Human aging is a biological process, no one can stop, but delay it. It is possible that one person has a physiological younger than his or her biological if one engages in healthy living life style and eating healthily by increasing the intake of good healthy food such as whole grain, fruits, vegetables, beans and legumes, etc. and reducing the consumption of harmful foods, such as saturated fat, trans fat, artificial ingredients, etc.
II. Cardiovascular disease or hear diseases are the class of diseases that involve disorder of the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins),including coronary heart disease (heart attacks), cerebrovascular disease (stroke), raised blood pressure (hypertension), peripheral artery disease, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease and heart failure. Cardiovascular disease kills more than 2,000 Americans everyday and approximately 60 million Americans have heart disease.
Atherosclerosis is defined as a condition in which fatty material accumulated along the walls of arteries, leading to thickening or hardening of arterial walls result in blockage eventual of the arteries
a. Leg cramps during walking
Leg cramps during exercise might be caused by dehydration. It is important to drink a lot of fluid during exercise. Leg cramps occur when the muscle suddenly and forcefully contracts. The most common muscles to contract in this manner are muscles that cross two joints. Leg cramps during walking might be an indication of heart disease caused by arteries in your leg being clogged up by cholesterol in result of not enough oxygen being delivered to the cells in your leg. If this symptom persists, please consult with your doctor.
b. Chest pain
Chest pain is caused by blood vessels in the heart temporarily being blocked up. It is also caused by inadequate oxygen supply to the heart muscle or coronary . The persistence of chest pain would be an early indication of heart diseases.
c. Shortness of breath
Shortness of breath (dyspnea) is the major symptom of the left ventricular insufficiency. People with shortness of breath are four times more likely to die from a heart disease related cause than individuals without any symptoms.
People see sparkling zigzag lines or loss of vision before a migraine attack may be at particular risk of future cardiovascular problems. Generally headaches do not cause heart diseases but a sudden, explosive onset of great pain might be.
Dizziness can have many causes including low blood count, low iron in the blood stream and other blood disorders, dehydration, and viral illnesses. Since there are many different conditions that can produce these symptoms, anybody experiencing episodes of severe headaches or dizziness ought to be checked by your doctor.
Palpitations is an extremely common symptom of heart disease. Palpitations are skips in the heart beats and irregular heart beats.
h. Loss of consciousness
It is a common symptom, most people pass out at least once in their lives. However, sometimes loss of consciousness indicates a dangerous or even life-threatening condition such as heart disease so when loss of consciousness occurs it is important to figure out the cause.
2. Risk factors
b. Dyslipoproteinemia (unhealthy patterns of serum proteins carrying fats & cholesterol)
c. High serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
d. Low serum concentration of functioning high density lipoprotein (HDL)
e. An LDL:HDL ratio greater than 3:1
f. Tobacco smoking, increases risk by 200% after several pack years
h. Elevated serum C-reactive protein concentrations
i. Vitamin B6 deficiency
3. Free radicals and Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis develops as a result of oxidation of low-density lipoprotein molecules (LDL) or bad cholesterol by free radicals, including reactive oxygen species (ROS). As the oxidated LDL move in the blood stream and comes to contact and damage the arterial wall, the immune immune system by sending specialized white blood cells (macrophages and T-lymphocytes) to absorb the oxidized-LDL forming specialized foam cells. If the white blood cells can not process the oxidized-LDL, they ultimately grow then rupture thus depositing a greater amount of oxidized cholesterol into the artery wall that triggers more white blood cells, continuing the cycle. If the artery becomes inflamed, it causes cholesterol plaque buildup over the affected area, leading to narrowing of the artery that reduces the blood flow and increases blood pressure.
4. Antioxidants and Atherosclerosis
a. Bioflavonoids or vitamin P
Discovered by Szent-Gyorgyi and his colleagues back in the 1930`s. In Laboratory tests, B
bioflavonoids help to reduce the fragility and “permeability” in capillaries and prevent the clotting up of arterial as a result of oxidation.
b. Vitamins C and E, beta-carotene
Recent research findings have suggested that antioxidants such as vitamin C, E and beta carotene play an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Data from animal studies showed they are able to prevent oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins (LDL).
Alpha-tocopherol, a antioxidant found abundant in vitamin E, helps to decrease lipid peroxidation and platelet aggregation, adhesion and inflammatory. Epidemiological studies suggest that low levels of antioxidants are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease.
d. Vitamin C and E
Studies showed in take of 500mg of vitamin C and 400 IU of vitamin E helps to retard the progression of coronary atherosclersis.
Antioxidant chorophyll in the green algae shows to inhibit the chemical cadmium of smoking, by preventing from oxidation that cause building up of plaque along the walls of arteries.
Ischemia is defined as a condition of restriction or interruption of blood supply to the body organs, as a result of plague builds up in the arteries, causing damage or dysfunction of the arterial walls. 1. Symptoms
a. Irregular or rapid pulse
b. Abnormal heart palpitations
d. Reduced or excessive urine output
e. Difficulty breathing when you lay down
f. Leg swelling and weight gain from heart failure
g. Weakness ,fatigue and faintness
h. Chest pain.
2. Risk factors
Cigarette contains high levels of cadmium, inhaling the chemical during smoking or second hand smoke can cause building up of plaque along to the arterial walls as a result of oxidation.
Obesity increases the risk of ischemia as it is normally associated with high levels of cholesterol, high blood pressure.
A history of heart attack or coronary artery disease of a family, can increase the risk of ischemia to the members.
Hypertension can be inherited or bad diet with a lot of salts and aging. the disease can damage arteries that feed your heart by accelerating atherosclerosis.
e. High levels of cholesterol and triglyceride
High levels of bad cholesterols and triglyceride partial block the blood flow in the vessels, it not only increases the risk of high blood pressure but also the risk of ischemia if the blood circulation disimish.
