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Saturday, 2 November 2013

4 Foods for Longevity and Diseases Free (I) - Green Tea

Over the years of research, 4 foods appeared mostly in medical studies in preventing and treating diseases, are Green Tea, Grape seed and skin, Turmeric and Soy. All Right Reserved.
I. Green Tea
Green tea contains more amount of antioxidants than any drinks or food with the same volume, and is the leaves of Camellia sinensis, undergone minimal oxidation during processing, originated from China. Green tea has been a precious drink in traditional Chinese culture and used exceptional in socialization for more than 4000 thousand years. Because of their health benefits, they have been cultivated for commercial purposes all over the world.
A. Quoted from the world most healthy foods
1. Antidepressant Properties
In the observation of the effects of Green tea consumption and psychological distress of the study of "Green tea consumption is associated with lower psychological distress in a general population: the Ohsaki Cohort 2006 Study" by Atsushi Hozawa, Shinichi Kuriyama, Naoki Nakaya, Kaori Ohmori-Matsuda, Masako Kakizaki, Toshimasa Sone, Masato Nagai, Yumi Sugawara, Akemi Nitta, Yasutake Tomata, Kaijun Niu, and Ichiro Tsuji, researchers found that The odds ratio (with 95% CI) of developing psychological distress among respondents who consumed ≥5 cups of green tea/d was 0.80 (0.70, 0.91) compared with those who consumed <1 cup/d and concluded that Green tea consumption was inversely associated with psychological distress even after adjustment for possible confounding factors(1). Others in the investigation of Green tea consumption and the risk of depressive symptoms of the study of "Green tea consumption is associated with depressive symptoms in the elderly" by Niu K, Hozawa A, Kuriyama S, Ebihara S, Guo H, Nakaya N, Ohmori-Matsuda K, Takahashi H, Masamune Y, Asada M, Sasaki S, Arai H, Awata S, Nagatomi R, Tsuji I., researchers found that the prevalence of mild and severe and severe depressive symptoms was 34.1% and 20.2%, respectively and concluded that a more frequent consumption of green tea was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in the community-dwelling older population(1a).

2. External Anogenital Warts
In the investigation of green tea catechins and external anogenital warts of the study of "Efficacy, safety and tolerability of green tea catechins in the treatment of external anogenital warts: a systematic review and meta-analysis" by Tzellos TG, Sardeli C, Lallas A, Papazisis G, Chourdakis M, Kouvelas D., researchers found that the efficacy of Polyphenon 15% and 10%, at least for the primary endpoint, is clearly indicated. Polyphenon E treatment exhibits very low recurrence rates and appears to have a rather favourable safety and tolerability profile(2). Others in the evaluation of Polyphenon E and external anogenital warts of the study of "Polyphenon E ( amixture of green tea catechins) a new treatment for external anogenital warts' by Tatti S, Stockfleth E, Beutner KR, Tawfik H, Elsasser U, Weyrauch P, Mescheder A.(2a), researchers found that severe local signs were more frequent but moderate in the active treatment groups (1.5%, 9.2% and 13.5% for G(Veh), G(10%) and G(15%) groups, respectively) and concluded that polyphenon E ointment is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of External genital warts(EGWs)(2a).

3. Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Related Brain Deficits
In the investigation of "Green Tea Compounds Beat OSA-Related Brain Deficits" by American Thoracic Society (ATS), researchers indicated that GTP-treated rats exposed to IH displayed significantly greater spatial bias for the previous hidden platform position, indicating that GTPs are capable of attenuating IH-induced spatial learning deficits," wrote Dr. Gozal, adding that GTPs "may represent a potential interventional strategy for patients" with sleep-disordered breathing(3).

4. Bad BreathIn the investigation of green tea extract on bad breath of the study of "The effect of green tea extract on the removal of sulfur-containing oral malodor volatiles in vitro and its potential application in chewing gum" by Zeng QC, Wu AZ, Pika J., researchers found that Adding 5% baking soda to green tea extract-containing chewing gum was found to buffer saliva pHs to 8.0 during 10 min of chewing. However, severe discoloration was observed and undesirable bitterness was perceived, most likely due to the polymerization of unencapsulated green tea polyphenols. Therefore, encapsulation of green tea extract is recommended for applications at elevated pHs(4). Others In the evaluation of the effect of green tea and mouth air of the study of "Effect of green tea on volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air" by Lodhia P, Yaegaki K, Khakbaznejad A, Imai T, Sato T, Tanaka T, Murata T, Kamoda T.[19b], researchers wrote that green tea was very effective in reducing oral malodor temporarily because of its disinfectant and deodorant activities, whereas other foods were not effective(4a).

5. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)a. In the determination of Green Tea-EGCG effects in HIV-1of the study of 'Green Tea-EGCG reduces GFAP associated neuronal loss in HIV-1 Tat transgenic mice" by Rrapo E, Zhu Y, Tian J, Hou H, Smith A, Fernandez F, Tan J, Giunta B., researchers found that that EGCG (300mg/kg/day) dramatically reduced astrogliosis as demonstrated by GFAP expression. This was accompanied by a mild reduction in activated microglia by Iba-1 staining and significant reduction in neuronal loss through apoptosis as demonstrated by MAP2 staining and Western blot analysis respectively(5). Others in examination of the effects of EGCG and HIV-1 proteins gp120 of the study of "EGCG mitigates neurotoxicity mediated by HIV-1 proteins gp120 and Tat in the presence of IFN-gamma: role of JAK/STAT1 signaling and implications for HIV-associated dementia" by Giunta B, Obregon D, Hou H, Zeng J, Sun N, Nikolic V, Ehrhart J, Shytle D, Fernandez F, Tan J. researchers found that EGCG treatment of primary neurons from normal mice reduced IFN-gamma-enhanced neurotoxicity of gp120 and Tat by inhibiting JAK/STAT1 pathway activation and found to mitigate the neurotoxic properties of HIV-1 proteins in the presence of IFN-gamma in vivo(5a).

6. Mental Alertness
In the evaluation of drinking green tea brings relaxation of the study of "L-theanine—a unique amino acid of green tea and its relaxation effect in humans" by Lekh Raj Juneja, Djong-Chi Chu, Tsutomu Okubo, Yukiko Nagato, Hidehiko Yokogoshi, researchers found that L-theanine administered intraperitoneally to rats reached the brain within 30 min without any metabolic change. Theanine also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain and decreased blood pressure significantly in hypertensive rats. In general, animals always generate very weak electric pulses on the surface of the brain, called brain waves(6). Others In the investigation of L-Theanine found abundantly in green tea as anxiety Reducer of the study of "The acute effects of L-theanine in comparison with alprazolam on anticipatory anxiety in humans" by Lu K, Gray MA, Oliver C, Liley DT, Harrison BJ, Bartholomeusz CF, Phan KL, Nathan PJ., the write wrote that while L-theanine may have some relaxing effects under resting conditions, neither L-theanine not alprazolam demonstrate any acute anxiolytic effects under conditions of increased anxiety in the AA model(6a).

7. Gastrointestinal diseases
In the evaluation of different doses of green tea extract and inflammatory bowel disease of the study of "Comparative evaluation of different doses of green tea extract alone and in combination with sulfasalazine in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in rats" by Byrav DS, Medhi B, Vaiphei K, Chakrabarti A, Khanduja KL.(7), researchers showed that green tea alone and in combination with sulfasalazine reduced inflammatory changes induced by tri nitro benzene sulfonic acid in rats(7). Others In the examination of the role of polyphenols in gastrointestinal diseases of the study of "Polyphenols and gastrointestinal diseases" by Dryden GW, Song M, McClain C., researchers erote that Substantial in-vitro and animal studies support the beneficial effects of polyphenols in many gastrointestinal diseases. Well designed multicenter trials in humans, such as those called for in the 2005 National Institutes of Health Requests for Applications for Silymarin Centers, will be critical for defining the safety, appropriate dosing and therapeutic efficacy of such agents(7a).

8. Immune system
In the investigation of the immunomodulatory effects of decaffeinated green tea extract in rain bow of the study of "Immunomodulatory effects of decaffeinated green tea (Camellia sinensis) on the immune system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)" by Sheikhzadeh N, Nofouzi K, Delazar A, Oushani AK., researchers found that showed that decaffeinated green tea in lower doses of administration could be optimum to enhance the immunity of rainbow trout(8). Others in the assessment of unregulated activity of these receptors could lead to autoimmune diseases and the effects of green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate of the study of "Green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, suppresses signaling by the dsRNA innate immune receptor RIG-I." by Ranjith-Kumar CT, Lai Y, Sarisky RT, Cheng Kao C., researchers found that EGCG and its derivatives could have potential therapeutic use as a modulator of RIG-I mediated immune responses by binding RIG-I and inhibits its signaling at low micromolar concentrations in HEK293T cells(8a).

9. Antimicrobial activities
In the investigation of Antimicrobial activities of green of the study of "Antimicrobial activities of tea catechins and theaflavins and tea extracts against Bacillus cereus" by Friedman M, Henika PR, Levin CE, Mandrell RE, Kozukue N., researchers found that flavonoids in green tea has exerted its ability in protective effects against Bacillus cereus(9). Others in the evaluation of green tea extracts (GTEs) and their effects in Antimicrobial activities of the study of "Antimicrobial activities of tapioca starch/decolorized hsian-tsao leaf gum coatings containing green tea extracts in fruit-based salads, romaine hearts and pork slices" by Chiu PE, Lai LS., reserachers found that coatings containing GTEs could successfully reduce the aerobic counting and growth of yeasts/molds by 1 to 2 log cycles in fruit-based salads(9a).

10. Periodontal healthIn the evaluation of Streptococcus mutans count in saliva and plaque, Salivary and plaque pH values, etc. and rinsing with green te of the study of "A pilot study of the role of green tea use on oral health" by Awadalla HI, Ragab MH, Bassuoni MW, Fayed MT, Abbas MO,, researchers found that the effectiveness of local application of green tea as antibacterial and anticariogenic material as it decreases the acidity of the saliva and plaque, so it is a cost-effective caries prevention measures especially in developing countries(10). Others in the observation of green tea polyphenols and its inhibition of the growth and cellular adherence of periodontal pathogens of the study of "Relationship between intake of green tea and periodontal disease" by Kushiyama M, Shimazaki Y, Murakami M, Yamashita Y.. researchers found that there is a modest inverse association between the intake of green tea and periodontal disease(10a).

11. Congitive Activities
In the evaluation of the effect of tea polyphenol (TP) on cognitive and anti-cholinesterase activity of the study of "Effects of green tea polyphenol on cognitive and acetylcholinesterase activities" by Kim HK, Kim M, Kim S, Kim M, Chung JH. researchers found that TP exhibited a dramatic inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase activity. This finding suggests that TP might be useful in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease(11). Others in rhe investigation of green tea catechin, induces HO-1 by ARE/Nrf2 pathway in hippocampal neurons in protection of neurons against different models of oxidative damages of the study of "Modulation of Nrf2/ARE pathway by food polyphenols: a nutritional neuroprotective strategy for cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders" by Scapagnini G, Vasto S, Abraham NG, Caruso C, Zella D, Fabio G., researchers found that caffeic acid phenethyl ester and ethyl ferulate, are also able to protect neurons via HO-1 induction. These studies identify a novel class of compounds that could be used for therapeutic purposes as preventive agents against cognitive decline(11a).

12. Neurodegernative diseases In the investigation of green tea catechins and neurodegenerative diseases of the study of "Targeting multiple neurodegenerative diseases etiologies with multimodal-acting green tea catechins" by Mandel SA, Amit T, Kalfon L, Reznichenko L, Youdim MB., researchers wrote that elaborates on the multimodal activities of green tea polyphenols with emphasis on their recently described neurorescue/neuroregenerative and mitochondrial stabilization actions(12). Others in the assessment of the efficacy of green tea polyphenols in neuroprotective actions of the study of "Cell signaling pathways in the neuroprotective actions of the green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate: implications for neurodegenerative diseases" by Mandel S, Weinreb O, Amit T, Youdim MB., researchers wrote that the currently established mechanisms involved in the beneficial health action and emerging studies concerning the putative novel molecular neuroprotective activity of green tea and its major polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)(12a).

13. Cholesterol
In the investigation of
theaflavin-enriched green tea extract in association with cholesterol levels of the study of "Cholesterol-lowering effect of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract: a randomized controlled trial" by Maron DJ, Lu GP, Cai NS, Wu ZG, Li YH, Chen H, Zhu JQ, Jin XJ, Wouters BC, Zhao J., researchers found that The theaflavin-enriched green tea extract is an effective adjunct to a low-saturated-fat diet to reduce LDL-C in hypercholesterolemic adults and is well tolerated(13). Others in the observation of the effect of green tea beverage and green tea extract on lipid changes of the study of "Green tea intake lowers fasting serum total and LDL cholesterol in adults: a meta-analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials" by Zheng XX, Xu YL, Li SH, Liu XX, Hui R, Huang XH., researchers found that the administration of green tea beverages or extracts resulted in significant reductions in serum TC and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, but no effect on HDL cholesterol was observed(13a).

14. Osteoporosis
In the examination of Osteoporosis and the effects of green tea of the study of "Green tea and bone metabolism' by Shen CL, Yeh JK, Cao JJ, Wang JS., researchers found that , tea and its bioactive components might decrease the risk of fracture by improving bone mineral density and supporting osteoblastic activities while suppressing osteoclastic activities(14). Others in investigation of Epidemiological evidence that has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of bone loss of the study of "Green tea and bone health: Evidence from laboratory studies" by Shen CL, Yeh JK, Cao JJ, Chyu MC, Wang JS., researchers found that there is a possible mechanisms for the osteo-protective effects of green tea bioactive compounds(14a)

15. Arthritis
In the investigation of Green tea and Arthritis of the study of "Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin 3-gallate in arthritis" by Ahmed S., researcher indicated that although these findings provide scientific evidence of the anti-rheumatic activity of EGCG, further preclinical studies are warranted before phase clinical trials could be initiated with confidence for patients with joint diseases(15). Others in the investigation of the efficacy of green tea extract (GTE) in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) of the study of "Green tea extract inhibits chemokine production, but up-regulates chemokine receptor expression, in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts and rat adjuvant-induced arthritis" by Marotte H, Ruth JH, Campbell PL, Koch AE, Ahmed S., researchers found that chemokine receptor overexpression with reduced chemokine production by GTE may be one potential mechanism to limit the overall inflammation and joint destruction in RA(15a).

16.  Stroke In the investigation of investigate the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on the permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB) of the study of "Effects of green tea polyphenols on caveolin-1 of microvessel fragments in rats with cerebral ischemia" by Zhang S, Liu Y, Zhao Z, Xue Y., researchers found that that GTPs can decrease the elevated BBB permeability in the ischemic region, and the protective effects for cerebral injury may be related to the reduced expression of caveolin-1 and phosphorylated ERK1/2(16). Others in the examination of Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate effects in neurological disorders including cerebral ischemia of the study of "Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate reduces matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity following transient focal cerebral ischemia" by Park JW, Hong JS, Lee KS, Kim HY, Lee JJ, Lee SR.[6b], researchers found that EGCG, a green tea polyphenol, may reduce up-regulation of MMP-9 activity and neuronal damage following transient focal cerebral ischemia. In addition to its antioxidant effect, MMP-9 inhibition might be a possible mechanism potentially involved in the neuroprotective effect of a green tea polyphenol, EGCG(16a).

17. Antioxidant Activity
In the investigation of l-Theanine is a unique amino acid in green tea effects on ethanol-induced liver injury of the study of "l-Theanine prevents alcoholic liver injury through enhancing the antioxidant capability of hepatocytes" by Li G, Ye Y, Kang J, Yao X, Zhang Y, Jiang W, Gao M, Dai Y, Xin Y, Wang Q, Yin Z, Luo L. researchers found that l-theanine significantly inhibited ethanol-induced reduction of mouse antioxidant capability which included the activities of SOD, CAT and GR, and level of GSH. These results indicated that l-theanine prevented ethanol-induced liver injury through enhancing hepatocyte antioxidant abilities(17). Others in the determination of Green and black tea polyphenols and their strong antioxidant activity of the study of "Bioavailability and antioxidant activity of tea flavanols after consumption of green tea, black tea, or a green tea extract supplement" by Henning SM, Niu Y, Lee NH, Thames GD, Minutti RR, Wang H, Go VL, Heber D.[5b], researchers concluded that green tea extract supplements retain the beneficial effects of green and black tea and may be used in future chemoprevention studies to provide a large dose of tea polyphenols without the side effects of caffeine associated with green and black tea beverages(17a).

