salmon contains trace minerals selenium which is essential for the healthy function of the thyroid and immune system as it increases the antioxidant defense system by fighting against the forming of free radicals and reduce the risk of irregular cells growth causes of tumor and cancer, according to the study of "Selenium in the immune system" by Arthur JR, McKenzie RC, Beckett GJ., posted in PubMed (62)
3. Anti inflammationIt is said the Omega 3 fatty acids beside reduced the risk of inflammatory effects on our joints and improved blood flow, by regulating the migration of inflammatory cells that cause inflammation, but also autoimmune diseases as a result of the elevation of IL-1 and the proinflammatory leukotriene LTB(4) produced by omega-6 fatty acids, according to the study of "Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases" by Simopoulos AP., (63) 
A.11. Etc.
Sources
(39) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21339161
(40) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20572671
(41) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18974721
(42)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22035073
(43) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20187646
(44) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10962130
(45) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18287364
(46) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10544191
(47) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20043266
(48) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11238807
(49) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21322286
(50) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22194081
(51)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22070764
(52) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20687227
(53) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=lycopene%20and%20Parkinson%E2%80%99s%2C%20Alzheimer%E2%80%99s%2C%20and%20Huntington%E2%80%99s%20diseases%2C 
(54) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1348426/ 
(55) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12597022
(56) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22182198
(57) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18684235
(58) http://mi.rsmjournals.com/content/17/1/19.abstract
(59) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17914166
(60) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16430879
(61) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12951900
(62) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12730442
(63) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21346389