Diabetes cause high levels of blood sugar in the blood stream which can cause the thinkening of the blood thus, reducing the blood flow to the body and increase the risk of blood being blocked.
3. Free radicals and ischemia
Researcher found that free radicals generated during oxidated stress through a series of interacting pathways in cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells and triggers subsequent leukocyte chemotaxis and inflammation is greatly increased in the post-ischemic heart and serves as a critical central mechanism of post-ischemic injury.
Nitric oxide (NO), one of the antioxidant and peroxynitrite can inhibit pathways of oxygen radical generation, and, in turn, oxidants can inhibit NO synthesis from NOS.
4. Antioxidants and ischemia
a. Nitric oxide (NO)
Nitric oxide (NO), one of the antioxidant and peroxynitrite can inhibit pathways of oxygen radical generation, and, in turn, oxidants can inhibit NO synthesis from NOS.
b. glutathione and vitamin E
Reduced form of glutathione may act as a first line of defense against oxidative stress during ischemia–reperfusion while vitamin E may act later on during severe oxidative stress by rendering resistance to the heart against the ischemic–reperfusion injury
c. 2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T)
Researcher found that in rat cardiac H9c2 cells, D3T and time-dependent induction of a number of cellular antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes, including catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH peroxidase, glutathione reductase (GR), GSH S-transferase (GST), and NADH:quinone oxidoreduc- tase-1 (NQO1) help to protect against H9c2 cell injury caused by various oxidants and simulated ischemia-reperfusion. D3T pretreatment also resulted in decreased intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen in H9c2 cells after exposure to the oxidants as well as simulated ischemia-reperfusion.
Deficiency of of a co-enzyme selenium, which is required in maintaining the glutathione redox cycle, also promote more susceptible to oxidative injure.
Diabetes is defined as a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.
1. Type I and Type II
a. Type I diabetes:
Type I diabetes is defined as a condition of a results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin.
b. Type 2 diabetes:
Type II diabetes is defined as a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency.
2. Types of type II diabetes
There are 3 different kinds of type II diabetes
1. If some of the cells in the pancreas die off, it can't produce enough insulin to regulate sugar in the blood stream, then we have type II diabetes that are caused by deficiency of insulin.
Today experts still don't know the causes of how pancreas cells die off, but they suspect that excessive alcohol drinking may be the factor. According to surveys, 70% of patients with type II insulin deficiency diabetes were heavy alcohol users.
2.If the pancreas produces enough insulin, but the receptor sites are clogged up by fat and cholesterol, causing insulin not being pick up at the cell from receptor sites, we have type II insulin sufficient diabetes.
Most cases of type II insulin sufficient diabetes are caused by uncontrolled diet that are high in saturated fat, smoking and excessive alcohol drinking.
3. If the pancreas also produces enough insulin, but allergic responses to certain foods cause resistance of cells to allow insulin to enter blood stream. In other words, if the cells of the muscle and liver resist to take up glucose from the blood causing high concentration of glucose in the blood stream, we have a case of type II insulin resistance diabetes. The foods creating this problem vary from person to person. Most people with type II insulin resistance diabetes seem to be precipitated by overweight, smoking and excessive alcohol drinking.
3. Symptoms of diabetes
Symptoms develop rapidly in type 1 diabetes while in type 2 diabetes they usually develop much more slowly, sometime with out symptoms at all in the early stage.
a. Frequent urination
b. Increased hunger
c. Increased thirst
d. Blurred vision
e. Erectile dysfunction
f. High blood pressure
g. vaginal yeast infections
2. Free radicals and diabetes Secondary condition
a. Endothelial dysfunction
ROS may alter endothelial function directly by causing the upregulation of adhesion molecules to platelets and leukocytes and decreasing the bioavailability of NO that promotes oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL), leading to diabetic vascular disease.
b. Diabetes mellitus
Inability in the regulation of peroxide and transition metal metabolism may result in the establishment of the disease as well as its longer term complications such as atherosclerosis, kidney and nerve damage as well as blindness.
c. Xanthine Oxidase
Xanthine Oxidase is a form of xanthine oxidoreductase that generates reactive oxygen species. Study showed that xanthine oxidase activity increases in type I diabetic animals and that this is a significant cause of the oxidative stress which occurs in the disease.
Alloxam can cause type I diabetes by destroying the islet of Langerhans in the pancreas as it gives rise to hydrogen peroxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals.
AGEs or advance glycation end products is produced by elevating levels of free radicals activity due to oxidative stress, causing the decrease of the elasticity of extracecullar compartment, impending the flow of nutrients and waste production.
3. Antioxidants and diabetes
Invitro and vivo study found that hydroxyl radical scavengers, metal chelation and fat soluble antioxidants inhibit the damage caused by Alloxam.
b. Vitamin E
Study also found that vitamin E can prevent the development of Alloxam induced diabetes by administrating butylated hydroxyanisole, an antioxidant consisting of a mixture of two isomeric organic compounds, 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole & 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole.
c. Vitamin C
Depress levels of vitamin C is found in diabestic. as we know vitamin C compete with glucose in transported in the cell via insulin. low levels of vitamin C also elevates sorbitol, leading to diabetic complication.
d. Alpha-lipoic acid
Alpha-lipoic acid beside lower the levels of blood sugar, it also destroys free radicals that help to reduces symptoms and complication caused by diabetes, including peripheral neuropathy.