18. Diabetes In the assesesment of the effect of green tea (GT) on diabetes-induced retinal oxidative stress and proinflammatory parameters in rats of the study of "Green Tea Prevents Hyperglycemia-Induced Retinal Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats" by Kumar B, Gupta SK, Nag TC, Srivastava S, Saxena R., researchers found that the beneficial effects of (GT) green tea suggest its potential role in the prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy in human subjects(18). Others in the evaluation of Abstract Tea (Camellia sinensis) effects in type II diabetes management of the study of "Anti-Hyperglycemia Properties of Tea (Camellia sinensis) Bioactives Using In Vitro Assay Models and Influence of Extraction Time" by.Ankolekar C, Terry T, Johnson K, Johnson D, Barbosa AC, Shetty K, researchers wrote that tea offers an attractive potential strategy to regulate postprandial hyperglycemia toward an overall dietary support for type 2 diabetes management(18a).

19. Weight Loss
 In the meta-analysis whether green tea indeed has a function in body weight regulation of the study of "The effects of green tea on weight loss and weight maintenance: a meta-analysis" by Hursel R, Viechtbauer W, Westerterp-Plantenga MS., researchers found that Catechins or an epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-caffeine mixture have a small positive effect on WL(weight loss) and WM(weight management) and suggested that habitual caffeine intake and ethnicity may be moderators, as they may influence the effect of catechins(19). Others in the investigation of the effect of a green tea-caffeine mixture on weight maintenance(VM) after body weight loss in moderately obese subjects in relation to habitual caffeine intake of the study of " Body weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to habitual caffeine intake and green tea supplementation" by Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Lejeune MP, Kovacs EM., researchers filed the conclusion that high caffeine intake was associated with weight loss through thermogenesis and fat oxidation and with suppressed leptin in women. In habitual low caffeine consumers, the green tea-caffeine mixture improved WM, partly through thermogenesis and fat oxidation(19a).

B. Quoted from Phytochemicals in Foods
B.1. Catechin is phytochemical of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in white tea, green tea, black tea, grapes, wine, apple juice, cocoa, lentils, etc.
1. Body-weight regulation
Green tea has been proposed as a tool for obesity management as strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance, as researchers found that a green tea-caffeine mixture improves weight maintenance, through thermogenesis, fat oxidation, and sparing fat free mass. The sympathetic nervous system is involved in the regulation of lipolysis, and the sympathetic innervation of white adipose tissue may play an important role in the regulation of total body fat in general, according to "Green tea catechins, caffeine and body-weight regulation" by Westerterp-Plantenga MS.(1)

2. Cholesterol
In a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating the relationship between GTCs and serum lipid levels, including total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides, found that the consumption of GTCs is associated with a statistically significant reduction in total and LDL cholesterol levels; however, there was no significant effect on HDL cholesterol or triglyceride levels, according to " Green tea catechins decrease total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a systematic review and meta-analysis" by Kim A, Chiu A, Barone MK, Avino D, Wang F, Coleman CI, Phung OJ.(2)

3. Anti liver cancer
In the examination ofthe effect of catechins on the antitumor efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX) in a murine model, found that tea catechins at non-toxic doses can augment DOX-induced cell killing and sensitize chemoresistant HCC cells to DOX. The chemosensitizing effect of catechins may occur directly or indirectly by reversal of multidrug resistance, involving the suppression of MDR1 expression, or by enhancement of intracellular DOX accumulation, involving inhibition of P-gp function, according to "Green tea catechins augment the antitumor activity of doxorubicin in an in vivo mouse model for chemoresistant liver cancer" by

Liang G, Tang A, Lin X, Li L, Zhang S, Huang Z, Tang H, Li QQ.

4. Antioxidant activity
In the research on polyphenolic compounds (included catechins) in the berries of edible honeysuckle and their biological effects, including recommended utilization, are reviewed found that These berries seem to be prospective sources of health-supporting phytochemicals that exhibit beneficial anti-adherence and chemo-protective activities, thus they may provide protection against a number of chronic conditions, e.g., cancer, diabetes mellitus, tumour growth or cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, according to "Phenolic profile of edible honeysuckle berries (genus lonicera) and their biological effects" by Jurikova T, Rop O, Mlcek J, Sochor J, Balla S, Szekeres L, Hegedusova A, Hubalek J, Adam V, Kizek R.(4)

5. Severe dyslipidemia
In the observation of three-month old ATX mice were treated, or not, for 3 months with the polyphenol (+)-catechin (CAT, 30 mg/kg/day) and compared to wild-type (WT) controls,
found that cctive remodeling of the cerebrovascular wall in ATX mice was further suggested by the increase (P<0.05) in pro-metalloproteinase-9 activity, which was normalized by CAT. We conclude that by preserving the endothelial function, a chronic treatment with CAT prevents the deleterious effect of severe dyslipidemia on cerebral artery wall structure and biomechanical properties, contributing to preserving resting cerebral blood flow, according to "Catechin prevents severe dyslipidemia-associated changes in wall biomechanics of cerebral arteries in LDLr-/-:hApoB+/+ mice and improves cerebral blood flow" by Bolduc V, Baraghis E, Duquette N, Thorin-Trescases N, Lambert J, Lesage F, Thorin E.(5)

6. Anti-inflammatory effect
In the preparation of the gel of Chinese medicine catechu, and to observe the release mechanism in vitro and anti-inflammatory activity in rats, found that the optimum condition of extraction from catechu was as follows, the concentration of ethanol, ratio of raw material to solvent, ultrasonic time, and extraction temperature were 50% , 1: 12, 35 min and 60 degrees C, respectively. The formulation of catechu gel was carbomer-9 400.5 g, glycerol 5.0 g, the extracts of catechu 50.0 mL, and triethanomine 0.5 mL The gel was semitransparent and stable. The drugs released quickly. The catechu gel reduced the paw edema considerably in dose-dependent manner compared to carrageenan-induced rat, according to "[Preparation and pharmacodynamics studies on anti-inflammatory effect of catechu gel].[Article in Chinese]" by Zheng X, Zheng C.(6)

7. Neuropathic pain
In the investigation of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin in green tea and its effect on intrathecal EGCG in neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation, found that This antinociceptive effect was reversed by intrathecal pretreatment with l-arginine, a precursor of NO. Intrathecal EGCG also blocked the increase in nNOS expression in the spinal cord of spinal nerve-ligated rats, but iNOS expression was not significantly suppressed. These findings suggest that intrathecal EGCG could produce an antiallodynic effect against spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain, mediated by blockade of nNOS protein expression and inhibition of the pronociceptive effects of NO, according to "Role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the antiallodynic effects of intrathecal EGCG in a neuropathic pain rat model" by Choi JI, Kim WM, Lee HG, Kim YO, Yoon MH.(7)

8. Cholesterol and glucose levels
In the examination of the effect of the main green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), taken in a green tea extract, Polyphenon E (PPE) and their effect on circulating hormone levels, an established breast cancer risk factor, found that Glucose and insulin levels decreased nonsignificantly in the PPE groups but increased in the placebo group; statistically significant differences in changes in glucose (P=0.008) and insulin (P=0.01) were found. In summary, green tea (400 and 800 mg EGCG as PPE; ~5-10 cups) supplementation for 2 months had suggestive beneficial effects on LDL cholesterol concentrations and glucose-related markers, according to "Effect of 2-month controlled green tea intervention on lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and hormonal levels in healthy postmenopausal women" by
Wu AH, Spicer D, Stanczyk FZ, Tseng C, Yang CS, Pike MC.(8)

9. Neuroprotective effects
In the evaluation the neuroprotective effects of theanine and catechins contained in green tea , found that the mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of theanine is related not only to the glutamate receptor but also to other mechanisms such as the glutamate transporter, although further studies are needed. One of the onset mechanisms for arteriosclerosis, a major factor in ischemic cerebrovascular disease, is probably the oxidative alteration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by active oxygen species. The oxidative alterations of LDL were shown to be prevented by tea catechins. Scavenging of *O(2)(-) was also exhibited by tea catechins. The neuroprotective effects of theanine and catechins contained in green tea are a focus of considerable attention, and further studies are warranted, according to "Neuroprotective effects of the green tea components theanine and catechins" by Kakuda T.(9)

10. Anti-obesity effects
In the elucidation of the anti-obesity effects of three major components of green tea, catechins, caffeine and theanine, female ICR mice, found that The body weight increase and weight of IPAT were significantly reduced by the diets containing green tea, caffeine, theanine, caffeine + catechins, caffeine + theanine and caffeine + catechins + theanine. Noticeably, the IPAT weight decreased by 76.8% in the caffeine + catechins compared to the control group. Serum concentrations of triglycerides (TG) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were decreased by green tea, catechins and theanine. Moreover, caffeine + catechins, caffeine + theanine and caffeine + catechins + theanine also decreased NEFA in the serum. The TG level in the liver was significantly reduced by catechins and catechins + theanine in comparison with the control, according to "Anti-obesity effects of three major components of green tea, catechins, caffeine and theanine, in mice" by Zheng G, Sayama K, Okubo T, Juneja LR, Oguni I.(10)

11. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
In the investigation of green tea's effect on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a constellation of progressive liver disorders, found that green tea is rich in polyphenolic catechins that have hypolipidemic, thermogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities that may mitigate the occurrence and progression of NAFLD. This review presents the experimental evidence demonstrating the hepatoprotective properties of green tea and its catechins and the proposed mechanisms by which these targeted dietary agents protect against NAFLD, according to"Therapeutic potential of green tea in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease" by Masterjohn C, Bruno RS.(11)

12. Age-related Neurodegeneration
In the identification of green tea (GT) and the effect of large amounts of brain-accessible polyphenols, found that the beneficial action of catechins in learning and memory with a particular focus on the hippocampal formation. We conclude that GT polyphenols can have a promising role in the reversal of age-related loss of neuronal plasticity and recovery after neuronal lesions associated with aging, according to "Protective Effects of Chronic Green Tea Consumption on Age-related Neurodegeneration" by Andrade JP, Assunção M.(12)

13. Anti-influenza virus activity
In the study of Polyphenolic compounds present in green tea, particularly catechins, and its effect on strong anti-influenza activity, found that therapeutic administration of green tea by-products via feed or water supplement resulted in a dose-dependent significant antiviral effect in chickens, with a dose of 10 g/kg of feed being the most effective (P < 0.001), according to "Anti-influenza virus activity of green tea by-products in vitro and efficacy against influenza virus infection in chickens" by Lee HJ, Lee YN, Youn HN, Lee DH, Kwak JH, Seong BL, Lee JB, Park SY, Choi IS, Song CS.(13)

14. Prostate Cancer
In the review of Prostate cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second most common cause of cancer deaths in American men indicated that epidemiological studies suggest that tea consumption has protective effects against a variety of human cancers, including that of the prostate. Laboratory and clinical studies have demonstrated that green tea components, specifically the green tea catechin (GTC) epigallocatechin gallate, can induce apoptosis, suppress progression, and inhibit invasion and metastasis of prostate cancer, according to "New Insights Into the Mechanisms of Green Tea Catechins in the Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer" by Connors SK, Chornokur G, Kumar NB.(14)

15. Breast cancer
In the developing a chronically induced breast cell carcinogenesis model to the exposure of non-cancerous, human breast epithelial MCF10A cells to bioachievable picomolar concentrations of environmental carcinogens, such as 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), to progressively induce cellular acquisition of cancer-associated properties, as measurable end points, found that green tea catechins (GTCs) , at non-cytotoxic levels, were able to suppress chronically induced cellular carcinogenesis by blocking carcinogen-induced ROS elevation, ERK activation, cell proliferation and DNA damage in each exposure cycle. Our model may help accelerate the identification of preventive agents to intervene in carcinogenesis induced by long-term exposure to environmental carcinogens, thereby safely and effectively reducing the health risk of sporadic breast cancer, according to "Green tea catechin intervention of reactive oxygen species-mediated ERK pathway activation and chronically induced breast cell carcinogenesis" by Rathore K, Choudhary S, Odoi A, Wang HC.(15)

16. Etc.

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B.2. Gallocatechin
Gallocatechin, containing catechin is phytochemicals of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in green tea, almonds, black diamond plums, black tea, cocoa beans, Fuji apples, golden delicious apple, etc.
1. Bone metabolism
In the investigation of three tea catechins, epigallocatechin (EGC), gallocatechin (GC), and gallocatechin gallate (GCG) for their effects on bone metabolism, found that EGC significantly inhibited osteoclast formations from RAW 264.7 cells upon receptor activation of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand induction on the fourth day of treatment, at a concentration of 10 microM. EGC also dose-dependently inhibited the mRNA expression of tatrate-resistant acid phosphatase. GC and GCG could decrease osteoclastogenesis at 20 microM. The present study illustrated that the tea catechins, EGC in particular, had positive effects on bone metabolism through a double process of promoting osteoblastic activity and inhibiting osteoclast differentiations, according to "Effects of tea catechins, epigallocatechin, gallocatechin, and gallocatechin gallate, on bone metabolism" by Ko CH, Lau KM, Choy WY, Leung PC.(1)

2. Antimetastatic effects
In the evaluation of the antimetastatic effects of P urinaria L extracts (PUE), containingpolyphenols including gallic acid, methyl gallate, epicatechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, gallocatechin-3-gallate, rutin, epicatechin-3-gallate, and naringin, found that PUE inhibits the transcription of MMP-2 mRNA. PUE also exerted an inhibitory effect on the DNA-binding activity and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and AP-1. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of PUE on the metastasis and growth of LLC cells in vivo were proven. These results indicate that PUE could be applied to be a potential antimetastatic agent, according to "Antimetastatic Potentials of Phyllanthusurinaria L on A549 and Lewis Lung Carcinoma Cells via Repression of Matrix-Degrading Proteases" by Tseng HH, Chen PN, Kuo WH, Wang JW, Chu SC, Hsieh YS.(2)

3. Anti skin cancer
In the determination of the effect of green tea catechins on the invasive potential of human melanoma cells and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using A375 (BRAF-mutated) and Hs294t (Non-BRAF-mutated) melanoma cell lines as an in vitro model, found that Inhibition of melanoma cell migration by EGCG was associated with transition of mesenchymal stage to epithelial stage, which resulted in an increase in the levels of epithelial biomarkers (E-cadherin, cytokeratin and desmoglein 2) and a reduction in the levels of mesenchymal biomarkers (vimentin, fibronectin and N-cadherin) in A375 melanoma cells. Together, these results indicate that EGCG, a major green tea catechin, has the ability to inhibit melanoma cell invasion/migration, an essential step of metastasis, by targeting the endogenous expression of COX-2, PGE(2) receptors and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, according to "Green tea catechins reduce invasive potential of human melanoma cells by targeting COX-2, PGE2 receptors and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition" by Singh T, Katiyar SK(3)

4. Antidiabetic activity
In the observation of Terminalia sericea stem bark extract and theirs effect against alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase enzymes, found that four known compounds namely beta-sitosterol (1), beta-sitosterol-3-acetate (2), lupeol (3), and stigma-4-ene-3-one (4), in addition to two inseparable sets of mixtures of isomers [epicatechin-catechin (M1), and gallocatechin-epigallocatechin (M2). 1 and 3 showed the best inhibitory activity on alpha-glucosidase (IC50:54.5 and 66.5 microM). Bio-evaluation of the inhibitory activity of the purified compounds on alpha-amylase showed that 3 and 1 exhibited IC50 values of 140.7 and 216.02 microM, respectively against alpha-amylase, according to "Antidiabetic activity of Terminalia sericea constituents" by Nkobole N, Houghton PJ, Hussein A, Lall N.(4)

