Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the United State.
1. Emphysema, a type of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is defined as a long term and progressive condition cause of shortness of breath but depending to the stage of lung function as a result of damage to tissues of the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. In the study of 63 patients with stable COPD (spirometric GOLD stages 2–4) and 17 age- and comorbidity-matched controls, researchers found that in contrast to asthma, COPD is characterised by elevated concentrations of both BDNF and TGF-beta1 in serum. The stage-dependent association with lung function supports the hypothesis that these platelet mediators may play a role in the pathogenesis of COPD(1). In some cases, but rarely, Emphysema is caused by Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency emphysema.
2. Chronic bronchitis
Chronic bronchitis is a chronic inflammation of the lung’s bronchi cause of the increased production of mucus in the lung of that leading to difficult breathing.
F.2. In herbal medicine perspective
Enchinanea also known as purple coneflowers, is a flowering plant of the genus Enchinanea, belonging to the family Asteraceae, native to eastern and central North America. The herb has been used in traditional and herbal medicine to treat or prevent colds, flu, infections by stimulating the immune function, etc,. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in COPD patients with acute URTI. Patients were given ciprofloxacin for 7 days and additionally one tablet per day of EP, of EP along with zinc, selenium and ascorbic acid (EP+), or of placebo until day 14, conducted by Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, showed that the combination of EP, zinc, selenium and vitamin C may alleviate exacerbation symptoms caused by URTI in COPD(53).
2. Panax ginseng
Ginseng Asia is also known as Panax ginseng. Since it has been grown in the cold places in the Asian, Asian ginseng is considered as yang promoting, according to traditional Chinese medicine.
The herb has been used in traditional and Chinese medicine to promote yang and to improve cardiac function, short of breath, blood pressure. Panax ginseng can generates fluids and reduce thirst, to treat anxiety, insomnia, dizziness/headache, forgetfulness, impotence, diabetes, bleeding in the vagina not during period, etc.Ginseng has been used for thousands of years in Chinese medicine for respiratory symptoms. Several controlled clinical trials using ginseng for COPD have shown promising clinical effect, however these studies were generally small and with some potential bias, prompting the need for rigorously designed studies(54). Others in the study of Oral Ginseng formulae indicated that Ginseng formulae for stable COPD patients show promising evidence of lung functions and Qol improvement. However, the degree of benefit is uncertain due to potential risk of bias of the included studies(54a).
3. Herbal formula
In the study to evaluate the ability of an herbal composite containing garlic, white horehound, boneset, aniseed, fennel, licorice, thyme, and hyssop to reduce the clinical signs of RAO, found that treatment with the composite did not result in statistically significant changes in any of the parameters evaluated. A trend to a decrease in respiratory rate (P = 0.1) and an increase in the proportion of macrophages (P = 0.1) was observed in the horses receiving the herbal composite compared with placebo. These data indicate a potential for the herbal composite to safely reduce the elevated respiratory rate in horses with RAO(55).
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