IV. Lung diseases
Respiratory disease causes over 10% of hospitalizations and over 16% of deaths in Canada and refers to many disorders affecting the lungs, including lung diseases of pleural cavity, bronchial tubes, trachea, upper respiratory tract and the nerves and muscles of breathing.
a. A cough that doesn't go away and gets worse over time
b. Chest pain that doesn't go away
c. Pain or discomfort when breathing
d. Coughing up blood
e. Short of breath
g. Getting sick with pneumonia and bronchitis
h. Trouble breathing
i. Feeling tired
More than 80% of people who die from Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease are or were smokers.
Researchers found that with widespread use of surfactant increase the risk for chronic lung disease.
The risk is greatest for people who worked with asbestos and were exposed for at least several months to visible dust from asbestos fibers are the greatest risk for lung disease.
Poor nutrition, particularly low levels of antioxidants.
Occupations required to exposure to toxic chemicals, industrial smoke, dust, or other air pollutants.
Free Radicals and Lung disease
Free radicals and lung gave been put in depth studies since Lorrain Smith discovered high concentration of oxygen induced pulmonary congestion and developed symptoms of pneumonia in rodent. The implication of oxygen and air pollutants causes of free radical activity have become obvious as our lung is the only organs to take in oxygen from the atmosphere.
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is an inherited condition. Alpha-1 antitrypsin or AAT, is a protein made in the liver and an inherited condition. It helps to protect the the body' organ from from the harmful effects of other proteins. For what ever reason, but suspects caused by free radicals activity, the protein has been alter and no longer function as it should be, leading to a serious lung disease such as cirrhosis and Emphysema.
2. Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases
Asbestos-related lung diseases are diseases that develop from exposure to asbestos fiber which is a mineral. It cause lung diseases because of silicic acid dissolve from these minerals and highly reactive to oxidative species formed on the mineral surface and lysosomal enzymes are all contribute to Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases.
Asthma is defined as a condition of inflammatory disorder of the airway. Free radical is suspected as a causative factor as researcher found that high levels of lipid peroxidation in asthma patients if compared with non asthmatics.
Bronchiectasis is a condition in which damage to the airways of localized, irreversible dilation of part of the bronchial tree, as the surfaces of the bronchi develop areas of scarring, and the mucus producing glands become enlarged. Research found that the increase levels of hydrogen peroxide of patients with bronchiectasis in stable condition could be an indirect contribution of neutrophilic inflammation, impairment of lung function, and extension and severity of the disease.
Bronchitis is a condition of inflammation of the bronchial tubes. Researchers found that oxidative stress caused by increased free radical production enhances the inflammation already present, leading to a chain cycle of production of more free radicals and inflammation.
Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) which damages the the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. Researchers found that protease, the enzyme that dissolves protein which are kept in check by protease inhibitors, was strengthened by free radicals cause of increase action of the neuteolitic enzyme, resulting of destruction of protein, leading to emphysema.
Antioxidant and lung diseases
Lung diseases are inflammatory processes caused the generation of increased Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). The susceptibility of the lung to oxidative injury depends largely of the removal of free radicals before they cause cellular dysfunction and eventual cell death. All the antioxidants below are found in the epithelial lining fluid of the lung, by enhancing the present of these antioxidants will keep the lung strong and protect it from disease.
Glutathione found in the epithelial lining fluid not only plays an important role in reducing H2O2 but exceeds catalase in its capacity to eliminate additional varieties of toxic peroxides, such as lipid peroxides which is formed by free radical attack on polyunsaturated lipid membranes and products of lipooxygenase-catalyzed reactions.
2. Superoxide dismutase
Superoxide dismutase or SOD, an ubiquitous enzyme which can be found in the epithelial lining fluid, plays an important role in protecting aerobic cells against oxidative stress by catalyzing O · radicals to H2O2 that is accepted to be an antioxidant may possess prooxidant activity under certain conditions.
Catalase is a common enzyme found abundant in the epithelial lining fluid with primary function of catalyzing the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.
Ceruloplasmin exhibits a copper-dependent oxidase activity as it oxidates Fe2+ (ferrous iron) into Fe3+ (ferric iron).
Study suggest that transferrin may provide a source of iron for oxygen free radical-mediated endothelial cell injury and identify a novel mechanism by which endothelial cells may mediate the reduction and release of transferrin-derived iron. (Source)
Reseachers found that ascorbate is virtually nontoxic and used effectively to quench almost all unwanted free radicals and oxidants.
7. Vitamin E
Vitamin E plays an important role in protecting the fat molecules in cell membranes by preventing oxygen damage to the polyunsaturated fat molecules.
V. Liver diseases
Liver disease is defined as a broad term describing any single number of diseases affecting the liver, leading to liver inflammation or tissue damage and affects liver function. Beside forming part of immune system, it also converts nutrients into essential blood components, stores vitamins and minerals, etc.
Caused by anability of liver in breaking up of the hemoglobin of dead red blood cells, leading to increased levels of bilirubin in the system.
2. A coated tongue
Caused by liver congestion and acidity inside the body.
3. Itchy skin
As a result of toxins accumulation
4. Excessive sweating
As a result from liver congestion
5. Offensive body odor
6. The blood sugar problems
Including craving for sugar, hypoglycaemia and unstable blood sugar levels, and the onset of type 2 diabetes.
The below symptoms due damage to the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system can occur from chronic alcohol abuse cause of liver disease.
8. Mood changes
9. Anger and irritability
10. Poor concentration
The below symptoms due to damage to the kidney system from chronic liver disease.
11. Dark urine
12. Pale stool
Excessive drinking increases the risk of developing alcoholism, cardiovascular disease, malabsorption, chronic pancreatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and cancer. Studies found that dinking moderate amounts of alcohol consumption and decreased risks of stroke, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, and perhaps an overall decreased mortality rate. It also damages to the nervous system and peripheral nervous system and is capable of damaging every organ and system in the body.