5. Anti-uveal melanoma activity
In the study of the MeOH extract of Acacia nilotica pods, resulted in the isolation of the new compound gallocatechin 5-O-gallate in addition to methyl gallate, gallic acid, catechin, catechin 5-O-gallate, 1-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 1,6-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose and digallic acid, found that in addition to uveal melanoma, the antiproliferative activities of the isolated compounds and the related compound epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG) were evaluated against cutaneous melanoma, ovarian cancer, glioblastoma and normal retinal pigmented cells, according to "In vitro anti-uveal melanoma activity of phenolic compounds from the Egyptian medicinal plant Acacia nilotica" by Salem MM, Davidorf FH, Abdel-Rahman MH.(5)

6. Degenerative diseases
In the inestigation of whether green tea and its components can regulate the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation in pluripotent rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The rat MSCs were isolated from the bone marrow of tibiae and femora, found that among six tested tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin (EGC) was shown to be the most effective in promoting osteogenic differentiation. At 20 μM, EGC increased ALP levels and Ca deposition significantly by 2.3- and 1.7-fold, respectively, when compared with the control group. EGC also increased the mRNA expression of bone formation markers runt-related transcription factor 2, ALP, osteonectin, and osteopontin, according to "Pro-bone and antifat effects of green tea and its polyphenol, epigallocatechin, in rat mesenchymal stem cells in vitro" by Ko CH, Siu WS, Wong HL, Shum WT, Fung KP, San Lau CB, Leung PC.(6)

7. Antioxidants
In the identification of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and its important roles in the maintenance of cellular redox balance, found that Pretreatment with green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) effectively blocked peroxynitrite-induced glutathione depletion, p53 accumulation, and apoptosis in both normal and G6PD-deficient cells. EGCG, administered to cells alone or as pretreatment, caused activation of Akt. The protective effect was abolished by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors, wortmannin, and LY294002, according to "Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate protects cells against peroxynitrite-induced cytotoxicity: modulatory effect of cellular G6PD status" by Ho HY, Wei TT, Cheng ML, Chiu DT.(7)

8. Anti HIV
In the investigation of Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most abundant catechin in green tea and its effect on HIV-1, found that EGCG appears to act mainly as an allosteric reverse transcriptase inhibitor with mechanisms different from those of currently approved NNRTIs that directly interact with the NNRTI binding pocket. Thus, EGCG is a good candidate for use as an additional or supportive anti-HIV agent derived from natural plants, according to "Epigallocatechin gallate inhibits the HIV reverse transcription step" by Li S, Hattori T, Kodama EN.(8)

9. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities
In the evaluation of the radioprotective efficacy of green tea polyphenols and the component ingredients against irradiated-induced damage in mice and elucidate the underlying mechanisms, found that Moreover GTP and its bioactive components (catechin, epigallocatechin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate) assisted in decreasing the leukocytopenia seen after whole mice irradiation and significantly reduced the elevated serum inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6). Green tea polyphenols have a potential to be developed as radioprotective agents against irradiated-induced toxicity. Furthermore the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of GTP can be attributed to the interaction of the different components through multiple and synergistic mechanisms, according to "Bioactive components from the tea polyphenols influence on endogenous antioxidant defense system and modulate inflammatory cytokines after total-body irradiation in mice" by Hu Y, Guo DH, Liu P, Cao JJ, Wang YP, Yin J, Zhu Y, Rahman K.(9)

10. Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects
In the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effect of nanocatechin on CBP and plasma concentration of catechins in an animal model, found that the use of ciprofloxacin, catechin, and nanocatechin showed statistically significant decrease in bacterial growth and improvement in prostatic inflammation compared with the control group. The nanocatechin group showed statistically significant decrease in bacterial growth and improvement in prostatic inflammation compared with the catechin group. Plasma concentrations of epicatechin, gallocatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate were significantly higher in the nanocatechin group than those in the catechin group. These results suggest that nanocatechin has better antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects on rat CBP than catechin due to higher absorption into the body, according to "Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of nanocatechin in a chronic bacterial prostatitis rat model" by Yoon BI, Ha US, Sohn DW, Lee SJ, Kim HW, Han CH, Lee CB, Cho YH.(10)

11. Ultraviolet B irradiation protection
In the investigation of the protective effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the immune function of dendritic cells (DCs) after ultraviolet B irradiation (UVB), found that the inhibition rate of DCs was improved to some extent after treatment with 200 microg/mL of EGCG. UVB showed no significant influence on the secretion of IL-10 and IL-12 from DCs, while EGCG was able to down-regulate the secretion level of IL-12 and up-regulate that of IL-10, according to "Protective effect of epigallocatechin gallate on the immune function of dendritic cells after ultraviolet B irradiation" by Jin SL, Zhou BR, Luo D.(11)

12. Antiviral effect
In the identification of tea polyphenols were evaluated for their ability to inhibit enterovirus 71 (EV71) replication in Vero cell culture, found that The viral inhibitory effect correlated well with the antioxidant capacity of polyphenol. Mechanistically, EV71 infection led to increased oxidative stress, as shown by increased dichlorofluorescein and MitoSOX Red fluorescence. Upon EGCG treatment, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was significantly reduced. Consistent with this, EV71 replication was enhanced in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient cells, and such enhancement was largely reversed by EGCG, according to "Antiviral effect of epigallocatechin gallate on enterovirus 71" by Ho HY, Cheng ML, Weng SF, Leu YL, Chiu DT.(12)

13. Neuroprotective effect
In the research of beta-Amyloid (Abeta) peptide, a major component of senile plaques has been regarded to play a crucial role in the development and neuropathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), found that EGCG may have preventive and/or therapeutic potential in AD patients by augmenting cellular antioxidant defense capacity and attenuating Abeta-mediated oxidative and/or nitrosative cell death, according to" Neuroprotective effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate against beta-amyloid-induced oxidative and nitrosative cell death via augmentation of antioxidant defense capacity" by Kim CY, Lee C, Park GH, Jang JH.(13)

14. Etc.


B.3. Epicatechin
Epicatechin, containing catechins, is phytochemicals of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in kola nut, tea and grapes, etc.
1. Testosterone
In the study of the effects of catechins on testosterone secretion in rat testicular Leydig cells (LCs) both in vivo and in vitro, found that Catechins increased plasma testosterone in vivo in male rats. In vitro, low-dose concentration of catechins increased gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH) release by anterior pituitary gland and hCG-stimulated testosterone release by LCs of male rats, according to "Effects of catechin, epicatechin and epigallocatechin gallate on testosterone production in rat leydig cells" by Yu PL, Pu HF, Chen SY, Wang SW, Wang PS(1)

2. Insulin Resistance
In the study of increased plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) are associated with profound insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and may also play a critical role in the insulin resistance of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, found that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and curcumin treatment reduce insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) Ser307 phosphorylation, and curcumin is more potent to increase Akt phosphorylation in TPA induction. Moreover, we found that after 5 h of palmitate incubation, epicatechin gallate (ECG) can suppress IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation and significantly promote Akt, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and AMP-activated protein kinase activation. With a longer incubation with palmitate, IRS-1 exhibited a dramatic depletion, and treatment with EGCG, ECG, and curcumin could reverse IRS-1 expression, Akt phosphorylation, and MAPK signaling cascade activation and improve glucose uptake in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells, according to "Suppression of Free Fatty Acid-Induced Insulin Resistance by Phytopolyphenols in C2C12 Mouse Skeletal Muscle Cells" by Deng YT, Chang TW, Lee MS, Lin JK.(2)

3. Genoprotective effects
In the determination of what effects could trigger the effects of epicatechin gallate (ECG) in C6 cells, found that ECG as a dose-dependent genoprotective compound in C6 astroglial cells. This indicates that small doses of polyphenols included in our diet could have beneficial effects on neural cells, contributing to prevention of oxidative stress-associated brain pathologies. In addition, our data highlight the importance of strictly modulating doses and/or consumption of antioxidant-fortified foods or additional supplements containing such beneficial molecules, according to "Genoprotective effects of the green tea-derived polyphenol/epicatechin gallate in C6 astroglial cells' by Abib RT, Quincozes-Santos A, Zanotto C, Zeidán-Chuliá F, Lunardi PS, Gonçalves CA, Gottfried C.(3)

4. Colon cancer
In the identification of the anticarcinogenic effects of the flavanols epicatechin (EC), epicatechin-gallate (ECG) and procyanidin B2 (PB2) on Caco-2 and SW480 colon cancer cells, found that the different cytotoxicity of flavanols is caused by their different activity and the degree of differentiation of the colon cancer cell line. Thus, ECG induced apoptosis in SW480 cells and contributed to the cytotoxic effect, whereas ECG enhanced the antioxidant potential in Caco-2 cells. PB2 activated cell proliferation and survival/proliferation pathways in SW480 cells, accoridng to "Dietary flavanols exert different effects on antioxidant defenses and apoptosis/proliferation in Caco-2 and SW480 colon cancer cells" by
Ramos S, Rodríguez-Ramiro I, Martín MA, Goya L, Bravo L.(4)

5. Anti cancer
In the demonstration of the ability of monomeric and dimeric flavanols in scavenging reactive nitrogen species derived from nitrous acid, found that epicatechin was transferred across the jejunum of the small intestine yielding metabolites, its nitroso form was not absorbed. Dimer B2 but not epicatechin monomer inhibited the proliferation of, and triggered apoptosis in, Caco-2 cells. The latter was accompanied by caspase-3 activation and reductions in Akt phosphorylation, suggesting activation of apoptosis via inhibition of prosurvival signaling, according to "The reaction of flavanols with nitrous acid protects against N-nitrosamine formation and leads to the formation of nitroso derivatives which inhibit cancer cell growth" by Lee SY, Munerol B, Pollard S, Youdim KA, Pannala AS, Kuhnle GG, Debnam ES, Rice-Evans C, Spencer JP.(5)

6. Antioxidants
In the evaluation of evaluate the antioxidant response of colon-derived Caco2 cells to dietary flavanols, found that Flavanols ( epicatechin (EC), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and procyanidin B2 (PB2)) protect Caco2 cells against an induced oxidative stress and subsequent cellular death by reducing ROS production and preventing caspase-3 activation. In particular, PB2 increases the activity of antioxidant/detoxification enzymes and thus protects Caco2 cells by directly counteracting free radicals and also by activating the antioxidant defence system, according to "Comparative effects of dietary flavanols on antioxidant defences and their response to oxidant-induced stress on Caco2 cells" by Rodríguez-Ramiro I, Martín MA, Ramos S, Bravo L, Goya L.(6)

7. Hepatitis C virus
In the investigation of the polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and and its derivatives, epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), and epicatechin (EC), as an inhibitor of HCV entry, found that treatment with EGCG directly during inoculation strongly inhibited HCV infectivity. Expression levels of all known HCV (co-)receptors were unaltered by EGCG. Finally, we showed that EGCG inhibits viral attachment to the cell, thus disrupting the initial step of HCV cell entry and concluded that the green tea molecule, EGCG, potently inhibits HCV entry and could be part of an antiviral strategy aimed at the prevention of HCV reinfection after liver transplantation, according to "The green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, inhibits hepatitis C virus entry" by Ciesek S, von Hahn T, Colpitts CC, Schang LM, Friesland M, Steinmann J, Manns MP, Ott M, Wedemeyer H, Meuleman P, Pietschmann T, Steinmann E.(7)

8. Genotoxic effects
In the evaluation of the potential cytotoxic and prooxidative effects of green tea extract and its two main flavonoid constituents epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG) on human laryngeal carcinoma cell line (HEp2), found that the cytotoxicity of EGCG and ECG increased with the time of incubation. Green tea extract induced lipid peroxidation in the CK2 cell line. The pro-oxidant effect of green tea was determined at concentrations higher than those found in traditionally prepared green tea infusions, according to "Genotoxic effects of green tea extract on human laryngeal carcinoma cells in vitro" by Durgo K, Kostić S, Gradiški K, Komes D, Osmak M, Franekić J.(8)

9. Anti inflammatory properties
In the comparison of anti-tumoral properties of EGCG on human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells PancTu-I, Panc1, Panc89 and BxPC3 and the effects of two minor components of green tea catechins, catechin gallate (CG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG), found that all three catechins inhibited proliferation of PDAC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Interestingly, CG and ECG exerted much stronger anti-proliferative effects than EGCG. Western blot analyses performed with PancTu-I cells revealed catechin-mediated modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins (cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases [CDK], CDK inhibitors). Again, these effects were clearly more pronounced in CG or ECG than in EGCG-treated cells, according to "Epicatechin gallate and catechin gallate are superior to epigallocatechin gallate in growth suppression and anti-inflammatory activities in pancreatic tumor cells" by Kürbitz C, Heise D, Redmer T, Goumas F, Arlt A, Lemke J, Rimbach G, Kalthoff H, Trauzold A.(9)

10. Breast cancer
In the identification of an inverse association between the risk of breast cancer and the intake of green tea has also been reported in Asian Americans, found that Nude mice inoculated with human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and treated with GTP and EGCG were effective in delaying the tumor incidence as well as reducing the tumor burden when compared to the water fed and similarly handled control. GTP and EGCG treatment were also found to induce apoptosis and inhibit the proliferation when the tumor tissue sections were examined by immunohistochemistry, according to "Green tea polyphenols and its constituent epigallocatechin gallate inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo" by Thangapazham RL, Singh AK, Sharma A, Warren J, Gaddipati JP, Maheshwari RK.(10)

11. Blastocysts
In the analyzing the cytotoxic effects of epicatechin gallate (ECG), a polyphenol extract from green tea, on the blastocyst stage of mouse embryos, subsequent embryonic attachment, and in vitro and in vivo outgrowth implantation after embryo transfer, found that Blastocysts treated with 50 microM ECG exhibited a significant increase in apoptosis and a corresponding decrease in total cell number. Importantly, the implantation success rate of blastocysts pretreated with 50 microM ECG was lower than that of controls, and in vitro treatment with 50 microM ECG was associated with increased resorption of post-implantation embryos and decreased fetal weight, according to "Epicatechin gallate decreases the viability and subsequent embryonic development of mouse blastocysts" by Tu HC, Chen CP, Chan WH.(11)

12. Prostate cancer
In the examination of the HGF/c-Met pathway, an important regulator of signaling pathways responsible for invasion and metastasis of most human cancers, found that EGCG could act both by preventing activation of c-Met by HGF and by attenuating the activity of pathways already induced by HGF. HGF did not activate the MAPK and PI3-K pathways in cells treated with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (mCD) to remove cholesterol. Furthermore, subcellular fractionation approaches demonstrated that only phosphorylated c-Met accumulated in Triton X-100 membrane insoluble fractions, supporting a role for lipid rafts in regulating c-Met signaling. Finally, EGCG treatment inhibited DiIC16 incorporation into membrane lipid ordered domains, and cholesterol partially inhibited the EGCG effects on signaling, according to "The polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate affects lipid rafts to block activation of the c-Met receptor in prostate cancer cells" by Duhon D, Bigelow RL, Coleman DT, Steffan JJ, Yu C, Langston W, Kevil CG, Cardelli JA.(12)

13. Periodontal disease
in the investigation of IL-6 is well recognized to be a potent bone resorptive agent and thus in the development of periodontal disease, found that EGCG, ECG, and TFDG prevented TNFSF14-mediated IL-6 production in HGFs. EGCG, ECG, and TFDG prevented TNFSF14-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear factor-kappaB activation in HGFs. Inhibitors of ERK, JNK, and nuclear factor-kappaB decreased TNFSF14-induced IL-6 production. In addition, EGCG, ECG, and TFDG attenuated TNFSF14 receptor expression on HGFs, according to "Tea polyphenols inhibit IL-6 production in tumor necrosis factor superfamily 14-stimulated human gingival fibroblasts" by Hosokawa Y, Hosokawa I, Ozaki K, Nakanishi T, Nakae H, Matsuo T.(13)

14. Glucose tolerance
In the investigation of the benefit of green tea extract (GTE) consumption in effecting prolonged postprandial hyperglycemia, a detrimental factor for type 2 diabetes and obesity, found that the gallated catechin when it is in the circulation elevates blood glucose level by blocking normal glucose uptake into the tissues, resulting in secondary hyperinsulinemia, whereas it decreases glucose entry into the circulation when they are inside the intestinal lumen. These findings encourage the development of non-absorbable derivatives of gallated catechins for preventative treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity, which would specifically induce only the positive luminal effect, according to "Ambivalent role of gallated catechins in glucose tolerance in humans: a novel insight into non-absorbable gallated catechin-derived inhibitors of glucose absorption" by Park JH, Jin JY, Baek WK, Park SH, Sung HY, Kim YK, Lee J, Song DK.(13)

