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Monday, 4 November 2013

Antioxidants and Cancers

  Definition
Human aging is a biological process, no one can stop, but delay it. It is possible that one person has a physiological younger than his or her biological if one engages in healthy living life style and eating healthily by increasing the intake of good healthy food such as whole grain, fruits, vegetables, beans and legumes, etc. and reducing the consumption of harmful foods, such as saturated fat, trans fat, artificial ingredients, etc.


I. Cancer
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of abnormal growth of cells have become progressively worse as it intrudes upon and destroys adjacent tissues, sometimes spreads to other organs in the body via lymph or blood and results in death of the host.
A. Development of cancer
The development of cancer can be divided into three different stages
1. Initiation
Initiation is characteristic by irreversible mutation of DNA of a particular cell which does not undergo DNA repair (by enzymes) or undergoes faulty DNA repair, including gene deletion or insertion, gene slices, etc.

2. Promotion
In the promotion stage the mutation cells involve in uncontrolled growth and proliferation of mutated cells as it promotes the expression of its mutation gene and in its replication. In time these cells loose their normal abilities and just reproduce.

3. Progression
In the progression stage, the cancerous cells invade nearby tissues and migrate to other tissues via lymph or blood.

B. Antioxidants and cancer
Antioxidants are molecules capable of inhibiting the oxidation of other molecules to prevent damage by free radicals. Free radicals are unstable molecules due to lost of an electron. By maintaining the stable condition to itself, it causes oxidation to others that leads a chain of oxidation reaction, causing more free radicals being produced during the process, until they are brought to stop, causing alternation of DNA, resulting in possible development of cancer.
As we mentioned in the Antioxidants section above, there are many types of antioxidants
which search for free radicals and destroy them, thus preventing further damage to other cells, resulting in lessening the risk of the development of cancers.

C. Risk factors
1. Environment
Environmental exposures can promote the formation of free radicals, including sunshine, radiation, hormones, viruses, bacteria, air pollution, contaminated water and food, and chemical in the workplace, etc.

2. Lifestyle
Bad choices of lifestyle including cigarette smoking, excessive drinking, an unhealthful diet, lack of exercise, or sexual behavior can increase the risk of free radical causes of oxidation.
a. Diet
Although there is no specific guidance but studies show that consuming large quantities of red meat, preservative, and salt and less on vegetables and fruits increase the risk of stomach and colorectal cancers and calorie restriction has been shown to reduce cancer risk for several cancer types in experience in mice.
There are many healthy foods contained antioxidant which can help to reduce the risk of cancers, you can find over hundred of them in the link: healthy food indexb. Smoking
All types of tobacco smoking can cause a billion of oxyradicals within a single puff due to its carcinogens , free radicals and chemical, leading to a dozen types of cancer, including lung, mouth, bladder, colon, and kidney cancers. Chewing tobacco and snuff increase the risk of oral cancer, and second-hand smoke increases the risk of lung cancer.
c. Etc.

3. Heredity
Although it is only account 5% of diseases but in some cases, cancer is caused by an alternative gene that is being passed along from generation to generation, leading to increasing the risk of cancer, not the cancer itself.

4. Random gene change
Random gene change caused by exposing to a particular chemical which are accumulated in great amount as it passed along in cell division and replication can increase their risk for cancer.

5. Faulty Gene Repair Activities
Environmental exposures cause an unwanted molecule to bind to a gene, leading to the genes in faulty production of mutation of repair proteins in the gene repair activities that produce more alternation passing through from generation to generation. .

6. Medication
Some chemotherapy drugs used to treat cancer may increase the risk of second cancers later in life due to its suppression of the immune system in fighting against the forming of free radicals.

7. Etc.D. Colorectal cancers
Colorectal cancers is the second most common of the visceral cancer and defined as cancers in the digestive system that involve part of the large intestine (colon) and the last several inches of the colon. It starts as a benign noncancerous adenomatous polyps. As of progress through its stages, it can be cancerous.
1. Symptoms
The symptoms are always seen in abnormal bowel habits as changing in the consistency of stool for more than a couple of weeks as well as bleeding and blood in the stool.

2. Risk factors
a. Heredity
Heredity although is not common, but you are high risk to have colorectal cancer if your parent or your sibling had it.
b. Overweight
Study showed that people who are 40% overweight above the average have a 35% high risk to develop colorectal cancer.
c. Aging
Colorectal cancer increases the risk with age of over 50. It may be caused by declining function of digestive system in digestive food properly that put pressure to the large intestine.
d. Gender
Would it be true that men are likely to develop colorectal cancer than women?
e. Diet
Diets high in saturated and trans fat have been found to cause colon cancer due to low amount of fiber which are important in assisting the digestive system in waste removal.
f. Etc.