2. Hepatitis B and C
Hepatitis B and C are viral infections that are most often spread through the exchange of unprotected sexual intercourse, bodily fluids, etc.
It can be passed from generation to generation.
Toxins accumulation can overwhelming the liver and cause of the liver cells causing inflammation.
Overdose of certain medication over a certain period of time can cause liver disease.
Free radicals and Liver disease
Reseachers found that both acute and chronic alcohol exposure can increase ROS damage or cause peroxidation of essential complex molecules in the cells, including lipid peroxidation, proteins, and DNA.
2. Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Researchers found that the free radical chain reaction not only succeeds in destroying a sufficient amount of membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids, but also give rise of poison shortly causing liver diseases.
High levels and chain free radicals reaction found in liver as a result of increased levels of 8-hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine which induces the alteration of normal pairing of DNA double helix.
Researchers found that inducing oxiadive stress reduces the liver function and glulathione levels but increases in the protein carbonyl levels, leading to protein oxidation.
5. Lipid peroxidation
Oxidative stress also increases the production of free radical by depleting the liver of its antioxidants.
6. Mitochondrial membrane
Excessive consumption can impair the permeability of mitochondrial membrane in the liver cell by depleting the levels of glutathione levels and increasing the rate of apoptosis.
Antioxidants and liver disease
1. Hepatitis C
Vitamin E is found to have a property of preventing fibrogenesis in patients with hepatitis C.
2. Glutamine and glycine
Glutamine and glycine found in liver help to protect liver cells from environmental toxins, drugs and alcohol as well as toxins produced by the body itself as a result of normal metabolism.
Thiols play a central cooperative role in the antioxidant network. Researcher found that in vivo study, reductases recycle disulfides to thiols, using NADH or NADPH, maintaining favorable oxidoreductive state in the cell and thiol conservation.
4. Synthesis free radical scavenger
In rat study with synthesis free radical reduces the levels of lipid peroxidation.
5. Alpha lipoic acid
Researcher found that alpha lipoic acid decrease the risk of liver disease when come under attacks from toxins and free radicals.
6. Alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD)
There are numbers of experimental data indicating that oxidative stress plays a role in the initiation and progression of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) while antioxidants limit or prevent it by scavenging free radicals before they can cause damage to DNA of liver cells.
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VI. Kidney diseases
Kidney diseases is defined as a health condition due to damage to the nephrons. this damage overtimes reduces the kidneys ability in waste removal, resulting in kidney failure or renal failure.
a. Burning or difficulty during urination
b. high blood pressure
d. Loss of appetite
e. Persistence of thirst
f. Weight loss
g. Pain in the small of the back just below the ribs
h. Frequent urination
i. Puffiness around the eyes, swelling of the hands and feet
2. Risk factors
Almost 40% of new dialysis patients have diabetes, making it the fastest growing risk factor for kidney disease. High levels of sugar in the bloodstream overtimes damage tiny blood vessels in the kidneys, resulting in resulting the kidney ability to filter the blood properly.
b. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
High Blood Pressure overtimes can cause damage of the blood vessels, leading to damage of the kidney blood vessels that reduces the function of kidney function of removing wastes and extra fluid from the body.
- c. Blockage of urinary tract system
- Blockage of urinary tract system due to birth defect or infection can cause the urine flow back to the kidney, resulting in kidney disease overtime.
- d. Painkillers
- Researchers found that heavy users of aspirin or paracetamol for a prolong period of time over 300 grams a year was linked to a condition known as small, indented and calcified kidneys (SICK).
Researcher found that syndrome of heroin-associated nephropathy presents with massive proteinuria and progresses rapidly supports the premise that heroin or its vehicles elicits immunologically mediated renal damage.
Several studies suggest that chronic inflammation can predispose advanced chronic kidney disease patients to a catabolic state leading to worsening of protein-energy wasting by both increasing protein breakdown and decreasing protein synthesis
g. Family History of Kidney Disease
If one or more family members in you family have CKD, are on dialysis, you are at higher risk.
h. Premature Birth
A study, published on November 19, 2008 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, links premature birth with a form of kidney disease. Some of these individuals may develop kidney problems later in life.
Kidney function is reduced with age, the older you are, the greater your risk.
j. Certain Diseases
Certain diseases such as lupus erythematosus, sickle cell anemia, cancer, AIDS, hepatitis C, etc. can increase the risk of kidney disease.
3. Free radicals and kidney diseases
The evidence of free radicals damage plays an important role in the pathogenesis of may kind of kidney disease. Researchers found that as we age, production of the levels of potent plutathione is reduced while reduced gluyathoine increased, leading to serious kidney disease compared with the younger population.
In other study, researchers also found that monocytes and neutrophils used by immune system in fighting against foreign invasion can cause damage to glomerulus in filtering out metabolic and waste.
4. Antioxidants and kidney diseases
Antioxiants play the essential role in assisting the body in reducing the risk of kidney disease. One study showed that catalase was able to reduce 75% of glomerular injure.
a. Vitamin E and probucol
In rat sudy, vitamin E and anti-hyperlipidemic drug probucol suppress MC proliferation and glomerular sclerosis in models of glomerular disease in rats study, that suggest antioxidants may be a promising intervention to prevent progression of kidney disease.
b. Dimethyl sulfoxide
A experiment with renal epithelial cells grown in culture with condition of which oxygen availability was greatly reduced then oxygen was reintroduced, leading to increased oxidative stress. When dimethyl sulfoxide was introduced, the level of oxidative stress was decreased.
c. Green tea
In same study, researcher found that antioxidants of green tea introduced also showed inhibition of oxidative stress.
