Cardiovascular disease is defined as medical conditions affecting the cardiovascular system, including heart, blood vessels(arteries and veins).
I. Coronary heart disease
Coronary heart disease is defined as a condition of narrowing coronary arteries that lead to blockage of the blood flow in the arteries as a result of hardening arterial wall, cholesterol building up in the arteries, chemicals, such as cadmium clog up arteries, etc. affecting the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States.
Antioxidants to prevent Coronary heart disease
Dr. Diane L. Tribble , AHA Science Advisory in the article of “Antioxidant Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: Emphasis on Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and ß-Carotene”, a Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association said “Dietary recommendations aimed at reducing the risk of coronary heart disease have focused largely on the intake of nutrients that affect established risk factors, including plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels, blood pressure, and body weight. Recent developments in our understanding of the atherosclerotic process and factors that trigger ischemic events have led to the consideration of dietary constituents that may alter risk through other mechanisms. Prominent among these are antioxidants, which are proposed to inhibit multiple proatherogenic and prothrombotic oxidative events in the artery wall. This report provides a brief overview of evidence concerning a role for dietary antioxidants in disease prevention, with emphasis on studies in human populations, and describes a number of issues that should be resolved before it would be prudent to make recommendations regarding the prophylactic use of antioxidant supplements”(68)
Discovered by Szent-Gyorgyi and his colleagues back in the 1930`s. In Laboratory tests, B
bioflavonoids help to reduce the fragility and “permeability” in capillaries and prevent the clotting up of arterial as a result of oxidation.
Recent research findings have suggested that antioxidants such as vitamin C, E and beta carotene play an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Data from animal studies showed they are able to prevent oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins (LDL).
Alpha-tocopherol, a antioxidant found abundant in vitamin E, helps to decrease lipid peroxidation and platelet aggregation, adhesion and inflammatory. Epidemiological studies suggest that low levels of antioxidants are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease.
4. Vitamin C and E
Studies showed in take of 500mg of vitamin C and 400 IU of vitamin E helps to retard the progression of coronary atherosclersis.
Antioxidant chorophyll in the green algae shows to inhibit the chemical cadmium of smoking, by preventing from oxidation that cause building up of plaque along the walls of arteries.
6. 2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T)
Researcher found that in rat cardiac H9c2 cells, D3T and time-dependent induction of a number of cellular antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes, including catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH peroxidase, glutathione reductase (GR), GSH S-transferase (GST), and NADH:quinone oxidoreduc- tase-1 (NQO1) help to protect against H9c2 cell injury caused by various oxidants and simulated ischemia-reperfusion. D3T pretreatment also resulted in decreased intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen in H9c2 cells after exposure to the oxidants as well as simulated ischemia-reperfusion.
Deficiency of of a co-enzyme selenium, which is required in maintaining the glutathione redox cycle, also promote more susceptible to oxidative injure.
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