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Sunday, 24 November 2013

Coronary heart disease - The Diet

Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular disease is defined as medical conditions affecting the cardiovascular system, including heart, blood vessels(arteries and veins).
I. Coronary heart disease
Coronary heart disease is defined as a condition of narrowing coronary arteries that lead to blockage of the blood flow in the arteries as a result of hardening arterial wall, cholesterol building up in the arteries, chemicals, such as cadmium clog up arteries, etc. affecting the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States.
D.2. Diet to prevent Coronary heart disease
The aim of diet is to reduce the risk of underlining causes of coronary heart diseases, such as lowering cholesterol, lower blood pressure, reduce the risk of diabetes, lipid perioxidation, etc.,  causes of the diseases
1. Dulse is a red seaweed of genus Palmaria, belong to Family Palmariaceae that grows attached to rocks by a “holdfast” in the North Atlantic and Northwest Pacific. It is commonly used in Ireland and Atlantic Canada both as food and medicinally and is now shipped around the globe. Dulse is found in many health food stores or fish markets or can be ordered directly from local distributors.
a. Health benefits
In the assessment of nutritional and physiological properties of edible seaweeds is presented. Seaweeds are traditionally consumed in Asia as sea vegetables found that Seaweeds showed important functional activities, such as antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticoagulant effect, antitumor activity, and an important role in the modification of lipid metabolism in human body. In conclusion, seaweeds have a high nutritional value, therefore an increase in their consumption, would elevate the foods offer to population, according to “[Nutritional evaluation and physiological effects of edible seaweeds].[Article in Spanish]” by Jiménez-Escrig A, Goñi Cambrodón I.(43)
b. Antioxidant
In assessment of polyphenol content of the dulse extract of two grades of dulse harvested from Canadian Maritime locations differing in UV radiation exposure (i.e. west versus east coasts of Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick) and their antiodant effects found that The 1-butanol soluble extract from Grade 1 dulse (reduced UV-exposure) exhibited lower reducing activity versus Grade 2 dulse (greater UV exposure) reflecting a lower requirement for endogenous antioxidant protection. Grade 1 and 2 dulse extracts both inhibited (p0.03) AAPH-induced lipid peroxidation, but had no effect on AMVN-induced lipid peroxidation, demonstrating the aqueous nature of the antioxidants involved, according to “Extracts from dulse (Palmaria palmata) are effective antioxidants and inhibitors of cell proliferation in vitro” by Yuan YV, Carrington MF, Walsh NA.(44)
d. Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll, a green pigment found in almost all plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, beside it is best known for its cleansing body and healing to vital organs properties. It also reduces the binding of carcinogens to DNA in the liver and other organs, thus reducing the risk of cancer according to the study of “Natural compounds in the human diet and their ability to bind mutagens prevents DNA-mutagen intercalation” by Osowski A, Pietrzak M, Wieczorek Z, Wieczorek J.(46), researchers indicated that in order to bind 50% of the mutagen in a complex, less than twice the concentration of chlorophyllin was needed……

2. Green tea
Green tea contains more amount of antioxidants than any drinks or food with the same volume, and is the leaves of Camellia sinensis, undergone minimal oxidation during processing, originated from China. Green tea has been a precious drink in traditional Chinese culture and used exceptional in socialization for more than 4000 thousand years. Because of their health benefits, they have been cultivated for commercial purposes all over the world.
 Cholesterol
In the investigation of
theaflavin-enriched green tea extract in association with cholesterol levels of the study of “Cholesterol-lowering effect of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract: a randomized controlled trial” by Maron DJ, Lu GP, Cai NS, Wu ZG, Li YH, Chen H, Zhu JQ, Jin XJ, Wouters BC, Zhao J.(47), researchers found that The theaflavin-enriched green tea extract is an effective adjunct to a low-saturated-fat diet to reduce LDL-C in hypercholesterolemic adults and is well tolerated.

3. Flax seed
Flax seed is native to the region of the eastern Mediterranean to India and also known as common flax or linseed. Flax is an erect annual plant, it can grow to 1.2 m tall. The leaves are 20–40 mm long and 3 mm broad.

b. Hyperlipidemia
In the
examination of the effects of flax and sesame seeds mixture on Hyperlipidemia
found that Diet supplemented with flax and sesame seeds mixture in pregnant diabetic rats ameliorated lipid parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities, level of reduced glutathione and significantly decreased malonaldialdehyde levels, according to “Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid prevents hyperlipidemia and hepatic oxidant status in pregnant diabetic rats and their macrosomic offspring” by Makni M, Sefi M, Garoui el M, Fetoui H, Boudawara T, Zeghal N.(52)

c. Cardiovascular diseases
In the research of
Flaxseed and its effect on cardiovascular risk found that flaxseed can modestly reduce serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, reduce postprandial glucose absorption, decrease some markers of inflammation, and raise serum levels of the omega-3 fatty acids, ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid. Data on the antiplatelet, antioxidant, and hypotensive effects of flaxseed, however, are inconclusive. More research is needed to define the role of this functional food in reducing cardiovascular risk, according to “Flaxseed and cardiovascular risk‘ by Bloedon LT, Szapary PO.(53)
d. Hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis
In the evaluation of
Flaxseed (Type I flaxseed) and CDC-flaxseed (Type II flaxseed) and theirs effect onhypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis found that Type II flaxseed reduced the development of atherosclerosis by 69%, according to “Reduction of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis by CDC-flaxseed with very low alpha-linolenic acid” by Prasad K, Mantha SV, Muir AD, Westcott ND.(54)
f. Omega 3 fatty acidsBesides well known for its benefits for the maintenance of a healthy cardio-vascular system, according to the study of “Omega-3 Fatty acids for cardiovascular disease prevention” by Defilippis AP, Blaha MJ, Jacobson TA, posted in PubMed(I) and proper ratio of Omega 3 and 6 fatty acid and prevent blood clotting, it also extends the portion of your cycle in which you are fertile, by promoting natural ovulation, according tothe study of “Postpartum ovarian activity in multiparous Holstein cows treated with bovine somatotropin and fed n-3 fatty acids in early lactation” by Carriquiry M, Dahlen CR, Weber WJ, Lamb GC, Crooker BA., posted in pubMed (55)

