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Thursday, 28 November 2013

Cerebral aneurysm Preventions - The Phytochemicals

Cerebral aneurysm is defined as a cerebrovascular disorder causes of the blood vessel to bulge or balloon out of the wall of a blood vessel as a result of the weaken of blood vessels and veins and occurred mostly at the bifurcations and branches of the large arteries located at the Circle of Willis.
Phytochemicals against Cerebral Aneurysm
1. Catechin is phytochemical of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in white tea, green tea, black tea, grapes, wine, apple juice, cocoa, lentils, etc.
a. Cholesterol
In a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating the relationship between GTCs and serum lipid levels, including total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides, found that the consumption of GTCs is associated with a statistically significant reduction in total and LDL cholesterol levels; however, there was no significant effect on HDL cholesterol or triglyceride levels, according to " Green tea catechins decrease total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a systematic review and meta-analysis" by Kim A, Chiu A, Barone MK, Avino D, Wang F, Coleman CI, Phung OJ.(64)

b.  Antioxidant activity
In the research on polyphenolic compounds (included catechins) in the berries of edible honeysuckle and their biological effects, including recommended utilization, are reviewed found that These berries seem to be prospective sources of health-supporting phytochemicals that exhibit beneficial anti-adherence and chemo-protective activities, thus they may provide protection against a number of chronic conditions, e.g., cancer, diabetes mellitus, tumour growth or cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, according to "Phenolic profile of edible honeysuckle berries (genus lonicera) and their biological effects" by Jurikova T, Rop O, Mlcek J, Sochor J, Balla S, Szekeres L, Hegedusova A, Hubalek J, Adam V, Kizek R.(65)

c. Neuroprotective effects
In the evaluation the neuroprotective effects of theanine and catechins contained in green tea , found that the mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of theanine is related not only to the glutamate receptor but also to other mechanisms such as the glutamate transporter, although further studies are needed. One of the onset mechanisms for arteriosclerosis, a major factor in ischemic cerebrovascular disease, is probably the oxidative alteration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by active oxygen species. The oxidative alterations of LDL were shown to be prevented by tea catechins. Scavenging of *O(2)(-) was also exhibited by tea catechins. The neuroprotective effects of theanine and catechins contained in green tea are a focus of considerable attention, and further studies are warranted, according to "Neuroprotective effects of the green tea components theanine and catechins" by Kakuda T.(66)

2. Tangeritin, one of the flavones, is found in tangerine and many citrus peels
a. Cholesterol
In the investigation of the formulations containing citrus polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), mainly tangeretin, or citrus flavanone glucosides, hesperidin and naringin and theirs anti hypercholesterolemia effect found that PMFs are novel flavonoids with cholesterol- and triacylglycerol-lowering potential and that elevated levels of PMF metabolites in the liver might be directly responsible for their hypolipidemic effects in vivo, according to "Hypolipidemic Effects and Absorption of Citrus Polymethoxylated Flavones in Hamsters with Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia" by Elzbieta M. Kurowska and John A. Manthey, KGK Synergize Inc.(67)

b. Neuroprotective effects
In the evaluation of neuroprotective effects of a natural antioxidant tangeretin, a citrus flavonoid and its effect on Parkinson's disease found that tangeretin crosses the blood-brain barrier. The significant protection of striato-nigral integrity and functionality by tangeretin suggests its potential use as a neuroprotective agent, according to "Tissue distribution and neuroprotective effects of citrus flavonoid tangeretin in a rat model of Parkinson's disease" by Datla KP, Christidou M, Widmer WW, Rooprai HK, Dexter DT.(68)

c. Antioxidants
In the comparison of hand-pressed juice of polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) and flavanone glycosides (FGs) and the peeled fruit of 'Sainampueng' tangerines ( Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng) antioxidant effects found that hand-pressed juice of C. reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng serves as a rich source of PMFs, FGs, carotenoids, and antioxidants: 4-5 tangerine fruits ( approximately 80 g of each fruit) giving one glass of 200 mL hand-pressed juice would provide more than 5 mg of nobiletin and tangeretin and 36 mg of hesperidin, narirutin, and didymin, as well as 30 mg of ascorbic acid, >1 mg of provitamin A active beta-cryptoxanthin, and 200 microg of alpha-tocopherol, according to "Polymethoxylated flavones, flavanone glycosides, carotenoids, and antioxidants in different cultivation types of tangerines ( Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng) from Northern Thailand" by Stuetz W, Prapamontol T, Hongsibsong S, Biesalski HK.(69)