Single-kidney hemodynamics and function at baseline and during vasoactive challenge were quantified using electron-beam computed tomography in pigs after 12 wk of experimental atherosclerotic renovascular disease (RVD) found that basal renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were similarly decreased in the stenotic kidney of both atherosclerotic renovascular disease (RVD) groups but significantly improved in RVD+Vitamins.
e. Chronic renal failure
In a study, patients with chronic renal failure who express the elevation of malonaldehyde, a depress levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low level of vitamin E were placed on a low protein diet, with amino and keto acids and vitamin A, C, E showed reversal afterward.
VII. Neurodegenrative diseases
Neurodegeneration is defined as a health conditions of the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons, including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s diseases due to genetic mutations, most of which are located in completely unrelated genes.
Common types of neurodegenrative diseases affected by free radicals
A. Alzheimer’s disease
B. Parkinson’s disease
C. Multiple sclerosis
D. Lou Gehrig's diseases
A. Alzheimer’s diseaseAlzheimer's disease is defined as a health condition of an irreversible, progressive brain disease that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, and eventually even the ability to carry out the simplest activity, due to the loss of neurons and synapses in the cerebral cortex and certain subcortical regions.
Early Alzheimer’s disease signs and symptoms
a. Loss of memory
b. Amnestic mild cognitive impairment
Mild Alzheimer’s disease symptoms
a. Getting lost
b. Trouble handling money
c. Paying bills
d. Taking longer to complete normal daily tasks
f. Repeating question
g. Poor judgment, and small
h. Mood and personality change
Moderate Alzheimer’s Diseasea. Loss of language control,
b. Loss of reasoning,
c. Loss of sensory processing, and
d. Loss of conscious thought.
e. Memory loss and
g. People begin to have problems recognizing family and friend
Severe Alzheimer’s Disease
People with severe Alzheimer’s cannot communicate and are completely dependent on others for their care.
2. Risk factors
Age is the most important risk factor. As we age, beside our body's ability to repair itself becomes less efficient, but also the accumulation of plague over the years has started affecting the functions of the brain due to cell death. The brain has reached the stage for the disease to occur. Over 1 in 20 Canadians over age 65 is affected by Alzheimer's disease.
b. Family history and Genetics
Although it happens to (5-7%) of the patience, but family history of certain genes mutation has caused the development of abnormal characteristics which associated with early onset Alzheimer's disease or Alzheimer's disease.
c. ApoE4 Gene
This gene is the most important genetic risk factor for the sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease. Since the ApoE genes regulate the production of a protein that helps carry cholesterol, but the inherited ApoE4 gene is associated with the high risk of the development of Alzheimer's disease.
d. Female Gender
Twice as many women get Alzheimer's disease than men, it may be due to female live longer than male. Other suggested that it is due to decline of production of estrogen and hormone replacement therapy.
e. Cardiovascular Disease
High blood pressure and cholesterol levels can contributed to plague building up in the brain cells. Strokes and mini-strokes can increase the risk of oxidation of the brain cells.
f. Oxidative stress
Oxidative stress is a significant cause in the formation of the disease.
g. Down Syndrome
People with trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) have an extra gene copy which exhibits Alzheimer's disease by 40 years of age.
3. Free radicals and Alzheimer’s disease
Free radicals causes Alzheimer’s disease is well defined in many researches. In a study of protein oxidation in the brain in Alzheimer's disease by using immunohistochemistry and two-dimensional fingerprinting of oxidatively modified proteins (two-dimensional Oxyblot) together to investigate protein carbonyl formation in the Alzheimer's disease brain, researchers found that oxidative stress-induced injury may involve the selective modification of different intracellular proteins may lead to the neurofibrillary degeneration of neurons in the brain. (source)
4. Antioxidants and Alzheimer’s disease
a. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
Researchers found that DHA increases phosphatidylserine, a naturally occurring component found in every cell membrane of the body and improves the memory of animals with Alzheimer's disease by suppressing oxidative damage in the brain.
b. Vitamin E
In a study, researcher found that vitamin E, and drugs that reduce generalized inflammation, may slow the decline of mental and physical abilities in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) over the long term. Also vitamin E inhibits cells damage and cells death caused by beta-amyloid, which is toxic to brain cells.
c. PhosphatidylserineIn one double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients who had Alzheimer’s disease who took 300 milligrams per day (mg/day) of phosphatidylserine scored significantly better on standardized memory tests at the end of the 12-week trial period than patients who received placebo.
Antioxidant are found at much lower levels for patients with Alzheimer’s disease, such as serum of vitamin A, C, E, zinc and transfferin.
e. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors
researchers found that Alzheimer’s disease patients exhibit the significant loss of muscarinic cholinergic receptors neurons that cause the reduced volume of neural transmission leading to the loss of memory.
B. Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease is defined as a health condition associated to the depletion of dopamine in the corpus striatum as a result of neuron loss in the substantianigra. The disease most often occurs in the middle age and beyond.
a. Tremble involuntarily.
b. Stiffness of the muscles
c. Tremor at rest
d. Spontaneous movements
e. Numbness, tingling, itchiness or discomfort of the neck or limbs
2. Rick factors
The levels of dopamine starts decline with age, but in some people it declines faster resulting in Parkinson's disease.
Although no one know why men are at higher risk than women to get PD but some researchers suspect it may be due to hormone estrogen which protects against the declining of dopamine neurons.
If one of your relative in direct family has or had PD, then your chances of getting PD are increased due to gene abnormality or alternation.
Excessive exposure to industrial toxic chemical toxin due to occupation or increase the risk of the development of Parkinson's disease. Researchers found that people who live in a rural agricultural area and used well water for drinking and cooking with heavily used of toxic chemicals were at risk to have higher rate.
Drugs not only damage our nervous system, they also increase the risk for PD as they contributes to the declining of dopamine producing neurons in the brain.