3. Free radical and colorectal cancer
Study showed normally cells stop in the cell division or replication cycles if DNA is damaged but if P53 protein is defective in many different types of cancer as a result of cells do not stop dividing when DNA is damaged, leading to genomic instability. Enterococcus faecalis is commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts produced extracellular superoxide and hydrogen peroxide free radical in some people. As the free radicals react to molecules, it cause alternation of colonic DNA and if the production become chronic, it may leading to cancers.

4. Antioxidant and colorectal cancer
a. Vitamin E
Study found that using the combination of vitamin E and pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate can stop the colorectal cancer cells by bringing in a chemical arrest the cancer cell activity.
b. Beta carotene
Study showed that beta carotene plays an important role to protect against normal crypt foci, benign and malignant tumors of rat in high fat and variable fiber diet.
c. Salicylic acid
Salicylic acid in fruit and vegetable can inhibit the risk of colorectal cancers.
d. Grape seed extract
Researcher found that antioxidant, proanthocyanidins found in grape seeds significantly inhibits growth of colorectal tumors in both cell cultures and in mice.
e. Etc.

E. Breast cancer
After skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States. The rate of breast cancer has fallen in recent years, may be due to public awareness and research funding. It is originating from breast tissue of the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk.
1. Symptoms
a. Lump or swelling in the armpit
b. Discharge from the nipple
c. Change in the size or shape of a breast
d. Changes to the skin over the breast
e. Inverted or retracted nipple
f. Crusting or scaling on the nipple
g. Pain in the nipple
h. Etc.

2. Risk factors
a. Heredity
Certain genes such as BRCA1 or BRCA2 have been identified to increase the risk of breast cancer.
b. Obesity
Obesity increases the risk in post menopause due to a lack of estrogen, progesterone and HER2 protein expression, while exercise reduce it. Women with over production of bad estrogen during the starting of menstrual cycle are susceptible to be a high risk of breast cancer.
c. Age
Risk of breast cancer for women have never given birth or had their first pregnancy after age 35.
d. Hormone
High levels of estradiol produced by a woman can increase the risk of breast cancer.
e. High fat diet
High fat diet can cause higher exposure to estrogen in fat tissue.
f. Etc.

3. Free radicals and breast cancer
Researcher found that he spread of breast cancer may be caused by damage of the suppression gene or activation of encogenes by hydroxyl free radicals as a result of metabolism from hydro peroxide, probably a by product of the cycling estrogen.
4. Antioxidants and breast cancer
a. Lycopene
Lycopene found abundant in cooked tomatoes as a powerful antioxidants counterbalances the detrimental oxygen free radicals before they can damage cellular structures in the breast as well as other types of cancer.

b. Vitamin A
Vitamin A plays an important role as an antioxidant as it scavenges free radicals by preventing them to become cancerous. including breast tissues but vitamin A have had mixed results in treating cancer according to W. Byers, Ph.D., a professor of oncology and cell biology at Georgetown's Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center as vitamin A may cause some breast cancer cells to form blood vessels brings up the rather disturbing notion that treatment with these drugs may actually stimulate tumor growth,"

c. Vitamin C
As an antioxidant and water soluble vitamin, vitamin C can be easily carry in blood and operate in much of the part of body. By restoring vitamin E, vitamin A and E helps to fight against forming of free radicals by balancing the levels of oxidants and antioxidants thus preventing DNA damage that lead to cancer development.

d. Vitamin E
It beside is important in protecting muscle weakness, repair damage tissues, lower blood pressure and inducing blood clotting in healing wound, etc, it also is one of powerful antioxidant, by moving into the fatty medium to prevent lipid peroxidation, resulting in lessening the risk of chain reactions by curtailing them before they can starts.

f. Coenzyme Q10
Coenzyme Q10 enhances energy production by promoting the process of the production of ATP then serving as fuel for the cells and acts an antioxidant to prevent the elevation of lipid peroxide concentration in the tissues, thus reducing the risk of breast cancer and other types of cancers.

g. Etc.

F. Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Prostate cancer usually grows slowly and can often be cured or managed successfully, however in the aggressive case, The cancer cells can spread from the prostate to other parts of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes
1. Symptoms
a. Painful or burning sensation in urination
b. Inability to urinate or difficulty in starting urine stream
c. Inability to empty bladder
d. Blood in urine
e. Continual pain in the lower back, pelvis or upper thighs
f. Frequent, urgent need to urinate
g. Erectile dysfunction
h. Problems during sexual intercourse
i. Etc

2. Risk factros
a. Age.
Risk of prostate cancer increases with age. it may be due to wear and tear or inability of the immune function in fighting against oxidation of the prostate cells.
b. Heredity
Genetic alternation genes may contribute to prostate cancer risk, as suggested by associations with race, family, and specific gene variants. Prostate cancer occurs about 60% more often in African American men than in white American.
c. Diet
Diet high in saturated and trans fat may be a contributing factor of prostate cancer, as the disease is much more common in countries where meat and dairy products are dietary staples.
d. Viral
In 2006, researchers found a Xenotropic MuLV-related virus or XMRV, with human prostate tumors.
e. Sexual transmitting diseases
Infection caused by infection with the sexually transmitted infections chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis seems to increase risk of prostate cancer.
f. Etc.