d. Antimicrobial activity
In the study of antibacterial and antifungal properties of wax and hexane extracts of Citrus spp. peels found that antimicrobial activity especially against M. canis and T. mentagrophytes: 4',5,6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone (tangeritin) and 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxyflavone (nobiletin) from C. reticulata; and 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (also known as escoparone, scoparone or scoparin) from C. limon, according to "Antimicrobial activity of wax and hexane extracts from Citrus spp. peels" by Johann S, Oliveira VL, Pizzolatti MG, Schripsema J, Braz-Filho R, Branco A, Smânia Jr A.(70)

3. Rosemarinol, is a phytochemical monophenols, found in essential oil of labiate herbs like Rosemary and also in variety of other plants.
a. Antimicrobial activity
In the observation of the essential oils from clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and their anti,icrobial effects found that The antimicrobial activity of combinations of the two essential oils indicated their additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects against individual microorganism tests. The time-kill curves of clove and rosemary essential oils towards three strains showed clearly bactericidal and fungicidal processes of (1)/(2) x MIC, MIC, MBC and 2 x MIC, according to "Antimicrobial activity of clove and rosemary essential oils alone and in combination" by Fu Y, Zu Y, Chen L, Shi X, Wang Z, Sun S, Efferth T.(71)

b. Anti-inflammatory effects
In the research of the extract of rosemary leaves from supercritical fluid extraction and its anti inflammatory effects found that the yield of 3.92% and total phenolics of 213.5 mg/g extract obtained from the most effective extraction conditions showed a high inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation (IC(50) 33.4 μg/mL). Both the SC-CO(2) extract and CA markedly suppressed the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), phosphorylated inhibitor-kappaB (P-IκB), and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB)/p65 in a dose-dependent manner, according to the study of "Anti-inflammatory effects of supercritical carbon dioxide extract and its isolated carnosic acid from Rosmarinus officinalis leaves" by Kuo CF, Su JD, Chiu CH, Peng CC, Chang CH, Sung TY, Huang SH, Lee WC, Chyau CC.(72)


4. Rutin also known as rutoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and sophorin is a Flavonols, belong to Flavonoids (polyphenols) of Phenolic compounds found orange, grapefruit, lemon, lime, berries mulberry, cranberries, buckwheat etc.
a. Anti-inflammatory activity
In the investigation of Rutin, a natural flavone derivative and its anti inflammatory effect found that Oral administration of rutin reduced rat paw swelling starting 2 hours after lambda-carrageenan injection. Rutin reduced significantly (p < 0.05) and in a dose-dependant manner the polymorphonuclear neutrophils chemotaxis to fMet-Leu-Phe, according to the study of "Anti-inflammatory effect of rutin on rat paw oedema, and on neutrophils chemotaxis and degranulation" by Selloum L, Bouriche H, Tigrine C, Boudoukha C.(73)

b.  Diabetes, Hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia
In the analyzing Dietary antioxidant compounds such as flavonoids and its protection against early-stage diabetes mellitus, found that Rutin (50 mg kg(-1)) reduced (p<0.05) blood glucose and improved the lipid profile in STZ-induced diabetic rats and concluded that that rutin can improve hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia while inhibiting the progression of liver and heart dysfunction in STZ-induced diabetic rats, acccording to "Influence of rutin treatment on biochemical alterations in experimental diabetes" by Fernandes AA, Novelli EL, Okoshi K, Okoshi MP, Di Muzio BP, Guimarães JF, Fernandes Junior A.(74)