3. Free Radicals and Parkinson's disease
Researcher found that patients with Parkinson's disease have low levels of polyunsaturated fat in the substania nigra than other part of the brain, but higher levels of lipid peroxidation as indication of higher levels of malonaldehyde.
Also patients with the disease found to contain waste pigments of lipofusion and other polymers in the neurons where dopamine is most active.
4. Antioxidants and Parkinson's disease
Antioxidants play an vital role for patients with Parkinson's disease, as researchers found the prohression of the disease accompany with reduction of antioxidants in the affected parts of the brain.
a. Superoxide dismutase
Researcher found that the progression of the disease may be associated with the decrease levels of superoxide dismutase, a antioxidant enzyme.
b. NADH ubiquinone reductase
Researcher found that the levels of NADH ubiquinone reductase is decreased in the substania nigra due to its inhibitors, leading to apoptosis, but can be retreated with antioxidants Nacetylcysteine and alpha lipoic acid.
c. Uric acid
Researchers at the University of Hawaii recently reported that people with a high blood level of the natural antioxidant uric acid have a lower risk of developing Parkinson's disease than do people with lower levels, but high levels of uric acid increases the risk of kidney diseases and gout.
d. Vitamin C
Vitamin C is one of powerful and effective antioxidant in scavenging hydroxyl radicals as it enters the cerebrospinal fluid thus protecting against Parkinson's disease or slowing down the progression of the disease.
Researcher found that glutathoine is one of the antioxidant which can help to deactivate the harmful product HNE of lipid peroxidation.
C. Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis is an inflammation of central nervous system disease in which the fatty myelin sheaths around the axons of the brain and spinal cord are deterioted, leading to impair of prope conduction of nerve impulse.
1. Signs and Symptoms
a. Loss of sensitivity or tingling, pricking or numbness
b. Muscle weakness
c. Muscle spasms,
d. Difficulty in moving
e. Difficulties with coordination and balance
f. Speech problem
g. Problem swallowing
h. Visual problems
j. Acute or chronic pain
k. Problem in urination
l. Bowel difficulties
If one of the closed relative in the direct family family has multiple sclerosis, you are likely to get it. The disease has an overall familial recurrence rate of 20%.
b. Environment factor
b.1. Sunlight and vitamin D
Researcher found that people with decreased sunlight exposure has a higher risk of MS, as a result of decreased vitamin D production and intake.
Researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health reported that current and past smokers with multiple sclerosis were more than three times as likely as patients who had never smoked to have more rapid progression of their disease.
People with occupation with exposure to toxins are at high risk to get MS.
c. Autoimmune disease
Researcher found that MS may be be caused by immune system's attack on blood-brain barrier (BBB), entrance into the CNS, and recognition of the myelin basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid (PLP) induces the stripping of the protective coating of myelin and the eventual formation of plaques. These plaques or lesions can be found throughout the central nervous system, but are most prominently found in the white matter, optic nerve, brain stem, spinal cord, and cerebellum.
Evidence for viruses as a cause of MS, including the presence of immunoglobulins that can be seen when a patient's blood serum gained from blood plasma, is analyzed.
3. Free radicals and Multiple Sclerosis
a. The DeVine theory suggested that free radical activity is a contributory factors in MS, theory suggestive that immune system and free radical cooperation cause the generation of in the myelin itself that deteriorates the myelin shealts.
b. Cooper theory went on step further by suggested that free radicals actually initiate MS, by damaging the myelin, leading to initiating and promoting of activity of T-cells.
4. Antioxidants and Multiple sclerosis
Antioxidants can help protect the neural tissue from damage that reduce the risk of inflammation result in lessening the risk of oxidative stress.
An imflammatory cytokine has been associated with MS is inhibited by antioxidants of green tea, and others such as curcumin, quercetin, etc.
Melatonin functions as an antioxidant and has the ability to protect neurons from free radicals cause of lipid peroxidation.
Some studied found that the levels of selenium in the blood of people with MS was lower than in that of people without MS.
Niacin acts as antioxidant is a key to the successful treatment of multiple sclerosis, researchers at Harvard Medical School found that Niacin profoundly prevents the degeneration of demyelinated axons and improves the behavioral deficits.
e. Vitamin D
A study published in a recent issue of the journal Neurology, the group receiving the vitamin D demonstrated a remarkable 41 percent reduction in new MS events with no meaningful side effects.
D. Lou Gehrig's diseases
Lou Gehrig's diseases is defined as a condition of neurological disorders that selectively affect the motor neurones caused by the degeneration of neurons located in the two separate anatomical structures of the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex that provide activity of carrying nerve impulses from receptors to the central nervous system.
1.1. Initial Symptoms
a. Muscle weakness affecting an arm or a leg
b. Slurred and nasal speech.
c. Tripping or stumbling
d. Difficulty speaking clearly or swallowing
e. Loss of tongue mobility
f. Affect intercostal muscles that support breathing
g. Uncontrollable laughter, crying or smiling
1.2. Progressive symptoms
a. Unable to stand or walk
b. Unable to use their hands and arms
c. Unable to swallow and chew and eat normally
d. Mild problems with word-generation, attention, or decision-making
e. poor breathing
Some theories suggested that ALS is a result of the diminish of glutamate in the synapses, causing the build up of plague due to overflow of calcium into motor neurons.
b. Gene alternation
Gene alternation of superoxide dismutase enzyme will reduce the functions in catalyzing the dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide.
c. Genetic defect
An inherited genetic defect on the coding for superoxide dismutase (chromosome 21) is associated with approximately 20% of familial cases of ALS.
d. Environmental factors
Prolonged exposure to a dietary neurotoxin called BMAA (a neurotoxin found in the seeds of the cycad) produced by cyanobacteria is one suspected risk factor to cause ALS.
e. Toxic exposure
There is another epidemiologic association suggested a link of toxins and ALS.
f. Other theories have been proposed that may cause ALS, including autoimmune disorders, heavy metal poisoning, and even viral infection.
