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Sunday, 24 November 2013

.Coronary heart disease-Diagnosis and tests

Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular disease is defined as medical conditions affecting the cardiovascular system, including heart, blood vessels(arteries and veins).
I. Coronary heart disease
Coronary heart disease is defined as a condition of narrowing coronary arteries that lead to blockage of the blood flow in the arteries as a result of hardening arterial wall, cholesterol building up in the arteries, chemicals, such as cadmium clog up arteries, etc. affecting the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States.
C. Diagnosis and tests
1. Coronary angiography
Coronary angiography is an imaging test that uses a special dye (contrast material) and x-rays to see see inside the arteries and how blood flows through your heart with the a mild sedative to help you relax.
2. Computed Tomography angiography 
A noninvasive way 3D technique with  a contrast material to produce pictures of major blood vessels throughout the body with the use of x-rays with catheters, or     computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
3. Echocardiogram  
Echocardiogram  also known as cardiac ECHO is a  is an ultrasound technique used for visualizing the structures of the heart.
4. Electrocardiogram (ECG) 
The electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) is a diagnostic tool that is routinely used to assess the electrical and muscular functions of the heart. While it is a relatively simple test to perform, the interpretation of the ECG tracing requires significant amounts of training.(26) 
6. Exercise stress test  
An exercise stress test such as walk or run on a treadmill or pedal a stationary bike is a screening tool used to test how your heart function under exercise stress.
7. Heart CT scan  
Heart CT scan  is a computed tomography (CT) scan of the heart with the use of uses x-rays to create detailed pictures of the heart and its blood vessels.
8. Magnetic resonance angiography  
Magnetic resonance angiography is an MRIto produce image blood vessels for examination.
9. Nuclear stress test
A nuclear stress is a nuclear imaging method to measure blood flow to your heart muscle both at rest and during stress on the heart.
10. Etc.
Some researchers suggested that pattern-recognition techniques applied to proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectra of human serum can correctly diagnose not only the presence, but also the severity, of coronary heart disease.