c. Cardiovascular health
In the testing the hypothesis of the consumption of a diet rich in flavonoids can be associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease found that hamster fed with 2% cranberry concentrate powder (HFHC+CE); a HFHC with 0.1% rutin (HFHC+Rutin); and a HFHC with 30 mg/kg vitamin E (HFHC+Vit.E) diet for either 12 or 20 weeks, found that Ratios of plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and of plasma HDL-C to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher in animals consuming HFHC+Vit.E, according to the strudy of "Effects of a flavonol-rich diet on select cardiovascular parameters in a Golden Syrian hamster model" by Kalgaonkar S, Gross HB, Yokoyama W, Keen CL.(75)

d. Ischemia-reperfusion brain injury-related disorders
In the investigation of rutin's effect on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury caused by free radical induced neural damage found that the elevated level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), H(2)O(2) and protein carbonyl (PC) in MCAO group was attenuated significantly in rutin-pretreated group and concluded that rutin treatment may represent a novel approach in lowering the risk or improving the function of ischemia-reperfusion brain injury-related disorders, according to Rutin protects the neural damage induced by transient focal ischemia in rats" by Khan MM, Ahmad A, Ishrat T, Khuwaja G, Srivastawa P, Khan MB, Raza SS, Javed H, Vaibhav K, Khan A, Islam F.(76)

5. Glycitein is a phytochemical in the Isoflavones, belonging to the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in food of the family of legumes, soy, peanuts, chick peas, fava beans, alfalfa, kudzu, etc.
a. Antioxidants
in the evaluation of the antioxidant activity and contents of various polyphenol classes in the seeds of seven soybean varieties of different seed color and one yellow seed cultivar, found that antioxidant activity of seed extracts was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity assay. A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activity and contents of total polyphenols and anthocyanins was established. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in the extracts of black and brown varieties, which also showed high levels of all polyphenol classes examined. Yellow seed had the highest total isoflavone content (3.62 mg/g of dry material). The highest concentration of total daidzein was determined in black seeds (>2.0 mg/g of dry material), and the highest total glycitein and genistein contents occurred in the yellow cultivar (0.53 and 1.49 mg/g of dry material, respectively). According to our results, varieties of black and brown seeds could be of special interest not only for their large content of total polyphenols, ranging from 4.94 to 6.22 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of dry material, but also for their high content of natural antioxidants such as anthocyanins, according to "Polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of colored soybean seeds from central europe" by Malenčić D, Cvejić J, Miladinović J.(77)

b. Hypolipidemic effects
In the comprison of whether Monascus-fermented soybean extracts (MFSE) enriched with bioactive mevinolins (natural statins) and aglycone isoflavones (daidzein, glycitein, and genistein) perform an additive hypolipidemic effect in hyperlipidemic ratsand unfermented soybean extracts (UFSE), which have a higher level of glucoside isoflavones (daidzin, glycitin, and genistin) without mevinolin, found that treatment with both MFSE200 and MFSE400 groups for 40 days significantly reduced the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase by averages of 35.6 and 43.2%, respectively, as compared to the high-fat diet group (p < 0.01). The results indicate that MFSE performs a more potent hypolipidemic action via improvement of the lipid profiles and down-regulated HMG-CoA reductase activity than UFSE in hyperlipidemic rats, according to "Hypolipidemic effects of Monascus-fermented soybean extracts in rats fed a high-fat and -cholesterol diet" by Pyo YH, Seong KS.(78)

c. Post-menopausal effects
found that high-dose isoflavones is associated with improved QOL among women who have become menopausal recently. Hence, the timing of isoflavone supplementation with regards to the onset of menopause appears to be important. The use of isoflavones, as an alternative to estrogen therapy, may be potentially useful and seemingly safe in this group of women who are looking for relief from menopausal symptoms, according to "Effect of high-dose isoflavones on cognition, quality of life, androgens, and lipoprotein in post-menopausal women" by Basaria S, Wisniewski A, Dupree K, Bruno T, Song MY, Yao F, Ojumu A, John M, Dobs AS.(79)

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Sources
(64) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22027055
(65) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22269864
(66) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12499631
(67) http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf035354z
(68) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11726811
(69) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20420369
(70) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17923995
(71) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17562569
(72) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21375325
(73) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12710715
(74) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19932588
(75) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20136443
(76) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19631195
(77) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21861721
(78) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19697921
(79) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19411814