14. Etc.

B.4. Epigallocatechin
Epigallocatechin, including catechins, is a phytochemical of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in green tea, St John wort, black Tea, carob flour, Fuji apples, etc.
1. Anti-Breast Cancer Activities
In the testing the hypothesis that administration of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenol present in abundance in widely consumed tea, and its inhibition of cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis in breast cancer, found that treatment with combination of radiotherapy and EGCG feeding for 2-8 weeks to in vitro cultures of highly-metastatic human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells resulted in the following significant changes: (1) suppression of cell proliferation and invasion; (2) arrest of cell cycles at the G0/G1 phase; (3) reduction of activation of MMP9/MMP2, expressions of Bcl-2/Bax, c-Met receptor, NF-κB, and the phosphorylation of Akt. MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to 5-10 µM EGCG also showed significant augmentation of the apoptosis inducing effects of γ-radiation, concomitant with reduced NF-κB protein level and AKT phosphorylation, according to "Anti-Cancer Activities of Tea Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate in Breast Cancer Patients under Radiotherapy" by Zhang G, Wang Y, Zhang Y, Wan X, Li J, Liu K, Wang F, Liu Q, Yang C, Yu P, Huang Y, Wang S, Jiang P, Qu Z, Luan J, Duan H, Zhang L, Hou A, Jin S, Hsieh TC (1)

2. Anti cancers
In the review and outline the wide range of mechanisms by which epigallocatechin gallate (ECGC) and other green and black tea polyphenols' inhibition of cancer cell found that EGCG reduced dihydrofolate reductase activity, which would affect nucleic acid and protein synthesis. It also acted as an aryl hydrocarbon receptor an-tagonist by directly binding the receptor's molecular chaperone, heat shock protein 90. In conclusion, green and black tea polyphenols act at numerous points regulating cancer cell growth, survival, and metastasis, including effects at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels, according to "Mechanisms of cancer prevention by green and black tea polyphenols" by Beltz LA, Bayer DK, Moss AL, Simet IM.(2)

3. Anti-atherosclerotic effects
In the localization and target sites of tea catechins underlying their biological activity including anti-atherosclerotic activity, found that ECg could suppress the gene expression of a scavenger receptor CD36, a key molecule for foam cell formation, in macrophage cells. These results, for the first time, showed the target site of a tea component ECg in the aorta and might provide a mechanism for the anti-atherosclerotic actions of the catechins, according to "(-)-Epicatechin gallate accumulates in foamy macrophages in human atherosclerotic aorta: implication in the anti-atherosclerotic actions of tea catechins" by Kawai Y, Tanaka H, Murota K, Naito M, Terao J.(3)

4. Inflammatory effects
In the determination of the up-regulated expressions of IL-8 or PGE(2) in Streptococci or PAMP-stimulated HDPF were inhibited by catechins, (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). In TLR2 ligand-stimulated HDPF, found that catechins might be useful therapeutically as an anti-inflammatory modulator of dental pulpal inflammation, according to "Tea catechins reduce inflammatory reactions via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in toll-like receptor 2 ligand-stimulated dental pulp cells" by Hirao K, Yumoto H, Nakanishi T, Mukai K, Takahashi K, Takegawa D, Matsuo T.(4)

5. Cardiovascular diseases
In the identification of green tea catechins and its lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseases, found that green tea catechins, particularly (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, interfere with the emulsification, digestion, and micellar solubilization of lipids, critical steps involved in the intestinal absorption of dietary fat, cholesterol, and other lipids. Based on the observations, it is likely that green tea or its catechins lower the absorption and tissue accumulation of other lipophilic organic compounds, according to "Green tea as inhibitor of the intestinal absorption of lipids: potential mechanism for its lipid-lowering effect" by Koo SI, Noh SK.(5)

6. Antiviral activities
In the observation of Catechin derivatives including (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and green tea extract (GTE) and theirs inhibition of the activities of cloned human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT), duck hepatitis B virus replication complexes reverse transcriptase (DHBV RCs RT), herpes simplex virus 1 DNA polymerase (HSV-1 DNAP) and cow thymus DNA polymerase alpha (CT DNAP alpha, found that GCG exerts a mixed inhibition with respect to external template inducer poly (rA).oligo (dT) 12-18 and a noncompetitive inhibition with respect to substrate dTTP for HIV-1 RT. Bovine serum albumin significantly reduced the inhibitory effects of catechin analogues and GTE on HIV-1 RT. In tissue culture GTE inhibited the cytopathic effect of coxsackie B3 virus, but did not inhibit the cytopathic effects of HSV-1, HSV-2, influenza A or influenza B viruses, according to "[The inhibitory effects of catechin derivatives on the activities of human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase and DNA polymerases].[Article in Chinese]" by Tao P.(6)

7. Metabolic syndrome
In the investigation of Tea catechins, including the gallate esters of catechins, (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). in reducing serum cholesterol concentrations and suppressing postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia in experimental animals and humans, found that tea catechins and heat-treated tea catechins with the galloyl moiety improve lipid metabolism and contribute to the prevention of the metabolic syndrome, according to "Multifunctional effects of green tea catechins on prevention of the metabolic syndrome" by Ikeda I.(7)

8. Cognitive effects
in the examination of examined whether long-term administration of green tea catechins [Polyphenon E (PE): 63% of epigallocatechin-3-gallate, 11% of epicatechin, 6% of (-)-epigallocatechin and 6% of (-)-epicatechin-gallate] prevents cognitive impairment in an animal model of AD, rats infused with Abeta1-40 into the cerebral ventricle, found that rats with preadministered PE had higher ferric-reducing antioxidation power of plasma as compared with the Vehicle group. Our results suggest that long-term administration of green tea catechins provides effective prophylactic benefits against Abeta-induced cognitive impairment by increasing antioxidative defenses, according to "Green tea catechins prevent cognitive deficits caused by Abeta1-40 in rats" by Haque AM, Hashimoto M, Katakura M, Hara Y, Shido O.(8)

9. Cholesterol
In the examination of the influence of green tea extract, epicatechin (EC), epicatechin galate (ECG) as well as epigallocatechin galate (EGCG) on oxidative modifications of LDL of human blood serum, found that Catechins and green tea abilities to protect lipophilic antioxidant--alpha-tocopherol against oxidation have been also examined. The results reveal that peroxidation of LDL is markedly prevented by green tea extract and in a slightly weaker way by catechins (EGCG in particular), which is manifested by a decrease in concentration of conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, MDA, dityrosine and by an increase in tryptophan content, according to "The comparison of effect of catechins and green tea extract on oxidative modification of LDL in vitro" by Ostrowska J, Skrzydlewska E.(9)

10. Anti diabetes
In the observation of the effect of tea catechins (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epicatechin (EC)) on markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and membrane -SH group) in erythrocytes from type 2 diabetics, found that tea catechins protect erythrocytes from t-BHP-induced oxidative stress, the effect being more pronounced in diabetic erythrocytes. The relative effectiveness of individual catechins are in the order of EGCG>ECG>EGC>EC. 7. We hypothesise that a higher intake of catechin-rich food by diabetic patients may provide some protection against the development of long-term complications of diabetes, according to "Protective role of tea catechins against oxidation-induced damage of type 2 diabetic erythrocytes" by Rizvi SI, Zaid MA, Anis R, Mishra N.(10)

11. Antioxidants
In the evaluation of the effects of the main polyphenolic components extracted from green tea leaves, i.e. (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and gallic acid (GA), against free radical initiated peroxidation of human low density lipoprotein (LDL), found that The antioxidative action of the green tea polyphenols includes trapping the initiating and/or propagating peroxyl radicals with the activity sequence EC>EGCG>ECG>EGC>GA for the AAPH initiated peroxidation, and reducing the alpha-tocopheroxyl radical to regenerate alpha-tocopherol with the activity sequence of ECG>EC>EGCG>EGC>GA and ECG>EGCG>GA>EC>EGC for the AAPH-initiated and BP-photosensitized peroxidations respectively, according to "Antioxidative effects of green tea polyphenols on free radical initiated and photosensitized peroxidation of human low density lipoprotein" by Liu Z, Ma LP, Zhou B, Yang L, Liu ZL.(11)

12. Etc.


B.5. Theaflavin
Theaflavin with reddish in color, is a phytochemical of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), formed in tea leaves during fermentation.
1. Skin cancer
In the investigation of the tumor-inhibiting property of black tea polyphenol, theaflavin, found that The treatment of theaflavin downregulated the gelatinolytic activity, mRNA and protein expression of MMP-2. It reduced the mRNA and protein expression of membrane type-1 MMP (MT1-MMP) and induced mRNA and protein expression of tissue inhibitor of MMP-2 (TIMP-2), suggesting theaflavin's inhibitory effect on MMP-2 activation. Theaflavin reduced the binding of A375 cell to ECM ligands demonstrating that theaflavin treatment hinders cell-ECM adhesion, cell motility, and integrin-mediated MMP-2 activation, according to "Black tea polyphenol (theaflavin) downregulates MMP-2 in human melanoma cell line A375 by involving multiple regulatory molecules" by Sil H, Sen T, Moulik S, Chatterjee A.(1)

2. Anti cancers
In the review of anti-tumor p53 functions by dietary plant polyphenols particularly black tea and its active component theaflavins, by dietary plant polyphenols particularly black tea and its active component theaflavins has gained immense recognition from the point of view of both efficacy and safety, indicated that the review discusses about the possible role of theaflavin-p53 cross talk in targeting CSCs. Such attempts to target the complexities of p53 functions during neogenesis will be of immense help in developing a "new" strategy for successful cancer prevention and therapy by theaflavins, according to "Operation 'p53 Hunt' to combat cancer: Theaflavins in action" by Mohanty S, Adhikary A, Chakrabarty S, Sa G, Das T.(2)

3. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activities
In the investigation of the role of theaflavin, a polyphenol substance extracted from black tea, in attenuating acute I/R injury in a fatty liver model, found that theaflavin significantly diminished the ROS production of steatotic hepatocytes and TNF-α production by LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and concluded that theaflavin has protective effects against I/R injury in fatty livers by anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic mechanisms, according to "Theaflavin attenuates ischemia-reperfusion injury in a mouse fatty liver model" by
Luo XY, Takahara T, Hou J, Kawai K, Sugiyama T, Tsukada K, Takemoto M, Takeuchi M, Zhong L, Li XK.(3)

4. HIV-1 infection
In the investigation of the mechanism by which TFmix inhibits HIV-1 infection was investigated using time-of-addition, found that TFmix is an economic natural product preparation containing high content of theaflavins with potent anti-HIV-1 activity by targeting the viral entry step through the disruption of gp41 6-HB core structure. It has a potential to be developed as a safe and affordable topical microbicide for preventing sexual transmission of HIV, according to "A natural theaflavins preparation inhibits HIV-1 infection by targeting the entry step: Potential applications for preventing HIV-1 infection" by Yang J, Li L, Tan S, Jin H, Qiu J, Mao Q, Li R, Xia C, Jiang ZH, Jiang S, Liu S.(4)

5. Cholesterol
In the investigation of 240 men and women 18 years or older on a low-fat diet with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia were randomly assigned to receive a daily capsule containing theaflavin-enriched green tea extract (375 mg) or placebo for 12 weeks, found that after 12 weeks, the mean ± SEM changes from baseline in total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglyceride levels were -11.3% ± 0.9% (P = .01), -16.4% ± 1.1% (P = .01), 2.3% ± 2.1% (P = .27), and 2.6% ± 3.5% (P = .47), respectively, in the tea extract group. The mean levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides did not change significantly in the placebo group. No significant adverse events were observed, according to "Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of a Theaflavin-Enriched Green Tea Extract" by David J. Maron, MD; Guo Ping Lu, MD; Nai Sheng Cai, MD; Zong Gui Wu, MD; Yue Hua Li, MD; Hui Chen, MD; Jian Qiu Zhu, MD; Xue Juan Jin, MS; Bert C. Wouters, MA; Jian Zhao, PhD.(5)

6. Parkinson's disease
In the assessment of the effect of theaflavin against MPTP/p induced neurodegenaration in C57BL/6 mice, found that theaflavin attenuates MPTP/p induced apoptosis and neurodegeneration as evidenced by increased expression of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT) and reduced apoptotic markers such as caspase-3, 8, 9 accompanied by normalized behavioral characterization. This may be due to anti oxidative and anti apoptotic activity, according to "Theaflavin, a black tea polyphenol, protects nigral dopaminergic neurons against chronic MPTP/probenecid induced Parkinson's disease" by Anandhan A, Tamilselvam K, Radhiga T, Rao S, Essa MM, Manivasagam T.(6)

7. Antioxidant effects
In the investigation of four main TF derivatives (theaflavin (TF(1)), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF(2)A), theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF(2)B), and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF(3))) in scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro, their properties of inhibiting superoxide, singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and the hydroxyl radical, and their effects on hydroxyl radical-induced DNA oxidative damage, found that compared with (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), TF derivatives were good antioxidants for scavenging ROS and preventing the hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage in vitro. TF(3) was the most positive in scavenging hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical, and TF(1) suppressed superoxide. Positive antioxidant capacities of TF(2)B on singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and the hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage in vitro were found, according to "Evaluation of the antioxidant effects of four main theaflavin derivatives through chemiluminescence and DNA damage analyses" by Wu YY, Li W, Xu Y, Jin EH, Tu YY.(7)

8. Antibacterial effects
in the evaluation of the antibacterial effects of various concentrations of theaflavin as well as combinations of theaflavin and epicatechin, using the disk diffusion assay, found that strong antibacterial activity of theaflavin against eight clinical isolates of S. maltophilia and A. baumannii. Significant synergy (P≤0.05) was also observed between theaflavin and epicatechin against all isolates, according to "Antibacterial effects of theaflavin and synergy with epicatechin against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia" by Betts JW, Kelly SM, Haswell SJ.(8)

9. Gastric ulcer healing
In the investigation of black tea (BT) and its constituent theaflavins (TFs) during their healing action against indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration in mice, found that Treatment with BT (40 mg/kg) and TF (1 mg/kg) for 3 days reversed these parameters and provided excellent (78-81%) ulcer healing. However, alterations of NOS expressions and levels of selectins and CAMs were only partially responsible for the excellent healing capacity (∼80%) of omeprazole (3 mg/kg × 3 days), according to "Black tea and theaflavins suppress various inflammatory modulators and i-NOS mediated nitric oxide synthesis during gastric ulcer healing" by Adhikary B, Yadav SK, Chand S, Bandyopadhyay SK, Chattopadhyay S.(9)

10. Cardio-protective activities
In the analyzing the protective effect of theaflavin (TF1) and its underlying mechanism,
found that (1) compared with the control group, TF1 (10, 20, 40 μmol/l) displayed a better recovery of cardiac function after ischemia/reperfusion in a concentration-dependent manner. At 60 min of reperfusion, LVDP, ± LVdP/dt (max) and CF in the TF1 group were much higher than those in the control group, whereas left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) in the TF1 group was lower than that in the control group (P < 0.01). (2) Pretreatment with glibenclamide (10 μmol/l), a K(ATP) antagonist, completely abolished the cardioprotective effects of TF1 (20 μmol/l). Also, most of the effects of TF1 (20 μmol/l) on cardiac function after 60 min of reperfusion were reversed by 5-HD (100 μmol/l), a selective mitochondria K(ATP) antagonist. (3) Atractyloside (20 μmol/l), a mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opener, administered at the beginning of 15 min of reperfusion completely abolished the cardioprotection of TF1 (20 μmol/l), according to "ATP-dependent potassium channels and mitochondrial permeability transition pores play roles in the cardioprotection of theaflavin in young rat" by Ma H, Huang X, Li Q, Guan Y, Yuan F, Zhang Y.(10)