2. Free radical and prostate cancer
Prostate cancer involves a malignant tumor growth within the prostate gland. Recent study showed that chronic inflammation of the prostate gland and high free radical load contribute to DNA damage and genomic instability, leading to cancerous or benign tumors, due to oxidative stress provoked by toxins, dietary fat consumption, or high level of androgens, etc.. Cancerous tumours can grow through your prostate and spread to other parts of your body through the bloodstream or the lymph system, where they may grow and form secondary tumours.

3. Antioxidants and prostate cancer
a. Lycopene
In a randomized study, 15 of 26 men scheduled for radical prostatectomy for organ confined malignancy were given lycopene supplements, 15 mg twice a day for over the 3 weeks were found to have smaller volume tumors and surgical margins were less likely to be positive.
b. The manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)
The manganese superoxide dismutase MnSOD is the cells primary defense against free radical mediated damage by encoding an antioxidant enzyme (SOD2).
c. Vitamin C
Dr. J. Leuchaeur, who successfully works with prostate cancer patients, recommends as much as 60 grams (60,000mgs) per day for prostate cancer along with a Primitive Diet. This has been used as the entire prostate treatment as vitamin C helped to prevent the free radical damage that is associated with cancer.
d. Vitamin E
Vitamin E beside stops the production of ROS formed when fat undergoes oxidation, it also decreases incidence of prostate cancer.
e. Carotene
By strengthening growth regulatory signsls between cells and preventing damage prostate cells from reproducing and forming tumors.
f. Selenium and vitamin E
The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) is taking place in the United States, Puerto Rico, and Canada. SELECT is trying to find out if taking selenium and/or vitamin E supplements can prevent prostate cancer in men age 50 or older. by protecting cells from damage caused by unstable molecules.
g. Etc.

G. lung cancer
Lung cancer is a disease caused by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. This growth may lead to spreading of a disease from one part to another non-adjacent part of the body and responsible over 1 million deaths worldwide annually.

1. Symptoms
a. A cough that gets worse or doesn’t go await.
b. Constantly cough in a smoker or a former smoker should raise concern for lung cancer.
c. Breathing problems
d. Wheezing or hoarseness due to blockage or inflammation in the lungs
e. Constant chest pain, especially when you cough
f. Coughing up blood occurs in a significant number of people having lung cancer
g. Frequent chest infections, such as pneumonia, or an infection that doesn’t go away
h. Fatigue (feeling very tired all the time)
j. Unexplained weight loss
k. Etc.

2. Risk factors
a. Smoking
Cigarette contains over 60 difference chemicals which can cause cancers. Its nicotine appears to depress the immune response to malignant growths in exposed tissue. Second hand smoke can also be a cause of lung cancer in nonsmokers. Study showed that the risk of lung cancer also rise with the numbers of cigarette smoke daily.
b. Virus
Some virus such as human papillomavirus (by infecting in the stratified epithelium of the skin or mucous membranes), JC virus (causing immunodeficiency), simian virus (SV40) (a DNA virus that has the potential to cause tumors), BK virus (may cause immunocompromised and the immunosuppressed), and human cytomegalovirus(can be life-threatening for the immunocompromised) can cause lung cancer by affecting the cell cycle and inhibit apoptosis, that allow uncontrolled cell division.

c. Concentration of particles
Only 1% increase of concentration of particles increases the risk of developing a lung cancer by 14%.

d. Heredity
Some people have preposition to the certain diseases, including lung cancer.

e. Occupation
Occupation expose yourself in heavy metals, radiation, asbestos, pollutant environment can increase the risk of lung cancer.

f. Etc.

3. Free radical and lung cancer
As we mentioned in previous, one puff of cigarette cause countless numbers of free radicals and chain of uncontrolled free radical generation until it is brought to stop. Study found that smoking
a. Activates phagocytes, leading to additional oxidated stress,
b. Increases production of the aberrant 8-hydroxydioxy-guanine, leading to basal DNA damage to circulating lymphocypes and
c. Promotes tumor cell invasion and metastasis, due to other oxidants in the cigarette.

4. Antioxidant and lung cancer
Study from Finland is reported in the American Journal of Epidemiology in September 2002 found
a. Fruit and vegetable
A high fruit and vegetable intake reduced risk of lung cancer by 27 percent
b. Carotene and Lycopene
Eating foods contain high amount of carotene and lycopene decrease the risk of lung cancer by 28%.
c. Vitamin A
Higher blood levels of vitamin A reduced risk by 27 percent
Other studies found
d. Vitamin C
Smokers consumed less than 90mg of vitamin C are 1.5 time more likely to develop lung cancer compare to those taking 140 mg per day.
e. Vitamin C and E
Fruits and vegetable contains high amount of vitamin C and E reduce the risk of lung cancer development.
f. Etc.


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