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Thursday, 28 November 2013

Diabetes Preventions – The Diet

Diabetes is defined as a condition caused by insufficient insulin entering the bloodstream to regulate the glucose. It is either caused by cells in pancreas dying off or receptor sites clogged up by fat and cholesterol. In some cases, diabetes is also caused by allergic reactions of cells in the immune system.
IV. Preventions
A. Diet to prevent diabetes
1. Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet
According to the study by Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey School of Osteopathic Medicinen, a small group of obese patients with type 2 diabetes, a low-carbohydrate diet followed for 2 weeks resulted in spontaneous reduction in energy intake to a level appropriate to their height; weight loss that was completely accounted for by reduced caloric intake; much improved 24-hour blood glucose profiles, insulin sensitivity, and hemoglobin A1c; and decreased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels. The long-term effects of this diet, however, remain uncertain(43). Unfortunately, according to the study by  CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition, without active ongoing dietary advice, adherence to dietary intervention is poor(44).
2. High-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate
High polyphenol chocolate is effective in improving the atherosclerotic cholesterol profile in patients with diabetes by increasing HDL cholesterol and improving the cholesterol:HDL ratio without affecting weight, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance or glycaemic control(45). Other study indicated that Cocoa polyphenols may increase the concentration of HDL cholesterol, whereas chocolate fatty acids may modify the fatty acid composition of LDL and make it more resistant to oxidative damage(46).
3. Probiotics
Probiotics particularly lactobacilli and bifidobacteria have recently emerged as the prospective biotherapeutics with proven efficacy demonstrated in various in vitro and in vivo animal models adequately supported with their established multifunctional roles and mechanism of action for the prevention and disease treatment, according to the study of “Probiotics as the potential biotherapeutics in the management of Type 2 Diabetes -Prospects and Perspectives” by Dairy Microbiology Division, National Dairy Research Institute(47). Others suggested that probiotics could have beneficial effects beyond gastrointestinal health, as they were found to improve certain metabolic disorders such as hypertension. Hypertension is caused by various factors and the predominant causes include an increase in cholesterol levels, incidence of diabetes, inconsistent modulation of renin and imbalanced sexual hormones(48).
4. Cinnamon
in the elucidation of the mechanisms by which p-Methoxycinnamic acid (p-MCA), a cinnamic acid increases [Ca2+]i and insulin secretion in INS-1 cells. p-MCA (100 μM) increased [Ca2+]i in INS-1 cells, found that p-MCA enhanced glucose-, glibenclamide-induced insulin secretion whereas it also potentiated the increase in insulin secretion induced by arginine, and Bay K 8644, an L-type Ca2+ channel agonist. Taken together, our results suggest that p-MCA stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells by increasing Ca2+ influx via the L-type Ca2+ channels, but not through the closure of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, according to “Mechanisms of p-methoxycinnamic acid-induced increase in insulin secretion” by Adisakwattana S, Hsu WH, Yibchok-anun S.(49)
5. Bitter melon
In the study of  Sialic acid changes in NIDDM patients, following bitter melon (55 ml/24h) and rosiglitazone (4 mg/24h) treatment in a total of 25 patients of both sexes, found that bitter melon and rosiglitazone treatment revealed no significant difference but the study showed that bitter melon could be more effective in the management of diabetes and its related complications as compared to rosiglitazone(50).
6. Garlic
In the study to evaluate the potential hypoglycemic effects of garlic in type 2 diabetic patients, showed that combination of garlic with typical antidiabetic remedy has shown to improve glycemic control in addition to antihyperlipidemic activity. Garlic may be a good addition in the management of patients with diabetes and hyperlipidemia(51).
7. Onion
In the study of the effect of feeding 15 mg% capsaicin diet or 3% freeze dried onion powder containing diet were examined in albino rats rendered diabetic with streptozotocin injection, found that Significant decrease in blood phospholipids and triglycerides also brought about by dietary onion. Hepatic cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids which were elevated under diabetic condition were countered significantly by dietary onion. Dietary capsaicin did not have any significant influence on any of the parameters tested in diabetic rats. Thus, the study reveals that onion feeding improves the metabolic status in diabetic condition, probably because of its hypoglycemic as well as hypocholesterolemic effect(52).
8. Turmeric
In the evaluation of the effect of feeding 0.5% curcumin diet or 1% cholesterol diet  in albino rats rendered diabetic with streptozotocin injection, indicated that curcumin feeding improves the metabolic status in diabetic conditions, despite no effect on hyperglycemic status or the body weights. The mechanism by which curcumin improves this situation is probably by virtue of its hypocholesterolemic influence, antioxidant nature and free radical scavenging property(53).
9. Green tea and coffee
Drinking green tea and coffee are associated to reduced risk of diabetes. People who drink at least 4 cups of tea per day may have a 16% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than non-tea drinkers, according to InterAct Consortium(53a). coffee consumption decreased the risk of developing diabetes. The protective effect may exist aside from the influence of caffeine intake, according to the study by Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine(53b).
10. Reduced Satured and Tran fat comsuption
As fatty acids influence glucose metabolism by altering cell membrane function, enzyme activity, insulin signaling, and gene expression.  By Dietary fat is of particular interest because fatty acids influence glucose metabolism by altering cell membrane function, enzyme activity, insulin signaling, and gene expression(53c).
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Sources
(43) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15767618.
(44) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15007396
(45) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20968113
(46) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15454274
(47) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23225499
(48) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19865517
(49) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22009371
(50) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19362455 
(51) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21959822
(52) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9350033
(53) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8609907
(53a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22666334
(53b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19818197
(53c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2654180/