11. Cervical cancer
In the study of antiproliferative activity of theaflavins in cervical carcinoma HeLa cells and their effects on cellular microtubules and purified goat brain tubulin, found that in vitro, polymerization of purified tubulin into microtubules was also inhibited by theaflavins with an IC(50) value of 78 ± 2.43 μg/mL (P < 0.01). Thus, disruption of cellular microtubule network of HeLa cells through microtubule depolymerization may be one of the possible mechanisms of antiproliferative activity of theaflavins, according to " Theaflavins depolymerize microtubule network through tubulin binding and cause apoptosis of cervical carcinoma HeLa cells" by Chakrabarty S, Das A, Bhattacharya A, Chakrabarti G.(11)

12. Allergic effects
In the determination of the preventive effects of black tea theaflavins, theaflavin-3-gallate (3-TF) and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TFDG), on oxazolone-induced type IV allergy in male ICR mice, found that the anti-allergic mechanisms of action of theaflavins involve inhibition of the fluctuations of cytokines and maintenance of antioxidant status in allergic mice, according to "Preventive effects of black tea theaflavins against mouse type IV allergy" by Yoshino K, Yamazaki K, Sano M.(12)

13. Alzheimer's disease and obesity
In the investigation of the effect of Theaflavin and the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and reduce the body weight of obese individuals, found that Clearly TH(2) inhibits PAI-1 and might play a role in slowing down the progression of Alzheimer's disease or obesity by a PAI-1-dependent pathway. While the clinical value of TH(2) has not been proven, long-term prospective studies assessing its efficacy are warranted due to the benign nature of the substance, according to "Theaflavin digallate inactivates plasminogen activator inhibitor: could tea help in Alzheimer's disease and obesity?" by Skrzypczak-Jankun E, Jankun J.(13)

14. Etc.


B.6. Theaflavin-3-gallate
Theaflavin-3-gallate, a theaflavin derivative, is phytochemicals of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols) found abundantly in green and black tea.
1. Antioxidant capacities
In the comparison of TF derivatives (theaflavin (TF(1)), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF(2)A), theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF(2)B), and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF(3))) in scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro, indicated that positive antioxidant capacities of TF(2)B on singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and the hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage in vitro were found, according to "Evaluation of the antioxidant effects of four main theaflavin derivatives through chemiluminescence and DNA damage analyses" by Wu YY, Li W, Xu Y, Jin EH, Tu YY.(1)

2. Cholesterol
In the study of Theaflavins, which are formed in the production of black tea, have been suggested being responsible for the blood-cholesterol-lowering (BCL), found that Ultracentrifugation and HPLC analysis revealed that the pellets contained mainly theaflavin-3-gallate, while the remaining theaflavins were found to be present in the supernatant. Using purified theaflavin subtypes confirmed that mainly theaflavin-3-gallate is responsible for multilamellar vesicle formation. These results show that theaflavins can play a role in decreased intestinal cholesterol absorption via inhibition of micelle formation, according to "Theaflavins from black tea, especially theaflavin-3-gallate, reduce the incorporation of cholesterol into mixed micelles" by Vermeer MA, Mulder TP, Molhuizen HO.(2)

3. Antimicrobial activities
In the evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of seven green tea catechins and four black tea theaflavins, found that (-)-gallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-catechin-3-gallate, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, theaflavin-3, 3'-digallate, theaflavin-3'-gallate, and theaflavin-3-gallate showed antimicrobial activities at nanomolar levels; (ii) most compounds were more active than were medicinal antibiotics, such as tetracycline or vancomycin, at comparable concentrations; (iii) the bactericidal activities of the teas could be accounted for by the levels of catechins and theaflavins as determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography; (iv) freshly prepared tea infusions were more active than day-old teas; and (v) tea catechins without gallate side chains, gallic acid and the alkaloids caffeine and theobromine also present in teas, and herbal (chamomile and peppermint) teas that contain no flavonoids are all inactive, according to "Antimicrobial activities of tea catechins and theaflavins and tea extracts against Bacillus cereus" by Friedman M, Henika PR, Levin CE, Mandrell RE, Kozukue N.(3)

4. Edema, 5. anti inflammation
found that a single topical application of equimolar of black tea constituents (TF, theaflavin-3-gallate, theaflavin-3'-gallate, and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate) strongly inhibited TPA-induced edema of mouse ears. Application of TFs mixture to mouse ears 20 min prior to each TPA application once a day for 4 days inhibited TPA-induced persistent inflammation, as well as TPA-induced increase in IL-1beta and IL-6 protein levels. TFs also inhibited arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism via both cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase pathways, according to "Inhibitory effects of black tea theaflavin derivatives on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation and arachidonic acid metabolism in mouse ears" by Huang MT, Liu Y, Ramji D, Lo CY, Ghai G, Dushenkov S, Ho CT.(4)

6. Allergic effect
In the investigation of the preventive effects of black tea theaflavins, theaflavin-3-gallate (3-TF) and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TFDG), on oxazolone-induced type IV allergy in male ICR mice.
found that oral administration of 3-TF(theaflavin-3-gallate) and TFDG at a dose of 50 mg kg(-1) body weight prevented the increases in levels of some proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-12 (IL-12), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), according to "Preventive effects of black tea theaflavins against mouse type IV allergy" by Yoshino K, Yamazaki K, Sano M.(5)

7. Anti cancers
In the investigation of the inhibition effects of tea theaflavins complex (TFs), theaflavin-3-3'-digallate (TFDG), theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF2B), and an unidentified compound (UC) on the growth of human liver cancer BEL-7402 cells, gastric cancer MKN-28 cells and acute promyelocytic leukemia LH-60 cells, found that the inhibition effects of theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF2B), TFDG, and UC on BEL-7402 and MKN-28 were stronger than TFs. The relationship coefficients between monomer concentration and its inhibition rate against MKN-28 and BEL-7402 were 0.87 and 0.98 for TF2B, 0.96 and 0.98 for UC, respectively. The IC50 values of TFs, TF2B, and TFDG were 0.18, 0.11, and 0.16 mM on BEL-7402 cells, and 1.11, 0.22, and 0.25 mM on MKN-28 cells respectively, according to "The theaflavin monomers inhibit the cancer cells growth in vitro" by Tu YY, Tang AB, Watanabe N.(6)

8. Leukemia
in the investigation of the inhibitory effects of five tea polyphenols, namely theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF2), theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and gallic acid, and propyl gallate (PG) on xanthine oxidase (XO) found that Tea polyphenols and PG all have potent inhibitory effects (>50%) on PMA-stimulated superoxide production at 20 approximately 50 microM in HL-60 cells. Gallic acid (GA) showed no inhibition under the same conditions. At 10 microM, only EGCG, TF3, and PG showed significant inhibition with potency of PG > EGCG > TF3, according to "Inhibition of xanthine oxidase and suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species in HL-60 cells by theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and propyl gallate" by Lin JK, Chen PC, Ho CT, Lin-Shiau SY.(7)

9. Etc.

B.7. Theaflavin-3'-gallate
Theaflavin-3'-gallate, a theaflavin derivative, is phytochemicals of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols) found abundantly in green and black tea.
1. Antioxidant capacities
In the comparison of TF derivatives (theaflavin (TF(1)), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF(2)A), theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF(2)B), and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF(3))) in scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro, indicated that positive antioxidant capacities of TF(2)B on singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and the hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage in vitro were found, according to "Evaluation of the antioxidant effects of four main theaflavin derivatives through chemiluminescence and DNA damage analyses" by Wu YY, Li W, Xu Y, Jin EH, Tu YY.(1)

2. Antimicrobial activities
In the evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of seven green tea catechins and four black tea theaflavins, found that (-)-gallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-catechin-3-gallate, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, theaflavin-3, 3'-digallate, theaflavin-3'-gallate, and theaflavin-3-gallate showed antimicrobial activities at nanomolar levels; (ii) most compounds were more active than were medicinal antibiotics, such as tetracycline or vancomycin, at comparable concentrations; (iii) the bactericidal activities of the teas could be accounted for by the levels of catechins and theaflavins as determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography; (iv) freshly prepared tea infusions were more active than day-old teas; and (v) tea catechins without gallate side chains, gallic acid and the alkaloids caffeine and theobromine also present in teas, and herbal (chamomile and peppermint) teas that contain no flavonoids are all inactive, according to "Antimicrobial activities of tea catechins and theaflavins and tea extracts against Bacillus cereus" by Friedman M, Henika PR, Levin CE, Mandrell RE, Kozukue N.(2)

3. Edema, 4. anti inflammation
found that a single topical application of equimolar of black tea constituents (TF, theaflavin-3-gallate, theaflavin-3'-gallate, and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate) strongly inhibited TPA-induced edema of mouse ears. Application of TFs mixture to mouse ears 20 min prior to each TPA application once a day for 4 days inhibited TPA-induced persistent inflammation, as well as TPA-induced increase in IL-1beta and IL-6 protein levels. TFs also inhibited arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism via both cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase pathways, according to "Inhibitory effects of black tea theaflavin derivatives on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation and arachidonic acid metabolism in mouse ears" by Huang MT, Liu Y, Ramji D, Lo CY, Ghai G, Dushenkov S, Ho CT.(3)

5. Allergic effect
In the investigation of the preventive effects of black tea theaflavins, theaflavin-3-gallate (3-TF) and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TFDG), on oxazolone-induced type IV allergy in male ICR mice.
found that oral administration of 3-TF(theaflavin-3-gallate) and TFDG at a dose of 50 mg kg(-1) body weight prevented the increases in levels of some proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-12 (IL-12), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), according to "Preventive effects of black tea theaflavins against mouse type IV allergy" by Yoshino K, Yamazaki K, Sano M.(4)

6. Anti cancers
In the investigation of the inhibition effects of tea theaflavins complex (TFs), theaflavin-3-3'-digallate (TFDG), theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF2B), and an unidentified compound (UC) on the growth of human liver cancer BEL-7402 cells, gastric cancer MKN-28 cells and acute promyelocytic leukemia LH-60 cells, found that the inhibition effects of theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF2B), TFDG, and UC on BEL-7402 and MKN-28 were stronger than TFs. The relationship coefficients between monomer concentration and its inhibition rate against MKN-28 and BEL-7402 were 0.87 and 0.98 for TF2B, 0.96 and 0.98 for UC, respectively. The IC50 values of TFs, TF2B, and TFDG were 0.18, 0.11, and 0.16 mM on BEL-7402 cells, and 1.11, 0.22, and 0.25 mM on MKN-28 cells respectively, according to "The theaflavin monomers inhibit the cancer cells growth in vitro" by Tu YY, Tang AB, Watanabe N.(5)

7. Leukemia
in the investigation of the inhibitory effects of five tea polyphenols, namely theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF2), theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and gallic acid, and propyl gallate (PG) on xanthine oxidase (XO) found that Tea polyphenols and PG all have potent inhibitory effects (>50%) on PMA-stimulated superoxide production at 20 approximately 50 microM in HL-60 cells. Gallic acid (GA) showed no inhibition under the same conditions. At 10 microM, only EGCG, TF3, and PG showed significant inhibition with potency of PG > EGCG > TF3, according to "Inhibition of xanthine oxidase and suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species in HL-60 cells by theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and propyl gallate" by Lin JK, Chen PC, Ho CT, Lin-Shiau SY.(6)

8. Etc.

B.8. Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate
Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, a theaflavin derivative, is phytochemicals of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols) found abundantly in green and black tea.
1. Antioxidant capacities
In the comparison of TF derivatives (theaflavin (TF(1)), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF(2)A), theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF(2)B), and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF(3))) in scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro, indicated that positive antioxidant capacities of TF(2)B on singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and the hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage in vitro were found, according to "Evaluation of the antioxidant effects of four main theaflavin derivatives through chemiluminescence and DNA damage analyses" by Wu YY, Li W, Xu Y, Jin EH, Tu YY.(1)

2. Antimicrobial activities
In the evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of seven green tea catechins and four black tea theaflavins, found that (-)-gallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-catechin-3-gallate, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, theaflavin-3, 3'-digallate, theaflavin-3'-gallate, and theaflavin-3-gallate showed antimicrobial activities at nanomolar levels; (ii) most compounds were more active than were medicinal antibiotics, such as tetracycline or vancomycin, at comparable concentrations; (iii) the bactericidal activities of the teas could be accounted for by the levels of catechins and theaflavins as determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography; (iv) freshly prepared tea infusions were more active than day-old teas; and (v) tea catechins without gallate side chains, gallic acid and the alkaloids caffeine and theobromine also present in teas, and herbal (chamomile and peppermint) teas that contain no flavonoids are all inactive, according to "Antimicrobial activities of tea catechins and theaflavins and tea extracts against Bacillus cereus" by Friedman M, Henika PR, Levin CE, Mandrell RE, Kozukue N.(2)

3. Edema, 4. anti inflammation
found that a single topical application of equimolar of black tea constituents (TF, theaflavin-3-gallate, theaflavin-3'-gallate, and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate) strongly inhibited TPA-induced edema of mouse ears. Application of TFs mixture to mouse ears 20 min prior to each TPA application once a day for 4 days inhibited TPA-induced persistent inflammation, as well as TPA-induced increase in IL-1beta and IL-6 protein levels. TFs also inhibited arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism via both cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase pathways, according to "Inhibitory effects of black tea theaflavin derivatives on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation and arachidonic acid metabolism in mouse ears" by Huang MT, Liu Y, Ramji D, Lo CY, Ghai G, Dushenkov S, Ho CT.(3)

5. Allergic effect
In the investigation of the preventive effects of black tea theaflavins, theaflavin-3-gallate (3-TF) and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TFDG), on oxazolone-induced type IV allergy in male ICR mice.
found that oral administration of 3-TF(theaflavin-3-gallate) and TFDG at a dose of 50 mg kg(-1) body weight prevented the increases in levels of some proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-12 (IL-12), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), according to "Preventive effects of black tea theaflavins against mouse type IV allergy" by Yoshino K, Yamazaki K, Sano M.(4)

6. Anti cancers
In the investigation of the inhibition effects of tea theaflavins complex (TFs), theaflavin-3-3'-digallate (TFDG), theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF2B), and an unidentified compound (UC) on the growth of human liver cancer BEL-7402 cells, gastric cancer MKN-28 cells and acute promyelocytic leukemia LH-60 cells, found that the inhibition effects of theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF2B), TFDG, and UC on BEL-7402 and MKN-28 were stronger than TFs. The relationship coefficients between monomer concentration and its inhibition rate against MKN-28 and BEL-7402 were 0.87 and 0.98 for TF2B, 0.96 and 0.98 for UC, respectively. The IC50 values of TFs, TF2B, and TFDG were 0.18, 0.11, and 0.16 mM on BEL-7402 cells, and 1.11, 0.22, and 0.25 mM on MKN-28 cells respectively, according to "The theaflavin monomers inhibit the cancer cells growth in vitro" by Tu YY, Tang AB, Watanabe N.(5)

7. Leukemia
in the investigation of the inhibitory effects of five tea polyphenols, namely theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF2), theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and gallic acid, and propyl gallate (PG) on xanthine oxidase (XO) found that Tea polyphenols and PG all have potent inhibitory effects (>50%) on PMA-stimulated superoxide production at 20 approximately 50 microM in HL-60 cells. Gallic acid (GA) showed no inhibition under the same conditions. At 10 microM, only EGCG, TF3, and PG showed significant inhibition with potency of PG > EGCG > TF3, according to "Inhibition of xanthine oxidase and suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species in HL-60 cells by theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and propyl gallate" by Lin JK, Chen PC, Ho CT, Lin-Shiau SY.(6)

8. Etc.

B.9. Thearubigin
Thearubigin with reddish colour, is a phytochemical of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), formed in tea leaves during fermentation.
1. Tetanus toxin
In the elucidation of the mechanism of the protective effect of black tea extract's thearubigin fraction against the action of tetanus toxin, found that thearubigin fraction mixed with tetanus toxin blocked the inhibitory effect of the toxin. Mixing iodinated toxin with thearubigin fraction inhibited the specific binding of [125I]tetanus toxin to the synaptosomal membrane preparation. The effects of thearubigin fraction were dose-dependent, according to "A mechanism of the thearubigin fraction of black tea (Camellia sinensis) extract protecting against the effect of tetanus toxin" by Satoh E, Ishii T, Shimizu Y, Sawamura S, Nishimura M.(1)