3. Free radicals and Lou Gehrig's disease
Researchers found that glutamate in the synapses enhances the production of free radicals compounds only in motor nerve cells but spares other nerve cells such as cells control senses and other body functions, causing to more production of free radicals and leading to disrupting of the surrounding support cells, called astrocytes, which regulate glutamate levels.
4. Antioxidants and Lou Gehrig's disease
a. Vitamin B12 (methylcobalamin)
Researcher found that high doses of vitamin B12 (25 mg) as an antioxidant have been shown to improve or slow muscle wasting in the later stages of patients with ALS disease.
b. Vitamin E
Vitamin E beside helps to protect cell membranes from lipid peroxidation damage that reduce the risk of breakdown of the cell membrane, causing ALS.
c. Superoxide dismutase enzyme
Research found that mutations in the superoxide dismutase enzyme can increase the risk ALS in catalyzing the dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide.
d. Cerebral cortex
Researcher found that oxidative protein damage and DNA alternation were found in elevating levels in the cerebral cortex of those with sporadic ALS.
e. Amino acids
study found that diet high in amino acids as antioxidants have shown some promising effect in treating ALS.
There are over 100 different forms of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and related autoimmune diseases. Arthritis is defined as a health condition with characteristics of redness, swelling, accompanied with pain and loss of function due to inflammation that occurs around the joint, damage to the joint.
There are 2 types of inflammation
a. Acute inflammation
Acute inflammation happened in a short period, the symptoms may only last for a few seconds but no longer in a few days due to increased blood flow, permeability of the and migration of neutrophils out of the venules and into interstitial spaces.
b. Chronic inflammation
Chronic inflammaory disease may persist over av long time days, months or years. In chronic inflammation, the system has gotten hung up, and instead of protecting the organism (our bodies) it starts to kill the organism, slowly but surely, leading to connective tissue become inflamed and swollen in the joints.
Depending to the types of conditions
a. Stiffness on awakening or after prolonged rest
b. Pain in a joint during or after use
c. Discomfort in a joint before or during a change in weather
d. Swelling and a loss of flexibility in a joint
e. Bony lumps (nodules) that develop on the end or middle joint of the fingers
f. Pain and swelling in the smaller joints of the hands and feet
g. Overall aching or stiffness, especially after sleeping or periods of motionlessness
h. Joints that are swollen, painful, and warm to the touch during the initial attack and ensuing flare-ups
i. nodules, or lumps, that most commonly occur near the elbow (but can occur anywhere)
a. Genetic or inherited
Although the cause of arthritis is not unknown, researchers suspect it may be caused by alternation of gene such as NOS2 or on the X chromosome that inherited from you parent.
Autoimmunity is a disorder of immune system has lost its sensitivity to differentiate the body cells and foreign invaders, as it begins to attack the cells of the body, leading to inflammation due to effects of free radicals.
Some theories suggested that wear and tear over the year may increase the risk of suffering of joint injuries such as people works in a job that puts daily stress on the joints, athletics, etc.
d. Bacterial or viral infections
Due to an abnormal immune response that destroys the body's own tissues - in the case of RA, the joints are the target.
Gout is caused by crystal deposits within the joints. 80% of gout sufferers are men. It is a medical condition usually characterized by recurrent attacks of acute inflammatory arthritis—a red, tender, hot, swollen joint due to elevating levels of uric acid in the blood which crystallize and are deposited in joints, tendons, and surrounding tissues.
3. Free radicals and Arthritis
Researchers found that rheumatoid joint fluid contains significant amounts hydroxyl radical. Its presence suggests a failure of the normal immune defense system within the joint as transferrin has no longer performed its normal function in chemicals binding, leading to inflammation.
Other study suggested that once the inflammatory condition is progressing, free radicals and the chain of free radicals reaction cause radicals occur in high numbers in the affected area, elevating the swelling and promoting degeneration as it becomes a cycle process.
4. Antioxidants and Arthritis
a. Vitamin C
Vitamin C beside is vital in restoring the antioxidants vitamin E in scavenging the free radicals before they can become harmful to the body, it also protects the capillaries by preventing them from breaking off, triggering an inflammatory reaction. Other study found that vitamin C also reduces the risk of cartilage loss and developing knee pain.
b. Vitamin E and fish oil
In genetically altered mice study, researcher found that diet included fish oil plus vitamin E significantly reduce the levels of inflammation by analyzing the pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the blood serum.
Since glucosamine, a compound of the simple sugar glucose and the amino acid glutamine, is a precursor for glycosaminoglycans, and they are a major component of joint cartilage. Study found that supplemental glucosamine may help to prevent cartilage degeneration and treat arthritis.
d. DLPA (dl- phenylalanine)
DLPA, a mixture of D-Phenylalanine and L-Phenylalanine, is a nutritional supplement amino acid. Researchers found that DLPA effectively reduces arthritis pain and joint inflammation in many patients.
e. Glucosamine and Methylsulfonylmethane
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study with osteoarthritis of the knee were given a combination of glucosamine and MSM, or placebo. After 12 weeks, the results suggested combination of MSM and glucosamine may improve arthritis symptoms as compared to placebo.
