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Wednesday, 27 November 2013

Bronchiectasis (Respiratory Disease) – Complications

Respiratory Disease is defined as medical conditions, affecting the breathing organ and tissues including Inflammatory lung disease, Obstructive lung diseases, Restrictive lung diseases, Respiratory tract infections, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, the nerves and  muscles breathing , etc,.
Bronchiectasis
Bronchiectasis  is defined as a condition chracterized by the damage of the localized, irreversible dilation of part of the bronchial tree and the walls of the large airways of the lung as a result of the destruction of the lung muscles and elastic tissues. Bronchiectasis can be present alone, but in most cases, it is a disease coexisted with patient of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
D. Complications
1. Arterial stiffness (an indicator of increased CV risk), increased inflammation, reduced exercise capacity and bone thinning
In the study to investigate of a total of 20 patients with noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis and compare to 20 controls similar in age, gender and smoking exposure, found that  Patients with bronchiectasis had increased arterial stiffness (an indicator of increased CV risk), increased inflammation, reduced exercise capacity and bone thinning(28).
2. T Hemoptysis 
T Hemoptysis is a common complication of bronchiectasis. Patients with bronchiectasis complicated by primary hyperfibrolysis do not respond to regular treatment for hemoptysis, which may potential cause fatal consequences, according to the study by Department of Respiratory Diseases, Southern Medical University.(29).
3. Acute respiratory failure from bilateral broncholithiasis
There is a report of a case of acute airway obstruction secondary to bilateral broncholiths. Successful management was achieved with rigid bronchoscopy(30).
4. Endobronchial nocardiosis 
There is a report of a case of endobronchial nocardiosis associated with the presence of a broncholith(31).
5. Pneumonia
There is a report of  a 56-year-old woman visited our hospital in 2003 and right upper lobe pneumonia was detected with a calcified nodule that completely obstructed the right upper lobe bronchus on CT. After admission, she spontaneously expectorated a stone. The composition of the stone was 57% calcium phosphate and 43% calcium carbonate. Radiological findings and the composition of the stone suggested that this broncholith was calcified bronchial mucus rather than a calcified lymph node that might have perforated into the airway. Bronchiectasis of the right B3 broncus was observed on CT scan after lithoptysis. Although the bronchiectasis was unchanged 2 years later, she had no symptoms, such as fever or cough(32).
6. Etc.
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Sources
(28) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23129800
(29) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23076203
(30) http://journal.publications.chestnet.org/article.aspx?articleid=1078716
(31) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19350841
(32) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18318256