2. Inflammatory bowel disease
in the examination of examine the protective effects of thearubigin, an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant beverage derivative, on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice, a model for inflammatory bowel disease, found that pretreatment of mice with thearubigin (40 mg kg(-1) day(-1), i.g. for 10 days) significantly ameliorated the appearance of diarrhoea and the disruption of colonic architecture. Higher dose (100 mg kg(-1)) had comparable effects. This was associated with a significant reduction in the degree of both neutrophil infiltration and lipid peroxidation in the inflamed colon as well as decreased serine protease activity. Thearubigin also reduced the levels of NO and O(2)(-) associated with the favourable expression of T-helper 1 cytokines and iNOS, according to "Thearubigin, the major polyphenol of black tea, ameliorates mucosal injury in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis" by Maity S, Ukil A, Karmakar S, Datta N, Chaudhuri T, Vedasiromoni JR, Ganguly DK, Das PK.(2)

3. Prostate cancers
In the comparison of the anti-proliferative effect of black tea (Camellia sinensis) polyphenol, thearubigin (TR), alone or combined with the isoflavone genistein, on human prostate (PC-3) carcinoma cells, found that TR administered alone did not result in any alteration of cell growth. When combined with genistein, however, TR significantly inhibited cell growth and induced a G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in a dose dependent manner. These findings indicate the potential use of combined phytochemicals to provide protection against prostate cancer, according to " Synergistic effects of thearubigin and genistein on human prostate tumor cell (PC-3) growth via cell cycle arrest" by Sakamoto K.(3)

4. A375 melanoma cells
In the observation of observed the role of the three most important MAPK (ERK, JNK, and p38) in TF- and TR-induced apoptosis, found that TF and TR treatment induces a time-dependent increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species generation in A375 cells. Interestingly, treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl cystein inhibits TF- and TR-induced JNK and p38 activation as well as induction of cell death in A375 cells. We also provide evidence demonstrating the critical role of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 in TF- and TR-induced apoptosis in A375 cells, according to "Role of oxidation-triggered activation of JNK and p38 MAPK in black tea polyphenols induced apoptotic death of A375 cells" by Bhattacharya U, Halder B, Mukhopadhyay S, Giri AK.(4)

5. Anticlastogenic effects
In the investigation of potent antimutagenic and anticlastogenic effects of TF and TR in vitro in human cells in vitro, found that a significant decrease in both CA and MN were observed in the human lymphocyte cultures treated with either TF or TR pretreated with either B[a]P or AFB1 (250, 500, 1000 microg/ml) when compared with B[a]P or AFB1 treated cultures alone. TF shows more protective effects than TR in this in vitro system. These results indicate that both TF and TR have significant anticlastogenic effects in vitro in human lymphocytes, according to "Anticlastogenic effects of black tea polyphenols theaflavins and thearubigins in human lymphocytes in vitro" by Halder B, Pramanick S, Mukhopadhyay S, Giri AK.(5)

6. Antioxidative properties
In the review of the different issues and studies relating to composition, manufacturing, and antioxidative effects of black tea and its components in vitro as well as in vivo, found that Antioxidative properties of black tea are manifested by its ability to inhibit free radical generation, scavenge free radicals, and chelate transition metal ions. Black tea, as well as individual theaflavins, can influence activation of transcription factors such as NFkappaB or AP-1, according to "Antioxidative properties of black tea" by Łuczaj W, Skrzydlewska E.(6)

7. Hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 system
In the investigation of Theaflavins and theafulvins, a fraction of thearubigins, isolated from aqueous infusions of black tea, and their effects on the hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 system, found that treatment with theafulvins and theaflavins reduced the apoprotein levels. A single band in the cytochrome P450 region was evident when the intestinal microsomes were probed with antibodies to CYP4A1 but the level of expression was not affected by the treatment with the black tea polyphenols, according to "Hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 and conjugase activities in rats treated with black tea theafulvins and theaflavins" by Catterall F, McArdle NJ, Mitchell L, Papayanni A, Clifford MN, Ioannides C.(7)

8. Chronic myeloid leukemia
In the observation of the anticancer effect of black tea (BT) and its polyphenols theaflavin (TF) and thearubigin (TR) on U-937 cell line, a myeloid leukemic cell line and on leukemic cells isolated from peripheral blood of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), found that BT, TF and TR. MTT assay showed growth inhibition of metabolically active cells and inhibition of DNA synthesis was observed by 3H-Thymidine incorporation after treatment with the compounds. In all cases TF and TR were more effective than BT, suggesting that these are possibly the active components in BT responsible for its antileukemic activity, according to "Studies with black tea and its constituents on leukemic cells and cell lines" by Das M, Chaudhuri T, Goswami SK, Murmu N, Gomes A, Mitra S, Besra SE, Sur P, Vedasiromoni JR.(8)

9. Oxidative stress
In the investigation of scavenging property of black tea and catechins, the major flavonols of tea-leaf, against damage by oxidative stress, found that Black tea extract in comparison to free catechins seemed to be a better protecting agent against various types of oxidative stress. Apparently, conversion of catechins to partially polymerized products such as theaflavin or thearubigin during 'fermentation' process for making black tea has no deleterious effect on its scavenging properties, according to "Protective role of black tea against oxidative damage of human red blood cells" by Halder J, Bhaduri AN.(9)

10. Antioxidative effects
In the study of the antioxidative activity of theaflavins (TFs) and thearubigin (TR) purified from the infusion of black tea leaves, using the tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced lipid peroxidation of rat liver homogenates, found that activity of black tea was about as potent as that of green tea. These results suggest that black tea infusion containing TFs and TR could inhibit lipid peroxidation in biological conditions in the same way as green tea infusion containing epicatechins, according to "Antioxidative effects of black tea theaflavins and thearubigin on lipid peroxidation of rat liver homogenates induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide" by Yoshino K, Hara Y, Sano M, Tomita I.(10)

11. Etc.

Pharmacy In Vegetables
Use the science behind the health benefits of vegetables
to improve your health, delay aging and cure major diseases.

For other phytochemicals articles, please visit http://medicaladvisorjournals.blogspot.com/2011/10/phytochemicals-health-benefits.html
other health articles, please visit
http://medicaladvisorjournals.blogspot.com/

C. Quoted From Foods to prevent and treat diseases
1. Dementia
Green tea contains more amount of antioxidants than any drinks or food with the same volume, and is the leaves of Camellia sinensis, undergone minimal oxidation during processing, originated from China. Green tea has been a precious drink in traditional Chinese culture and used exceptional in socialization for more than 4000 thousand years. Because of their health benefits, they have been cultivated for commercial purposes all over the world. Some researchers suggested that the catechin polyphenols constituents of green tea, which were for long time regarded merely as dietary antioxidants, have caught our and other scientist's attention because of their diverse pharmacological activities, which have been allied to a possible beneficial action on brain health. This review will elaborate on the impact of nutritional supplementation on brain function in general, and provide a compilation of the most updated literature on epidemiology, clinical and animal studies with green tea polyphenols in ageassociated cognitive decline and in fighting neurodegenerative diseases(1).

2. Anxiety
Green tea
In the study of to examine the acute effects of L-theanine in comparison with a standard benzodiazepine anxiolytic, alprazolam and placebo on behavioural measures of anxiety in healthy human subjects using the model of anticipatory anxiety (AA), indicated that some evidence for relaxing effects of L-theanine during the baseline condition on the tranquil-troubled subscale of the VAMS. Alprazolam did not exert any anxiolytic effects in comparison with the placebo on any of the measures during the relaxed state. Neither L-theanine nor alprazalam had any significant anxiolytic effects during the experimentally induced anxiety state(1). Others study suggested that L-theanine does not produce anxiolysis by modulation of the GABAA receptor; however, in combination with midazolam, a synergistic or additive effect was demonstrated by decreased anxiety and both fine and basic motor movements. These data may provide direction for further studies examining L-theanine and its effects on anxiety and motor activity(2).

3. Autism
In the study to investigate  the role of green tea extract in reversing cardinal behavioral changes and aberrations in oxidative stress induced by valproate exposure. Young mice of both genders received a single dose of valproate (400mg/kg subcutaneously) on postnatal day 14 followed by a daily dose of green tea extract (75 and 300mg/kg) orally up to postnatal day 40, showed that a significant improvement in behavioral assessments particularly with 300mg/kg of green tea extract. Formation of markers of oxidative stress was reduced at both dose levels. Histological findings confirm the neuroprotective effect of green tea at a dose of 300mg/kg. In conclusion it can be stated that green tea exerts neuronal cytoprotective action possibly due to anti-oxidant action and could be efficacious in the management of autism(3).

4. Alzheimer's disease
Epigallocatechin, including catechins, is a phytochemical of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in green tea, St John wort, black Tea, carob flour, Fuji apples, etc.
In the investgation of the green tea compound epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in inhibition of Alzheimer's disease β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) neurotoxicity, showed that EGCG interferes with the aromatic hydrophobic core of Aβ. The C-terminal part of the Aβ peptide (residues 22-39) adopts a β-sheet conformation, whereas the N-terminus (residues 1-20) is unstructured. The characteristic salt bridge involving residues D23 and K28 is present in the structure of these oligomeric Aβ aggregates as well. The structural analysis of small-molecule-induced amyloid aggregates will open new perspectives for Alzheimer's disease drug developmen(4). 

5. Osteoarthritis 
In the review of Green tea's active ingredient, epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), dr. Ahmed S. at the College of Pharmacy summarized that the limitations of the dose, pharmacokinetics, and bioavailability of EGCG in experimental animals and findings related to the EGCG-drug interaction. Although these findings provide scientific evidence of the anti-rheumatic activity of EGCG, further preclinical studies are warranted before phase clinical trials could be initiated with confidence for patients with joint diseases(5).

6. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
EGCG in experimental animals and findings related to the EGCG-drug interaction. Although these findings provide scientific evidence of the anti-rheumatic activity of EGCG, further preclinical studies are warranted before phase clinical trials could be initiated with confidence for patients with joint diseases(6).

7. Coronary heart disease and diabetes
Green tea contains more amount of antioxidants than any drinks or food with the same volume, and is the leaves of Camellia sinensis, undergone minimal oxidation during processing, originated from China. Green tea has been a precious drink in traditional Chinese culture and used exceptional in socialization for more than 4000 thousand years. Because of their health benefits, they have been cultivated for commercial purposes all over the world.
a. Cholesterol
In the investigation of
theaflavin-enriched green tea extract in association with cholesterol levels of the study of "Cholesterol-lowering effect of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract: a randomized controlled trial" by Maron DJ, Lu GP, Cai NS, Wu ZG, Li YH, Chen H, Zhu JQ, Jin XJ, Wouters BC, Zhao J.(5), researchers found that The theaflavin-enriched green tea extract is an effective adjunct to a low-saturated-fat diet to reduce LDL-C in hypercholesterolemic adults and is well tolerated.
b. Immune system
In the investigation of the immunomodulatory effects of decaffeinated green tea extract in rain bow of the study of "Immunomodulatory effects of decaffeinated green tea (Camellia sinensis) on the immune system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)" by Sheikhzadeh N, Nofouzi K, Delazar A, Oushani AK.(6), researchers found that showed that decaffeinated green tea in lower doses of administration could be optimum to enhance the immunity of rainbow trout.
c. Antioxidant Activity
In the investigation of l-Theanine is a unique amino acid in green tea effects on ethanol-induced liver injury of the study of "l-Theanine prevents alcoholic liver injury through enhancing the antioxidant capability of hepatocytes" by Li G, Ye Y, Kang J, Yao X, Zhang Y, Jiang W, Gao M, Dai Y, Xin Y, Wang Q, Yin Z, Luo L(7), researchers found that l-theanine significantly inhibited ethanol-induced reduction of mouse antioxidant capability which included the activities of SOD, CAT and GR, and level of GSH. These results indicated that l-theanine prevented ethanol-induced liver injury through enhancing hepatocyte antioxidant abilities.
d. Diabetes
In the evaluation of Abstract Tea (Camellia sinensis) effects in type II diabetes management of the study of "Anti-Hyperglycemia Properties of Tea (Camellia sinensis) Bioactives Using In Vitro Assay Models and Influence of Extraction Time" by.Ankolekar C, Terry T, Johnson K, Johnson D, Barbosa AC, Shetty K(8), researchers wrote that tea offers an attractive potential strategy to regulate postprandial hyperglycemia toward an overall dietary support for type 2 diabetes management.


8. Cataracts
In the study to evaluate the effect of green tea extract (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in cultured rabbit lens epithelial cells in order to pave a new way to postcapsular opacity (PCO) prevention, found that Green Tea Constituent(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate could inhibit cultured rabbit lens epithelial cells proliferation by inducing their apoptosis in the concentration used by us, which indicates that it is possible to prevent PCO by using herb extract(7).


9. Chlamydia
Biosynthesized tea polyphenols showed antichlamydial activity against Chlamydia trachomatis D/UW-3/Cx and L2/434/Bu using cell culture. The most active compounds were (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epicatechin gallate, followed by (-)-epicatechin (EC). (+)-Epicatechin and (-)-epigallocatechin were intermediate(4). other researchers found In vitro inhibitory effects of tea polyphenols on the proliferation of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae(8).


10. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)
In the study to investigate chronic fatigue produced in mice by subjecting them to forced swim inside a rectangular jar of specific dimensions for 6 min. daily for 15 days. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG; 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o., showed that behavioural and biochemical alterations were restored after chronic treatment with EGCG. The present study points out that EGCG could be of therapeutic potential in the treatment of chronic fatigue(9).


11. Autoimmune diseases
In the review of supplemented by hitherto unpublished data of the authors and their coworkers, shows that the intake of polyphenols contained in natural sources, such as hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, oleuropein (olives), naringin and hesperidin (Citrus fruits), resveratrol, procyanidins or oligomeric procyanidin (grapes or grape seed extracts), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (green tea) and quercetin (grapes, green tea) etc., are able to modulate chronic inflammatory diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, etc(10).




12. Candidiasis
In the study of the effects of 4 different concentrations of catechins and theaflavins were evaluated on 5 isolates each of 5 Candida species employing an agar diffusion growth inhibition assay, showed that both polyphenols showed anti-Candida activity against all tested Candida species and demonstrated a MIC of 6.25 mg/ml for C. albicans. C. glabrata was found to be the most sensitive species followed by C. parapsilosis, C. albicans, C. krusei and C. tropicalis (p < 0.05 for all). Significant intraspecies variations in sensitivity were noted among C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis (p < 0.001) for both polyphenols. Theaflavins displayed standard PAFE while catechins showed a paradoxical PAFE with all isolates of C. albicans. SEM revealed considerable cell wall damage of C. albicans cells exposed to the polyphenols(11).

13. Stroke
In the review of the emerging evidence for green tea in stroke prevention, showed that green tea is a safe and cheap beverage. Its consumption should be encouraged because it could potentially serve as a practical method for stroke prevention(4). Other suggested that Potential mechanisms by which tea and coffee phytochemicals can exert effects for CVD protection include the regulation of vascular tone through effects on endothelial function, improved glucose metabolism, increased reverse cholesterol transport and inhibition of foam cell formation, inhibition of oxidative stress, immunomodulation and effects on platelet function (adhesion and activation, aggregation and clotting). The phytochemical compounds in tea and coffee and their metabolites are suggested to influence protective endogenous pathways by modulation of gene-expression. It is not known exactly which compounds are responsible for the suggestive protective effects of tea and coffee. Although many biologically active compounds have been identified with known biological effects, tea and coffee contain many unidentified compounds with potential bioactivity(12). 

14. Depression
In the study to investigate the antidepressant-like effects and the possible mechanism of action of green tea in widely used mouse models of depression, found that GTP has antidepressant-like effects, and this action did not induce nonspecific motor changes in mice. Green tea polyphenols also reduced serum corticosterone and ACTH levels in mice exposed to the FST. The present study demonstrated that GTP exerts antidepressant-like effects in a mouse behavioral models of depression, and the mechanism may involve inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis(13).

