E.2. In herbal medicine perspective
1. Roots of Prismatomeris connata
The roots of Prismatomeris connata have been used in traditional herbal medicine to treat many health problems, particularly pneumoconiosis. According to the study by the University of British Columbia, natural compound PCON6 has relatively selective cytotoxicity against NSCLC growth and represent a concept of developing a novel drug therapy specific for NSCLC based on the roots of C. connata or PCON6(35).
2. Juglans mandshurica Maxim
Juglanthraquinone C (1,5-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone-3-carboxylic acid, JC), a naturally occurring anthraquinone isolated from the stem bark of Juglans mandshurica. Acording to the study by the Northeast Normal University, JC exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity of all compounds evaluated. Next, we used JC to treat several human cancer cell lines and found that JC showed an inhibitory effect on cell viability in dose-dependent (2.5-10 μg/ml JC) and time-dependent (24-48 h) manners(36).
3. Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz
Trichosanthin (TCS) is a type I ribosome-inactivating protein that is isolated from the root tubers of the Chinese medicinal herb Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz. According to the study by Zhejiang University School of Medicine, recent studies have demonstrated that TCS does indeed induce apoptosis in several tumor cell lines. Although TCS-induced apoptosis of tumor cell lines is now well known, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated(37).
4. Rheum officinale Baill.
Rheum officinale Baill. (Da Huang) is one of the herbs commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine formulae against cancer. According to the study by The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Da Huang water extract was found to have significant growth inhibitory effects on both A549 and MCF-7 cell lines with IC(50) values 620+/-12.7 and 515+/-10.1 microg/ml, respectively. Growth inhibitory effects were dose- and time-dependent. A significant decrease in cell number, DNA fragmentation and single DNA strand breakages were observed in the Da Huang water extract treated A549 and MCF-7 cells(38).
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