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Saturday, 30 November 2013

Encephalitis - The Complications

Encephalitis is defined as a condition of irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the brain, as a result of virus, bacteria and others invasion.
Complications
1. Brain damage
Encephalitis can cause brain damage as a result of replication of viruses after entering brain of that depleting the energy and oxygen in the brain cell. In case of autoimmune encephalitis the immune system makes antibodies that cause damage to neurons or other brain cells as a result of the accumulateion of fluid, white blood cells, the contents of dead nerve cells and disabled viruses(28). Some resaerchers suggested that Glutamate is the major excitatory CNS neurotransmitter. Glutamate receptor autoantibodies have now been called to our attention, as they are found in many patients with epilepsy, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and encephalitis, and can unquestionably cause brain damage(29).
Other found that The blood-brain barrier (BBB) serves to protect the central nervous system (CNS) from damage by exogenous molecules. Japanese encephalitis (JE), caused by a neurotropic flavivirus, leads to inflammation in the CNS, neuronal death and also compromises the structural and functional integrity of the BBB(30).

2. Stroke 
Stroke are associated with the complication of Encephalitis. In the study to investigate Herpes simplex virus type-1 encephalitis and occipital ischemic stroke, the team at Erasmus MC Sophia Children's Hospital said "Childhood ischemic stroke is a rare complication of herpes simplex virus type-1 encephalitis" in a description of healthy 3-year-old girl who presented with bilateral occipital ischemic stroke, attributable to herpes simplex virus type-1 encephalitis, highlighting the importance of viral diagnostics in cerebrospinal fluid"(31).

3. Seizures    
Scientists at the National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry have found that Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS) represents a peculiar form of encephalitis mainly affecting children. They usually present abruptly with seizure or impaired consciousness as well as high-grade fever following antecedent infection(32)

4. Death 
Compared to other infectious diseases, encephalitis has a high mortality rate. Overall, approximately 10% of those with encephalitis die from the brain inflammation or complications such as secondary infection. Some forms of encephalitis have more severe courses, including herpes simplex virus encephalitis, in which mortality is up to 30% with treatment, and 70-80% without(33).

5. Etc.

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Sources
(30) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19628016
(31) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19748051
(32) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19327924
(33) http://www.encephalitis.info/Info/TheIllness/Mortality.html