15. Crohn's disease
The bioactive compound epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, has been shown to target histamine-producing cells producing great alterations in their behavior, with relevant effects on their proliferative potential, as well as their adhesion, migration, and invasion potentials. EGCG has been shown to have potent anti-inflammatory, anti-tumoral, and anti-angiogenic effects and to be a potent inhibitor of the histamine-producing enzyme, histidine decarboxylase. Herein, we review the many specific effects of EGCG on concrete molecular targets of histamine-producing cells and discuss the relevance of these data to support the potential therapeutic interest of this compound to treat inflammation-dependent diseases(14).

16. Endometriosis
In the study to evaluate  the antiangiogenesis mechanism of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in an endometriosis model in vivo. Dr. Xu H, and the research team atThe Chinese University of Hong Kong, showed that GCG, but not vitamin E, inhibited microvessels in endometriotic implants. EGCG selectively suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) and tyrosine kinase receptor VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) expression. EGCG down-regulated VEGFC/VEGFR2 signaling through c-JUN, interferon-γ, matrix metalloproteinase 9, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 pathways for endothelial proliferation, inflammatory response, and mobility. EGCG also suppressed VEGFC expression and reduced VEGFR2 and ERK activation in endothelial cells. VEGFC supplementation attenuated the inhibitory effects by EGCG(15).

17. Fibroids
In the study to investigate the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on rat leiomyoma (ELT3) cells in vitro and in a nude mice model, found that Inhibitory effect of EGCG (200 micromol/L) on ELT3 cells was observed after 24 hours of treatment (P < .05). At > or = 50 micromol/L, EGCG significantly decreased PCNA and Cdk4 protein levels (P < .05). In vivo, EGCG treatment dramatically reduced the volume and weight of tumors at 4 and 8 weeks after the treatment (P < .05). The PCNA and Cdk4 protein levels were significantly reduced in the EGCG-treated group (P < .05)(1). Others suggested that the tumors in the EGCG fed birds were smaller than those found in the control birds (P = .001). Serum and liver malondialdehyde and TNF-alpha concentrations decreased (P = .001) with EGCG supplementation. The results indicate that dietary supplementation with EGCG reduces the incidence and size of spontaneously occurring leiomyoma of the oviduct in Japanese quail. Clinical trials should be conducted to investigate the efficacy of EGCG supplementation in the prevention and treatment of uterine leiomyoma in humans(16).

18. Flu (influenza)
 In an observational study to determine the association between green tea consumption and the incidence of influenza infection among schoolchildren, showed that the adjusted OR associated with the consumption of green tea for ≥6 d/wk compared with <3 d/wk was 0.60 [(95% CI = 0.39-0.92); P = 0.02] in cases of influenza confirmed by the antigen test. Meanwhile, the adjusted OR inversely associated with the consumption of 1 cup/d to <3 cups/d (1 cup = 200 mL) and 3-5 cups/d compared with <1 cup/d were 0.62 [(95% CI = 0.41-0.95); P = 0.03] and 0.54 [(95% CI = 0.30-0.94); P = 0.03], respectively. However, there was no significant association with the consumption of >5 cups/d. Our findings thus suggest that the consumption of 1-5 cups/d of green tea may prevent influenza infection in children(17).

18. Hepatitis
Quercetin, a ubiquitous plant flavonoid, has been identified to inhibit NS3 activity in a specific dose-dependent manner in an in vitro catalysis assay, showed that quercetin has a direct inhibitory effect on the HCV NS3 protease. These results point to the potential of quercetin as a natural nontoxic anti-HCV agent reducing viral production by inhibiting both NS3 and heat shock proteins essential for HCV replication(18).

19. Herpes
Researchers at the Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, in the study of
Digallate dimers of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inactivate herpes simplex virus, found that all EGCG dimers inactivated enveloped viruses with class I, class II, and class III (HSV-1, HSV-2) fusion proteins more effectively than did monomeric EGCG. EGCG had no activity against the nonenveloped viruses tested, but TF-3 reduced the titer of 4 of 5 nonenveloped viruses by ≅2 to 3.5 log(10). Results also showed that HSV-1 glycoprotein B (gB) was aggregated more rapidly by theasinensin A than EGCG, which, when taken together with the nonenveloped virus data, suggests that dimers may inhibit the function of viral proteins required for infectivity. Digallate dimers of EGCG appear to have excellent potential as microbicidal agents against HSV at acidic and neutral pHs(19).

20. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
In thye study to investigate the effects of EGCG on Tat-induced HIV-1 transactivation and potential mechanisms by which EGCG inhibited activation of NF-κB pathway, found that EGCG supplementation significantly improved the changes associated with Tat-induced oxidative stress by increasing nuclear levels of Nrf2, decreasing levels of NF-κB and ROS production. EGCG reversed Tat-mediated AKT activation and AMPK inhibition in MAGI cells. EGCG inhibited Tat-induced LTR transactivation in a dose-dependent manner and Nrf2 signaling pathway may be the primary target for prevention of Tat-induced HIV-1 transactivation by EGCG, and EGCG also reduce NF-κB activation by inhibiting AKT signaling pathway and activating AMPK signaling pathway(20).

21. Cholesterol
 Drinking multiple cups of tea per day is associated with lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In the study of the impact of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract on the lipids and lipoproteins of subjects with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, indicated that theaflavin-enriched green tea extract is an effective adjunct to a low-saturated-fat diet to reduce LDL-C in hypercholesterolemic adults and is well tolerated(21).

22. HPV (human papilloma virus)
In the study of the inhibitory effects on a variety of enzymatic and metabolic pathways involved in cancer development, showed that Sinecatechins demonstrated growth inhibitory potential in all four human papillomavirus-infected tumor cell lines, which may be attributed to the induction of apoptosis, mediated by cell cycle deregulation. In addition, this antiproliferative effect may contribute to the overall cancer-preventative function and possible direct antiviral activity of sinecatechins that may contribute to external genital and perianal warts clearance(22).

23. hypertension
In the study to to examine the hypothesis that supplementation with GT alters insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in obese, hypertensive patients, showed that supplementation also contributed to significant (P < .05) decreases in the total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, but an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In conclusion, daily supplementation with 379 mg of GTE favorably influences blood pressure, insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress, and lipid profile in patients with obesity-related hypertension(23).


24. Genital herpes
EGCG has greater anti-HSV activity than other green tea catechins and inactivates multiple clinical isolates of HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. EGCG reduced HSV-2 titers by >or=1,000-fold in 10 to 20 min and reduced HSV-1 titers by the same amount in 30 to 40 min(24).

25. Gallstone
In the study to evaluate  the effects of tea consumption on the risk of biliary tract cancers and biliary stones. The study included 627 incident cases with biliary tract cancer, 1,037 cases with biliary stones and 959 randomly selected controls with Forty-one percent of the controls were ever tea drinkers, defined as those who consumed at least 1 cup of tea per day for at least 6 months, showed that . After adjustment for age, education and body mass index, among women, ever tea drinkers had significantly reduced risks of biliary stones (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.54-0.98) and gallbladder cancer (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.38-0.83). The inverse relationship between tea consumption and gallbladder cancer risk was independent of gallstone disease(25).

26. Liver disease
In the study to evaluate the association between consumption of green tea and various serum markers in a Japanese population, with special reference to preventive effects of green tea against cardiovascular disease and disorders of the liver, found that Increased consumption of green tea was associated with decreased serum concentrations of total cholesterol (P for trend < 0.001) and triglyceride (P for trend = 0.02) and an increased proportion of high density lipoprotein cholesterol together with a decreased proportion of low and very low lipoprotein cholesterols (P for trend = 0.02), which resulted in a decreased atherogenic index (P for trend = 0.02). Moreover, increased consumption of green tea, especially more than 10 cups a day, was related to decreased concentrations of hepatological markers in serum, aspartate aminotransferase (P for trend = 0.06), alanine transferase (P for trend = 0.07), and ferritin (P for trend = 0.02)(1). Other researchers suggested (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) as a new inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry. EGCG is a flavonoid present in green tea extract belonging to the subclass of catechins(26).

27. Meningitis
a. Antimicrobial activities
 In the investigation of Antimicrobial activities of green of the study of "Antimicrobial activities of tea catechins and theaflavins and tea extracts against Bacillus cereus" by Friedman M, Henika PR, Levin CE, Mandrell RE, Kozukue N., researchers found that flavonoids in green tea has exerted its ability in protective effects against Bacillus cereus.(27)

b. Immune system
a. In the investigation of the immunomodulatory effects of decaffeinated green tea extract in rain bow of the study of "Immunomodulatory effects of decaffeinated green tea (Camellia sinensis) on the immune system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)" by Sheikhzadeh N, Nofouzi K, Delazar A, Oushani AK., researchers found that showed that decaffeinated green tea in lower doses of administration could be optimum to enhance the immunity of rainbow trout(27a)


28. Multiple sclerosis
TNFalpha, an imflammatory cytokine has been associated with MS is inhibited by antioxidants of green tea, according to the artcle of Alternative Therapies for Multiple Sclerosis by David Steenblock, M.S., D.O(1). Others sugested that the combination therapy of Glatiramer acetate (GA), an immunomodulatory MS therapeutic, and the neuroprotectant epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main phenol in green tea, have synergistic protective effects in vitro and in the EAE model(28).


29. Obesity
In the study to to investigate the antiobesity effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in diet-induced obese mice, showed that green tea EGCG effectively reduces adipose tissue mass and ameliorates plasma lipid profiles in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. These effects might be at least partially mediated via regulation of the expression of multiple genes involved in adipogenesis, lipolysis, beta-oxidation and thermogenesis in white adipose tissue(29).


30. Osteoporosis
n the study to investigate whether black tea polyphenol, theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TFDG) and green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)affect MMP activity and osteoclast formation and differentiation in vitro, showed that TFDG and EGCG inhibited the formation and differentiation of osteoclasts via inhibition of MMPs. TFDG may suppress actin ring formation more effectively than EGCG. Thus, TFDG and EGCG may be suitable agents or lead compounds for the treatment of bone resorption diseases(30).


31. Parkinson's disease
In the study of Differential effects of black versus green tea on risk of Parkinson's disease in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, found that total caffeine intake was inversely related to Parkinson's disease risk (p for trend = 0.002); the relative risk for the highest versus lowest quartile was 0.55 (95% confidence interval: 0.35, 0.88). Black tea, a caffeine-containing beverage, showed an inverse association with Parkinson's disease risk that was not confounded by total caffeine intake or tobacco smoking (p for trend = 0.0006; adjusted relative risk for the highest vs. lowest tertile of intake = 0.29, 95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.67). Green tea drinking was unrelated to Parkinson's disease risk. Diet had no strong influence on risk. Ingredients of black tea other than caffeine appear to be responsible for the beverage's inverse association with Parkinson's disease(31).


32. Pertussis
In the study to evaluate the efficacy of anti bactericidal activity of tea and catechins against Bordetella pertussis, indicated that pu-erh tea killed the bacteria in a moderate way. (-) Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and theaflavin digallate (TF3) showed also marked bactericidal activity. Green tea and black tea also effectively blocked the adhesion of B. pertussis to HeLa and CHO cells, whereas ECGg and TF3 could not. EGCg and TF3 markedly inactivated leuco-lymphocytosis promoting activity of pertussis toxin. Black tea showed slight but significant inactivation of the activity, whereas green tea showed no inactivation(32).



33. Thyroid disorders
In the comparison of the efficacy of polyphenolic flavonoids found in black and green tea in thyroid function, showed that green tea extract at 2.5 g% and 5.0 g% doses and black tea extract only at 5.0 g% dose have the potential to alter the thyroid gland physiology and architecture, that is, enlargement of thyroid gland as well as hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of the thyroid follicles and inhibition of the activity of thyroid peroxidase and 5(')-deiodinase I with elevated thyroidal Na+, K+-ATPase activity along with significant decrease in serum T3 and T4, and a parallel increase in serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)(33).




34. Etc.
 
D. Quoted From Foods to prevent and treat cancers
1. Bladder cancer
The ingredient of (--)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in green tea have exerted the protective effect to cause bladder cancer cell death. "EGCGs that were physically attached onto the surface of nanogold particles (pNG) was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The anticancer activity of the EGCG-adsorbed pNG was investigated in C3H/HeN mice subcutaneously implanted with MBT-2 murine bladder tumor cells. EGCG-pNG was confirmed to inhibit tumor cell growing by means of cell apoptosis" said Dr.Hsieh DS and the research team team at National Taiwan Ocean University(1).

2. Bone cancer (Osteosarcoma(35%))
Dr. Hönicke AS and the research team at University Medicine Greifswald, in the study of The link between cancer and inflammation, found that  IL-1Ra and EGCG downregulated IL-1-induced IL-6 and IL-8 release from U-2 OS cells by 65-85%. IL-1Ra and EGCG also reduced secretion of invasiveness-promoting MMP-2 and pro-angiogenic VEGF to 62-75% without affecting the metabolic response and caspase-3 activity. In conclusion, downregulation of IL-1-induced tumorigenic factors (IL-6, IL-8, VEGF, MMP-2) in U-2 OS by IL-1Ra and EGCG may positively affect tumor-associated inflammation and, as a consequence, lead to reduction in angiogenesis and invasiveness. This renders a combined administration of EGCG and IL-1Ra a promising approach as an adjuvant therapy in patients with osteosarcoma(2).

3. Bone cancer (Chondrosarcoma(25%) )
Chondrosarcoma is a malignant primary bone tumor that responds poorly to both chemotherapy and radiation therapy. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, has been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis and cancer cell growth in animal models. In the study conducted by National Chung Hsing University, Dr. Yang WH and research team indicated that EGCG induced cell apoptosis in human chondrosarcoma cell lines but not primary chondrocytes. EGCG induced upregulation of Bax and Bak, downregulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, and dysfunction of mitochondria in chondrosarcoma and EGCG triggered ROS and activated the ASK1-p38/JNK pathway, resulting chondrosarcoma cell death. Importantly, animal studies revealed a dramatic reduction in tumor volume after 24 days of treatment(3)

4. Bone cancer (Ewing's sarcoma(16%))
The insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGFIR) is constitutively activated in  Ewing family tumors (EFT) and that the major catechin derivative found in green tea, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), can inhibit cell proliferation and survival of EFT cells through the inhibition of IGFIR activity, as treatment of EFT cell lines with EGCG blocked the autophosphorylation of IGFIR tyrosine residues and inhibited its downstream pathways including phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt, Ras-Erk, and Jak-Stat cascades. EGCG treatment was associated with dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation, viability, and anchorage-independent growth, as well as with the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Apoptosis in EFT cells by EGCG correlated with altered expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, including increased expression of proapoptotic Bax and decreased expression of prosurvival Bcl2, Bcl-XL, and Mcl-1 proteins. Dr. Kang HG and the research team at Children's Hospital Los Angeles suggested(4)

5. Brain and Spinal Cord Cancer
Epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), a main ingredients in green tea has shown protective effect against brain cancer. In the study to investigate the effect of epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), the main constituent of green tea polyphenols, on human glioblastoma cell lines U-373 MG and U-87 MG, rat glioma cell line C6, and rat nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma cell line MtT/E, showed that EGCG inhibited viability of MtT/E cells only at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. Quantitative study by flow cytometry demonstrated that lower doses of EGCG (12.5, 25, 50 microg/ml) induced apoptosis in U-373 MG, U-87 MG, and C6 cells; however, only the highest dose (100 microg/ml) induced apoptosis in MtT/E cells. Compared with other cell lines, MtT/E cells showed stronger IGF-I immunoreactivity. Neutralization of IGF-I with an antihuman IGF-I antibody reduced viability of the cell lines(5).

6. Esophageal cancer
In the study to evaluate the relationship between green tea consumption and the risk of esophageal cancer of the 902 patients interviewed, 734 (81.4%) had their disease pathologically confirmed, showed that All analyses of tea effects were conducted separately among men and women and all were adjusted for age. After further adjustment for other known confounders, a protective effect of green tea drinking on esophageal cancer was observed among women (odds ratio [OR] = 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30-0.83), and this risk decreased (P for trend < or = .01) as tea consumption increased. Among men, the ORs were also below 1.00, although not statistically significant. ORs for green tea intake were estimated among those persons who neither smoked nor drank alcohol. In this subset, statistically significant decreases in risk among tea drinkers were observed for both men (OR = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.22-0.86; P for trend = .05) and women (OR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.20-0.77; P for trend < .001)(6).

