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Tuesday, 26 November 2013

Antioxidants and Phytochemicals and Asthma

Respiratory Disease is defined as medical conditions which affect the breathing organ and tissues including Inflammatory lung disease, Obstructive lung diseases, Restrictive lung diseases, Respiratory tract infections, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, the nerves and  muscles breathing , etc,.
I. Asthma 
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the air way of the lung with recurring symptoms, such as wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing. The disease affects people of all ages, and mostly starts during childhood. In the study of 463,801 children aged 13-14 years in 155 collaborating centres in 56 countries. Children self-reported, through one-page questionnaires, symptoms of these three atopic disorders. In 99 centres in 42 countries, a video asthma questionnaire was also used for 304,796 children, found that for asthma symptoms, the highest 12-month prevalences were from centres in the UK, Australia, New Zealand, and Republic of Ireland, followed by most centres in North, Central, and South America; the lowest prevalences were from centres in several Eastern European countries, Indonesia, Greece, China, Taiwan, Uzbekistan, India, and Ethiopia(1). In the United States, approximately, asthma affects 25 million people, 7 million of them are children.

E.2. Antioxidants and Phytochemicals to prevent asthma
1. Selenium
Although levels of Se intake have been hypothesized to play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. However, significant associations between Se status and prevalence or severity of asthma have not been consistently demonstrated in human studies, mouse models of asthma have provided more definitive results suggesting that the benefits of Se supplementation may depend on an individual’s initial Se status(54). But other suggested that Se intake and allergic airway inflammation are not related in a simple dose-response manner(55).

2.  Vitamin C and E
Free radical scavenger vitamin C and E intake are associated with the reduced risk of asthma. In a
of 452 children aged 3-6 years whom parents completed a questionnaire on the children’s and parents’ lifestyle and demographics, showed that children with high intakes of vitamins C and E may be associated with a reduced prevalence of asthma(56).
3. Vitamin D
Vitamin D (VD) inhibits the genesis of both Th1- and Th2-cell mediated diseases. The pleiotropic character VD-induced effects are due to the altered transcription of hundreds of genes. VD supplementation in most related studies reduced the prevalence of asthma(57).
4. Vitamin A and carotenoids and lycopene
Low serum levels of dietary antioxidants are associated with allergic diseases including asthma. In the study of 433 asthmatic schoolchildren and 537 healthy control subjects, between 6 and 18 years of age, conducted by the College of Science, King Saud University, showed that reduction of vitamin A in asthmatic children may have etiological implications for the disease(58). Other suggested that dietary supplementation or adequate intake of lycopene and vitamin A rich foods may be beneficial in asthmatic subjects(59).
5. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is one of component of catechin found abundantly in green tea. Purified EGCG included in vitro also suppressed IgE production, but at lower levels, compared with control. This study demonstrates that GTE and its major catechin, EGCG, have immunoregulatory effects on human IgE responses, according to the study by Royal Aberdeen Children’s Hospital Department of Child Health, University of Aberdeen(60).
6. Carotenoids
Carotenoids are fat soluble organic pigments of plants such as algae, some bacteria, and fungus. It generally cannot be manufactured by animals but have to acquired plants. Researchers at the University of Newcastle, New South Wales, showed that modifying the dietary intake of carotenoids alters clinical asthma outcomes. Improvements were evident only after increased fruit and vegetable intake, which suggests that whole-food interventions are most effective(61).
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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9643741
(55) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17709542
(56)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23021626
(57) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23234453
(58) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19728208
(59) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17654127
(60) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22670643
(61) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22854412