V. A. Upper respiratory tract infection
Upper respiratory tract infections are considered to be the infection of the airway above the glottis or vocal cords. This includes the nose, sinuses, pharynx, and larynx, including the infection of tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, otitis media, etc,.
D.2. Diseases associated with Upper respiratory tract infection
1. Chlamydia infection
In humans the most common infections are caused by Chlamydophila pneumoniae is Chlamydia trachomatis.These pathogens are mainly responsible for infections of upper respiratory tract, infections of urinary tract and conjunctivitis(19).
2. Acute otitis media (AOM)
Acute otitis media (AOM) occurs as a complication of viral upper respiratory tract infections in young children. AOM and respiratory viruses both display seasonal variation. According to the study leaded by Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, showed that During the study period, 96,418 respiratory viral tests were performed; 46,460 (48%) were positive. The most commonly identified viruses were: RSV (22%), rhinovirus (8%), influenza (8%), parainfluenza (4%), human metapneumovirus (3%), and adenovirus (3%). AOM was diagnosed during 271,268 ambulatory visits. There were significant associations between peak activity of RSV, human metapneumovirus, influenza A, and office visits for AOM. Adenovirus, parainfluenza, and rhinovirus were not associated with visits for AOM(20).
3. Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes associated with colonization of the upper respiratory tract in young children. According to the study by Medical University of Lublin of the 342 pneumococcal isolates, the serotype coverage by PCV-10 or PCV-13 was 73.7% or 80.1%, respectively. Moreover, 92.4% of the isolates belonged to serotypes included in the “old” 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine. A clear picture of the distribution of S. pneumoniae serotypes associated with colonization and/or infection in various geographical areas is needed in a light of recommended or routine vaccination(21).
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