7. Bowel Cancer (Colon and rectum)
pigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenolic constituent in green tea has been exerted protective effects against  proliferation and migration of the human colon cancer SW620 cells. In the study of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits proliferation and migration of human colon cancer SW620 cells in vitro found that EGCG blocks the proliferation and migration of SW620 cells induced by PAR2-AP and factor VIIa via inhibition of the ERK1/2 and NF-κB pathways. The compound may serve as a preventive and therapeutic agent for colon cancers(7).

8. Cervical Cancer
Phytochemicals present in tea, particularly polyphenols, have anticancer properties against several cancer types. In the study to investigate the mechanism of antiproliferative and apoptotic actions exerted by tea polyphenols on human papilloma virus-18-positive HeLa cervical cancer cells, showed that treatment of green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and black tea polyphenol theaflavins (TF) in HeLa cells showed a marked concentration- and time-dependent inhibition of proliferation and induced sub-G1 phase in a dose-dependent manner after 24 h. There was an attenuation of mitochondrial membrane potential with the increase of reactive oxygen species generation, p53 expression, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome-c release, and cleavage of procaspase-3 and -9 and poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase, indicating the participation of a mitochondria related mechanism. In addition, EGCG as well as TF inhibited activation of Akt and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) via blocking phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of inhibitor of kappaBalpha and kappaBbeta subunits, thereby downregulating cyclooxygenase-2(8).
Flavonoid quercetin found abundantly in green and black tea are associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis. Dr Vidya Priyadarsini R, and the research team at the Annamalai University, in the study of The flavonoid quercetin induces cell cycle arrest and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells through p53 induction and NF-κB inhibition, indicated that quercetin suppressed the viability of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner by inducing G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial apoptosis through a p53-dependent mechanism. This involved characteristic changes in nuclear morphology, phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins and NF-κB family members, upregulation of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, cytochrome C, Apaf-1 and caspases, and downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and survivin(8a)

9. Endometrial cancer
In the study to investigate the interactive effect of polymorphisms in the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) gene with soy isoflavones, tea consumption, and dietary fiber on endometrial cancer risk in a population-based, case-control study of 1,199 endometrial cancer patients and 1,212 controls, found that the Asp(327)Asn (rs6259) polymorphism was associated with decreased risk of endometrial cancer, particularly among postmenopausal women (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.62-1.00). This single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) modified associations of soy isoflavones and tea consumption but not fiber intake with endometrial cancer, with the inverse association of soy intake and tea consumption being more evident for those with the Asp/Asp genotype of the SHBG gene at Asp(327)Asn (rs6259), particularly premenopausal women (P(interaction) = 0.06 and 0.02, respectively, for soy isoflavones and tea intake)(9).

10. Hodgkin's lymphoma
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a phytochemicals found abundantly in green tea has enhanced the protective effects against Lymphoma. Dr, Yu AF, and scientists at the Fujian Medical University,in the study of [Demethylation and transcription of p16 gene in malignant lymphoma cell line CA46 induced by EGCG], found that after treatment with EGCG for 48 hours, the methylation level was apparently attenuated in a concentration-dependent manner. Expression of p16 gene in untreated group was mild while in the treated groups it had been greatly strengthened, as compared with untreated group, the gray scale ratio of p16 to beta-actin 1 treated with EGCG (6, 12, 24) microg/ml was increased from (0.05 +/- 0. 01) to (0.19 +/- 0.03), (0.39 +/- 0.10), (0.85 +/- 0.09) respectively, exhibiting a significant difference (p < 0.05); as compared with the untreated group, after treatment with EGCG for 48 hours, the expressions of DNMT3A and DNMT3B were obviously down-regulated. It is concluded that EGCG can activate and up-regulate the expression of p16 gene mRNA which inhibits the proliferation of CA46 cell through inducing the G(0)/G(1) arrest by demethylation and/or by inhibiting DNMT3A and DNMT3B gene(10).

11. Kaposi's sarcoma
In the study to investigate the effects of green tea and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) tested in a highly vascular Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) tumor model and on endothelial cells in a panel of in vivo and in vitro assays, showed that EGCG inhibited KS-IMM cell growth and endothelial cell growth, chemotaxis, and invasion over a range of doses; high concentrations also induced tumor cell apoptosis. EGCG inhibited the metalloprotease-mediated gelatinolytic activity produced by endothelial cell supernatants and the formation of new capillary-like structures in vitro. Green tea or purified EGCG when administered to mice in the drinking water inhibited angiogenesis in vivo in the Matrigel sponge model and restrained KS tumor growth(11).

12. Renal cell carcinoma (Kidney cancer/renal cells)
EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate) is a phytochemical found in green tea has showed to protect against the proliferation of renal cell carcinoma. "Before and after EGCG treatment, real-time methylation specific PCR could not detect methylation status of TFPI-2 gene promoter in cell line 786-0. In vivo invasiveness and metastasis test did not indicate any significant differences between control and treatment group. Our results suggest that EGCG inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma through TFPI-2 overexpression. This is the first report showing that EGCG is likely to be an effective agent for renal cell carcinoma" said scientists at the Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University(12).

13. Ovarian cancer
a. In prospective cohort study to investigate whether tea consumption can enhance the survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer conducted in Hangzhou, China, found that Compared to non-drinkers, the adjusted hazard ratios were 0.55 (95% CI = 0.34-0.90) for tea-drinkers, 0.43 (95% CI = 0.20-0.92) for consuming at least 1 cup of green tea/day, 0.44 (95% CI = 0.22-0.90) for brewing 1 batch or more of green tea/day, 0.40 (95% CI = 0.18-0.90) for consuming more than 500 g of dried tea leaves/year, and 0.38 (95% CI = 0.15-0.97) for consuming at least 2 g of dried tea leaves/batch. The corresponding dose-response relationships were significant (p < 0.05)(13).
b. Other suggested that studies on the health benefits of drinking tea, particularly green tea, are finding exciting results, particularly in cancer research. Modern studies in both Asia and the West have provided encouraging results indicating that drinking green tea contributes to fighting many different kinds of cancers including stomach, oesophageal, ovarian and colon(13a).

14. Thyroid cancer
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major catechin in green tea, was shown to possess remarkable therapeutic potential against various types of human cancer cells in in vitro and in vivo models.  In the study to investigate the effect of EGCG on the proliferation and apoptosis of ARO cells--human ATC cells, showed that EGCG treatment inhibited the growth of ARO cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, EGCG suppressed phosphorylation of EGFR, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. These changes were associated with increased p21 and reduced cyclin B1/CDK1 expression. In addition, EGCG treatment increased the accumulation of sub-G1 cell, activated caspase-3 and cleaved PARP(14).

15. Testicle cancer
on human testicular cancer cell line NT 2/DT matrigel invasion and MMP activity, showed that The nutrient mixture showed no significant effect on testis cancer cell growth. Zymography demonstrated secretion of MMP-2 by untreated human testis cancer cells and MMP-9 with PMA induction. NM inhibited secretion of both MMPs in a dose-dependent fashion with virtual total inhibition of MMP-9 at 100 microg/mL. Invasion of human testis cancer cells through Matrigel was reduced by 84% at 50 microg/mL and at 100 microg/mL (p = 0.004). NM significantly inhibited MMP secretion and matrix invasion in testicular cancer cells without toxic effect, indicating potential as an anticancer agent(15)

16. Skin Cancer
In the  investigations and mechanistic studies that define and support the photoprotective efficacy of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) against UV carcinogenesis, showed that oral administration of GTPs in drinking water or the topical application of EGCG prevents UVB-induced skin tumor development in mice, and this prevention is mediated through: (a) the induction of immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin (IL) 12; (b) IL-12-dependent DNA repair following nucleotide excision repair mechanism; (c) the inhibition of UV-induced immunosuppression through IL-12-dependent DNA repair; (d) the inhibition of angiogenic factors; and (e) the stimulation of cytotoxic T cells in a tumor microenvironment(16).

17. Prostate cancers
Tea polyphenols have been extensively studied in cell culture and animal models where they inhibited tumor onset and progression. "In vivo animal, and clinical intervention studies examine the effects of extracts of GT or purified (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on prostate carcinogenesis. These studies provide strong evidence supporting a chemopreventive effect of GT, but results from epidemiological studies of GT consumption are mixed. While the evidence for a chemopreventive effect of BT is much weaker than the body of evidence with regard to GT, there are several animal BT intervention studies demonstrating inhibition of CaP growth" said Dr. Henning SM, and the research team at the University of California(17)

18. Pharynx Cancer or pharyngeal cancer
In a study of a total of 20,550 men and 29,671 women aged 40-79 years, without any history of oral and pharyngeal cancer showed that for women, the HRs of oral cancer for green tea consumption of 1-2, 3-4, and 5 or more cups per day were 0.51 (95% CI: 0.10-2.68), 0.60 (95% CI: 0.17-2.10), and 0.31 (95% CI: 0.09-1.07), respectively, compared with those who drank less than one cup per day (p for trend, 0.08). For men, no such trends were observed(18).

19. Multiple myeloma (Myeloma)
(-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate extracted from green tea have exerted the inhibitory effect against multiple myeloma cells. Dr. Shammas MA and the research team at Veterans Administration Boston Health Care System, and Dana Farber Cancer Institute/Harvard Medical School, showed that EGCG interacts with the 67-kDa laminin receptor 1 (LR1), which is significantly elevated in myeloma cell lines and patient samples relative to normal PBMCs. RNAi-mediated inhibition of LR1 resulted in abrogation of EGCG-induced apoptosis in myeloma cells, indicating that LR1 plays an important role in mediating EGCG activity in MM while sparing PBMCs. Evaluation of changes in gene expression profile indicates that EGCG treatment activates distinct pathways of growth arrest and apoptosis in MM cells by inducing the expression of death-associated protein kinase 2, the initiators and mediators of death receptor-dependent apoptosis (Fas ligand, Fas, and caspase 4), p53-like proteins (p73, p63), positive regulators of apoptosis and NF-kappaB activation (CARD10, CARD14), and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (p16 and p18)(19).

20. Oral cancer
Green tea is important source of polyphenol antioxidants. Polyphenols including epigallocatechin 3 gallate (EGCG) constitute the most interesting components in green tea leaves. Green tea has the potential to protect against various malignant, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Dr. Narotzki B and the research team at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, indicated that Green tea protects against bacterial induced dental caries. Tea polyphenols possess antiviral properties, believed to help in protection from influenza virus. Additionally, green tea polyphenols can abolish halitosis through modification of odorant sulphur components. Oral cavity oxidative stress and inflammation, consequent to cigarette smoking and cigarettes' deleterious compounds nicotine and acrolein, may be reduced in the presence of green tea polyphenols. Generally, green tea defends healthy cells from malignant transformation and locally has the ability to induce apoptosis in oral cancer cells(20).


21. Melanoma skin cancer
In the study to determine the effect of green tea catechins on the invasive potential of human melanoma cells and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using A375 (BRAF-mutated) and Hs294t (Non-BRAF-mutated) melanoma cell lines as an in vitro model, showed that EGCG, a major green tea catechin, has the ability to inhibit melanoma cell invasion/migration, an essential step of metastasis, by targeting the endogenous expression of COX-2, PGE(2) receptors and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition(21).


22. Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major constituent of green tea polyphenols in green tea, has been shown to suppress cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis.In the study to investigate its efficacy and the mechanism underlying its effect using human B lymphoblastoid cell line Ramos, and effect of co-treatment with EGCG and a chemotherapeutic agent on apoptotic cell death found that pretreatment with diphenylene iodonium chloride, an inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidase and an antioxidant, partially suppressed both EGCG-induced apoptosis and production of ROS, implying that oxidative stress is involved in the apoptotic response. Furthermore, we showed that combined-treatment with EGCG and a chemotherapeutic agent, etoposide, synergistically induced apoptosis in Ramos cells(22).


23. Leukemia
In the study to investigate the association between green tea consumption and leukemia, Dr. Kuo YC, and scientists at the Harvard School of Public Health, indicated that a significant inverse association between green tea consumption and leukemia risk was found in individuals aged 16-29 years, whereas no significant association was found in the younger age groups. For the older group with higher amounts of tea consumption (>550 units of catechins), the adjusted odds ratio (OR) compared with the group without tea consumption was 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.23-0.97]. After we adjusted for smoking status and medical irradiation exposure, the overall OR for all participants was 0.49 (95% CI = 0.27-0.91), indicating an inverse relation between large amounts of catechins and leukemia(23).


24. Larynx Cancer or Laryngeal Cancer
In the study to evaluated the potential cytotoxic and prooxidative effects of green tea extract and its two main flavonoid constituents epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG) on human laryngeal carcinoma cell line (HEp2) and its cross-resistant cell line CK2, showed that EGCG and green tea extract increased the DNA damage in the CK2 cell line during short exposure. The cytotoxicity of EGCG and ECG increased with the time of incubation. Green tea extract induced lipid peroxidation in the CK2 cell line(24).


25. Etc.

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References
A. Quoted from the world most healthy foods
(1) http://www.ajcn.org/content/90/5/1390
(1a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19828710
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Sinecatechin%20and%20anogenital%20warts
(2a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19709100
(3) http://www.newswise.com/articles/view/540745/
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21383482
(4a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18388413
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19966940
(5a) http://www.mendeley.com/research/egcg-mitigates-neurotoxicity-mediated-hiv1-proteins-gp120-tat-presence-ifngamma-role-jakstat1-signaling-implications-hivassociated-dementia/
(6) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924224499000448
(6a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15378679
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21082353(7a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16462174
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(19) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19597519
(19a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16076989

B. Quoted from Phytochemicals in Foods
B.1. Catechin
Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20156466
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22027055
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20514403
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22269864
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22268108
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22256752
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22249118
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22246619
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12499631
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15011752
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22221215
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22211685
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22184430
(14) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22098273
(15) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22045026

B.2. Gallocatechin
Sources(1) http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf901545u
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22144737
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22022384
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22224265
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21903153
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21877759
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16506813
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21730371
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21498061
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20694569
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19735514
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21903153
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19557365

B.3. Epicatechin
Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20432242
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22191431
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20828315
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21945981
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16413414
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21046126
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21837753
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21705301
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21241417
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16519995
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20708524
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20623641
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20461739
(14) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20065503

B.4. Epigallocatechin
Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22280355
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17017850
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18657514
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20176036
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17296491
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1284389
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=epicatechin%20gallate%20and%20fat%20oxidation
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=epicatechin%20gallate%20and%20coginive%20effects
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17357329
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15730438
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10878235

B.5. Theaflavin
Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20528747
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22202062
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22155236
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22155187
(5) http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/163/12/1448
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22138428
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21887850
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21885260
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21545263
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21503789
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21323312
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20597096
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20514421

B.6. Theaflavin-3-gallate
Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21887850
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19049290
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16496576
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16404705
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20597096
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15248026
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10898615

B.7. Theaflavin-3'-gallate
Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21887850
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16496576
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16404705
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20597096
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15248026
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10898615

B.8. Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate
Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21887850
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16496576
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16404705
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20597096
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15248026
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10898615

B.9. Thearubigin
Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12533914
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12787838
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10766429
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19594545
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16314069
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15850895
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12842182
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12636103
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9535765

C. Quoted From Foods to prevent and treat diseases
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22742421
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15378679 
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21820650
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(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%20tyrosol%20and%20auto-immune%20diseases
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(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22456725
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21964320
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(17) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21832025
(18) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22239530
(19) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21947401
(20) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22480519 
(21) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12824094
(22) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22468171
(23) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22749178
(24) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18195068  
(25) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16395699 
(26) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22105803
(27) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16496576
(27a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21985858 

(28) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22022398
(29) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19390166 
(30) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22186621 
(31) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18156141  
(32) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=green%20tea%20and%20pertussis
(33) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20801949 
 
D. Quoted From Foods to prevent and treat cancers
Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21782236
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22641358
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21328612

(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20423994 
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11305413  
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8182766
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22101170
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21776820 
(8a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20858478
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19005973
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18928598 
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15269163 
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19212621  
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15382073
(13a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22039897 

(14) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21725973
(15) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17848742
(16) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17049833 
(17) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21538852 
(18) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17606381
(19) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16809610
(20) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22226360  
(21) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22022384 
(22) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17803956  
(23) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18752033 
(24) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21705301