Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the United State.
1. Emphysema, a type of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is defined as a long term and progressive condition cause of shortness of breath but depending to the stage of lung function as a result of damage to tissues of the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. In the study of 63 patients with stable COPD (spirometric GOLD stages 2–4) and 17 age- and comorbidity-matched controls, researchers found that in contrast to asthma, COPD is characterised by elevated concentrations of both BDNF and TGF-beta1 in serum. The stage-dependent association with lung function supports the hypothesis that these platelet mediators may play a role in the pathogenesis of COPD(1). In some cases, but rarely, Emphysema is caused by Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency emphysema.
2. Chronic bronchitis
Chronic bronchitis is a chronic inflammation of the lung’s bronchi cause of the increased production of mucus in the lung of that leading to difficult breathing.
F.3. In traditional medicine perspective
Transitional Chinese medicine defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a result of smoking and air pollution causes of lung Yin deficiency (With symptoms of dry cough) at the beginning. If the disease is left untreated, it can cause accumulation of heat in the lung (with dry cough begins to produce sticky sputum), leading to the development of phlegm. Prolonged period of phlegm accumulation can obstruct the lung, causing lung Qi deficiency(56). In a prospective, multi-center, double-blinded and randomized controlled method used to test the therapeutic effects of TCM treatment according to syndrome differentiation of a total of 504 patientsenrolled into this study with 252 in each treatment group, showed that patients with COPD will benefit from therapy with TCM treatment according to syndrome differentiation(57).
1. Bu-Fei Jian-Pi granules, Bu-Fei Yi-Shen granules and Yi-Qi Zi-Shen granules
In the study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the comprehensive therapy based on the three common TCM patterns in stable COPD patients, conducted by The First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, found that based on the TCM patterns, Bu-Fei Jian-Pi granules, Bu-Fei Yi-Shen granules and Yi-Qi Zi-Shen granules have beneficial effects on measured outcomes in stable COPD patients over the 6-month treatment and 12-month follow-up, with no relevant between-group differences in adverse events(58).
2. Bu-Fei Yi-Shen granule combined with acupoint sticking therapy
In the study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, the Bu-Fei Yi-Shen granule combined with acupoint sticking therapy in patients with stable COPD. found that Bu-Fei Yi-Shen granule combined with acupoint sticking therapy showed beneficial effects for patients with stable COPD in the measured parameters over the 4-month treatment period and 6 months follow-up, with no relevant between-group differences in adverse events(59).
3. Warm needling therapy
In the study to observe the effects on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the stable phase treated with warm needling therapy and Seretide and make the comparison of improvements between two therapies in terms of the clinical symptoms and life quality, found that Warm needling therapy improves the pulmonary function of the patients with COPD in the stable phase, releases clinical symptoms and improves life quality. Its effects are similar to those of Seretide(60).
4. Tanreqing injection
In the study to explore the effects of Tanreqing injection, a traditional Chinese herbal preparation for clearing heat and resolving phlegm, in treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) by improving airway inflammation and airway mucus hypersecretion, researchers at the West China Hospital, Sichuan University found that Tanreqing injection can improve TCM signs and symptoms in AECOPD patients, and the mechanism maybe due to the decrease of serum levels of IL-8 and NE and improvement of IL-10 level(61).
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