VIII. The immune system
1. Immune system and functioningAlthough immune system have done a great job in protecting us against foreign invasion, but unfortumately, during process od their functions, they may induce the production of free radicals and chain of free radicals that can be harmful to our body.
a. Red and white blood cells
During the process, the tissue of bone marrow of the long bone produce stem cells which will evolve into progenitor cells. This progenitor cells finally differentiate into white and redblood cells. While the red blood cells deliver oxygen (O2) and nutrients to the body tissues via the blood flow through the circulatory system, the white blood cells or leukocytes are cells of the immune system involved in defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials.
b. Thymus gland
The thymus gland a specialized organ form part of the immune system. It helps in the production and functioning of T-lymphocytes (T cells), which are critical cells of the adaptive immune system by providing an inductive environment for development of T-lymphocytes from hematopoietic progenitor cells. The thymus gland starts to shrink from the time when we was born and by age of 60, it had shriveled away to almost nothing.
Beside it is important to the functions of above, it also produced varies protein hormones, such as IL-2, is a protein manufactured by lymphocytes. Peripheral blood obtained from patients with chronic hepatitis B and viral infections responded to THF with increased production of IL-2. This suggests a possible antiviral role for this thymic hormone, and is one of the reasons we should replace thymic hormone as we pass the second decade.
c. Lymphatics system
The lymphatic system form part of the immune system comprising a network of conduits called lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph unidirectionally toward the heart. Beside having a function of removing interstitial fluid from tissues, absorbing and transporting fatty acids and fats from the circulatory system and transporting immune cells to and from the lymph nodes into the bones, it also enhances the immune system of the body by defending the body against the infections and spread of tumors due to its connective tissue with various types of white blood cells enmeshed in it, most numerous being the lymphocytes.
Spleen formed part of immune system, is imporant in the filtration process of removal of old or damaged red blood cells from the circulation and filters out bacteria of the blood. The immunological function of spleen in human body is looked after by the white pulp which consists of aggregates of lymphoid tissue. Abnormal function of spleen can result in enlarged organ due to its inability to perform function of removing of old or damaged red blood cells, leading to accumulation or trapping of red blood cells, causing major turmoils in immune system.
2. Types of free radicals utilized by Immune system
Free Radicals play an important role in the function of the Immune System. The immune systen produce free radicals to kill foreign microbes, but the production of free radical sometime can be excessive, leading to formation of a large number of free radicals that stimulate the formation of more free radicals, leading to even more damage, until they are brought to stop.
Nitric oxide can contribute to reperfusion injury if excessive amount produced during reperfusion and reacts with superoxide to produce the damaging oxidant peroxynitrite.
Superoxide is a compound that possesses the superoxide anion with the chemical formula O2−. It is biologically quite toxic and is deployed by the immune system to kill invading microorganisms produced in large quantities by the enzyme NADPH oxidase.
If over produce, superoxide may contribute to the pathogenesis of many diseases , such as radiation poisoning and hyperoxic injury and aging as aresult of oxidation.
Neutrophils, the phagocytes can internalize and kill microbes, but each phagocytic event causes the formation of a phagosome into which reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hydrolytic enzymes are secreted, leading to respiratory burst, resulting in activating the enzyme NADPH oxidase, which produces large quantities of superoxide.
d. Chain reaction
Since free radicals are caused by the body’s own natural processes by stealing oxygen electron from other cell, its chain effect result in production of even more free radicals. These aditional free radicals continue until they are stopped, leading to toxins, radiation, etc. that weakens the immune system.
3. How free radicals affect Immune system
There are many factors which affect immune system as we age. Hormone declining such as human growth hormone and Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are the major influences. In factor, some researchers suggested free radicals is one of major contribution to the declining of immune system.
The declining of the thymus function contributes a direct effect on the immune system due to diminish of quantity of T cells and immune factors.
b. Lipid peroxidation
Researchers found that lipid peroxidation are able to attack immune cells membrane, leading to the impediment of cells membrane activities, causing susceptibility diseases found in aging person.
c. NADHP oxidase
NADHP oxidase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase) is a membrane-bound enzyme complex found in the plasma membrane. Free radicals cause damage to membrane, leading to diminish of its function in fighting against foreign invasion.
Free radicals damage immune cells that affect the function of cytokines in transmitting intercellular signals, leading to many disease states and conditions ranging from major depression and Alzheimer's disease to cancer.
4. antioxidants and immune system
Enzyme antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase are best known to defense our body in fighting or scavenging against forming of free radicals by neutralizing them. Other antioxidants include
Zinc, as a antioxidant is essential mineral in ading immune system by enhancing the peoper function of T cells which belong to a group of white blood cells known as lymphocytes, in fighting against damaging free radicals.
Selenium is one of the powerful antioxidant. In the extracellular space, it helps to influence immune processes by proliferating the response to mitogen, and macrophages, leukotriene.
c. Vitamin A
vitamin A plays an essential roles in enhancing a broad range of immune processes, including lymphocyte activation and proliferation, T-helper-cell differentiation, the production of specific antibody isotypes and regulation of the immune response.
d. Vitamin C
Researchers found that vitamin C raised the concentration in the blood of immunoglobulin A, M that promotes the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear pathogens.
e. Vitamin E
In aged mice study showed that Vitamin E beside increased both cell-dividing and IL-producing capacities of naive T cells it also enhances the immune functions in association with significant improvement in resistance to influenza infection.
Carotenoids reduces oxidation damage to cells and protects LDL cholesterol from oxidation, thus reducing the risk of aging and chronic diseases caused by damaging free radicals.
Aging is a natural process, no one can stop but delay it. Over last 20+ years, researchers found that free radicals have played a majors role in the progression of aging process as they damage every cells of the whole body. One of the majoy cause of free radical is that of setting a chain reaction, if left unchecked, it can cause death of the cells, triggering the attack to the adjacent cells. At the middle age, due to weakened immune system, damage of body organs and reduced levels of antioxidants, our health is deteriorate and aging progressed at a fast rate, it is up to you to delay it by eating healthy, living a healthy style, exercise, etc. if you want to look younger than you biological age, live longer, healthier and diseases free.
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