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Tuesday, 26 November 2013

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) – The Causes

Respiratory Disease is defined as medical conditions which affect the breathing organ and tissues including Inflammatory lung disease, Obstructive lung diseases, Restrictive lung diseases, Respiratory tract infections, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, the nerves and  muscles breathing , etc,.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD))is the third leading cause of death in the United State.
 1. Emphysema, a type of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is defined as a long term and progressive condition cause of shortness of breath but depending to the stage of lung function as a result of damage to tissues of the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. In the study of 63 patients with stable COPD (spirometric GOLD stages 2–4) and 17 age- and comorbidity-matched controls, researchers found that in contrast to asthma, COPD is characterised by elevated concentrations of both BDNF and TGF-beta1 in serum. The stage-dependent association with lung function supports the hypothesis that these platelet mediators may play a role in the pathogenesis of COPD(1). In some cases, but rarely, Emphysema is caused by Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency emphysema.
2. Chronic bronchitis
Chronic bronchitis is a chronic inflammation of the lung’s bronchi cause of the increased production of mucus in the lung of that leading to difficult breathing
B.1. Causes
1. Early age smoking and organic solvent exposure
There is a report of 27-year-old man who had been a smoker since 14 years of age presented with exertional dyspnea. Approximately three years earlier, he had been occupationally been exposed to an organic solvent and felt dyspnea during its use. He later developed severe dyspnea and received treatment for asthma. But Spirometry and high-resolution computed tomography scans suggested a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). High susceptibility, smoking from an early age and organic solvent exposure may have caused early-onset COPD in this case(10).
2. Second hand smoke
Prolonged exposure to heavy second hand smoke may cause COPD, as It introduces thousands of toxic chemicals into the lung, including carcinogens and oxidants, which cause direct airway epithelium tissue destruction. According to the study by University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, the use of animal models for both cigarette smoke (CS) and SHS associated in vivo experiments has been crucial in elucidating the pathogenic mechanisms and genetic components involved in inflammation-related development of COPD(11).
3. Smoking both tobacco and marijuana
In the study to determine the combined and independent effects of tobacco and marijuana smoking on respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the general population, researchers at the St. Paul’s Hospital and the University of British Columbia, found that the risks of respiratory symptoms and of COPD were related to a synergistic interaction between marijuana and tobacco(12).
4. Other causes
There is good evidence for an increased risk of COPD from certain specific exposures (coal mine dust, silica, welding fume, textile dust, agricultural dust, cadmium fume). Areas of controversy Less clear is the causal role of non-specific dusts or fumes/gases in general populations where the available literature is notably uncritical, according to the study by Dr. Cullinan P. (13)
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Sources
(1) http://respiratory-research.com/content/13/1/116/abstract
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23257530
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22973236
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19364790
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23080418