4. Blueberry 
a. Antioxidant Capacity 

In the investigation of Blueberry and blackberry wines commercially available in Illinois and theirs potential health benefits, found that fruit wines made from blueberries and blackberries may have potential health applications and therefore could contribute to the economy of the wine industry. Practical Application: The majority of wines are produced from grapes, but wine can also be produced from other fruits including blueberries and blackberries, which contain phenolic compounds that may contribute to human health, according to “Comparison of Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Commercially Available Blueberry and Blackberry Wines in Illinois” by Johnson MH, Gonzalez de Mejia E.(56)


b.  Metabolic Syndrome 
In the classification of therapeutic roles of strawberries, blueberries, and cranberries in metabolic syndrome found that strawberries lowering total and LDL-cholesterol, but not triglycerides, and decreasing surrogate biomarkers of atherosclerosis (malondialdehyde and adhesion molecules); blueberries lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure and lipid oxidation and improving insulin resistance; and low-calorie cranberry juice selectively decreasing biomarkers of lipid oxidation (oxidized LDL) and inflammation (adhesion molecules) in metabolic syndrome, according to “Strawberries, Blueberries, and Cranberries in the Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Perspectives” by Basu A, Lyons TJ.(57)
c. Cardiovascular diseases
Since blue berry contains high amount of antioxidant, it reduces ROS production and the effects of oxidative stress due to ROS, apoptosis and improve cardiac function, according to “Mitochondrially targeted antioxidants for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases” by Subramanian S, Kalyanaraman B, Migrino RQ.(58)
5. Wolfberry is the common name for the fruit of two very closely related species, the genus of Lycium, belong to family Solanaceae, native to native to southeastern Europe and Asia.
a. Cholesterol
In the comparison of herbal extract SR10 of Radix Astragali, Radix Codonopsis and Cortex Lycii and its effect on lipoprotein oxidation found that SR10 inhibited erythrocyte hemolysis with IC50 value at 0.25 mg/ml and significantly prolonged low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro. SR10 attenuated platelet derived growth factor-BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by promoting cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase as well as inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell migration. according to “Suppression of low-density lipoprotein oxidation, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration by a herbal extract of Radix Astragali, Radix Codonopsis and Cortex Lycii” by Chan JY, Koon JC, Leung PC, Che CT, Fung KP.(59)
b. Hypochlolesterolemic and antioxidative effects
In the researches of the hypocholesterolemic effect and potential of tyramine derivatives from Lycii Cortex Radicis (LCR), the root bark of lycium (Lycium chenese Miller) in reducing lipid peroxidation found that The level of liver cholesterol was significantly lower in LCR1 and LCR2 groups than HF-control. Serum levels of TBARS were significantly lower only in LCR2 group when compared with HF-control group. From the observed results, we concluded that LCR can be utilized as a hypocholesterolemic ingredient in combination with ginger, especially for functional foods, according to “Study on the hypochlolesterolemic and antioxidative effects of tyramine derivatives from the root bark of Lycium chenese Miller” by Cho SH, Park EJ, Kim EO, Choi SW.(60)
d. Free radicals
In the observation of protective effects against oxidative stress in liver tissues of test mice of aqueous extract of Lycium barbarum (LBAE) and ethanol extract of Lycium barbarum (LBEE) found the extracts reduce liver damage and oxidative changes, according to “Effects of lycium barbarum aqueous and ethanol extracts on high-fat-diet induced oxidative stress in rat liver tissue” by Cui B, Liu S, Lin X, Wang J, Li S, Wang Q, Li S.(62)

6. Coriander is an annual herb, genus Coriandrum in the family Apiaceae, native to southern Europe and North Africa to southwestern Asia. All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the parts most commonly used in cooking.
a. Antioxidant
Like most plants with spice taste, coriander contains high levels of antioxidant that helps to protect our body’s cells from oxidation damage, thus reducing the DNA alternation due to free radicals. A study found both the leaves and seed to contain antioxidants, but the leaves were found to have a stronger effect, accoridng to “Antioxidant activity in extracts from coriander” by Helle Wangensteen, Anne Berit Samuelsen, Karl Egil Malterud(66)
f. Hypolipidemic effect
In a study on rats researcher found that coriander seeds were found to have a significant hypolipidemic effect by lowering of levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides, and increasing levels of high-density lipoprotein due to increasing synthesis of bile by the liver and the breakdown of cholesterol into other compounds, according to “Hypolipidemic effect of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum): mechanism of action” by Chithra V, Leelamma S.(67)

7. Eat plenty of Fruits, evgatables and reduce intake of red meats
8. Etc. 


References
(43) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10488389
(44) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15833383
(45) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20102847
(46) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20706936
(47) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12824094
(48) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21985858
(49) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22019691
(50) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21859352
(51) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20570704
(52) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21458299
(53) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14995053
(54) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9543108
(55) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19762803
(56) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22182198
(57) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22082311
(58) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19807685
(59) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21513503
(60) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22125678
(61) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21979376
(62) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22045040
(63) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814604001219
(64) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21862758
(65) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874104003083
(66) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21862758
(67) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9527351