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Saturday, 2 November 2013

4 Foods 4 Longevity and Diseases Free(3) - Turmeric


Over the years of research, 4 foods appeared mostly in medical studies in preventing and treating diseases, are Green Tea, Grape seed and skin, Turmeric and Soy. All Right Reserved.

III. Turmeric
Turmeric, principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice, a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, native to tropical South Asia, according to "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species" by E.W.C. Chan, Y.Y. Lim, S.K. Wong, K.K. Lim, S.P. Tan, F.S. Lianto and M.Y. Yong, posted in Science Direct. It has been used in traditional herbal medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent and to treat gastrointestinal symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome and other digestive disorders. Curcumin is a phytochemical found abundant in the plant. In acidic solutions (pH <7.4) it turns yellow, whereas in basic (pH > 8.6) solutions it turns bright red.

A. Quoted From Phytochemicals in Foods
1. Breast cancer
In a study of `Curcumin decreases survival of Hep3B liver and MCF-7 breast cancer cells: the role of HIF.` by Ströfer M, Jelkmann W, Depping R. (Source from Department of Physiology, Center for Structural and Cell Biology in Medicine, University of Luebeck, Luebeck, Germany. troefer@physio.uni-luebeck.de) posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that effects of curcumin on cell growth and survival factor expression suggest its potential benefit in the treatment of cancer without a direct radiosensitizing influence of curcumin on these cells.

2. Cancers and Alzheimer's disease and Anti-inflammatory agent
a. Cancers
According to the study of `Induction of apoptosis by curcumin and its implications for cancer therapy.` by Karunagaran D, Rashmi R, Kumar TR. (Cancer Biology Laboratory, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 014, India.dkarunagaran@hotmail.com), posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, reseachers found that this review describes the mechanisms of curcumin-induced apoptosis currently known, and suggests several potential strategies that include down-regulation of antiapoptotic proteins by antisense oligonucleotides, use of proapoptotic peptides and combination therapy, and other novel approaches against chemoresistant tumors. Several factors including pharmacological safety, scope for improvement of structure and function of curcumin and its ability to attack multiple targets are in favor of curcumin being developed as a drug for prevention and therapy of various cancers.



In an article of `Don't Go Easy on Turmeric: It Prevents and Cures Cancer` by By VIJI SUNDARAM, India-West Staff Reporter(WEST PUBLICATIONS(Copyright India-West, July 15, 2005, www.indiawest.com), receptor wrote that Dr. Bharat Aggarwal, who headed the 12-member team of researchers at UT's M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, told India-West in a telephone interview earlier this week that his clinical research has made available not only "the master switch to turn off cancer, but also a cure for it. It was already known that curcumin can prevent cancer," Aggarwal said. "Now it can also be used to cure cancer." And, he added: "We are providing evidence that curcumin can work on at least one dozen cancers." Because of turmeric's extensive use in foods in India and Pakistan, the incidence of cancer, especially breast, colon, prostate and lung, is a lot less in those countries, Aggarwal said. And because south Indians use turmeric more widely than north Indians, "the prevalence of cancer is less among them than among north Indians," he said.
2. Alzheimer's disease
According to Aggarwal, the team determined that curcumin is more effective in inhibiting formation of the protein fragments than many other drugs being tested to treat Alzheimer's. The prevalence of the disease among older adults in India is 4.4 times less than in the U.S., suggesting that many Indians might be benefiting from having turmeric as a dietary staple.
In other study of `NSAID and antioxidant prevention of Alzheimer's disease: lessons from in vitro and animal models.`by Cole GM, Morihara T, Lim GP, Yang F, Begum A, Frautschy SA. (Source from Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Veterans Administration Medical Center, North Hills, CA 91343, USA. gmcole@ucla.edu) posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, reseachers found that the unconventional NSAID/antioxidant curcumin was effective, lowering oxidative damage, cognitive deficits, synaptic marker loss, and amyloid deposition. Curcumin proved to be immunomodulatory, simultaneously inhibiting cytokine and microglial activation indices related to neurotoxicity, but increasing an index of phagocytosis. Curcumin directly targeted Abeta and was also effective in other models, warranting further preclinical and clinical exploration.

3. Anti-inflammatory agent
According to the study of evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of curcumin (diferuloyl methane) in patients with postoperative inflammation. by Satoskar RR, Shah SJ, Shenoy SG., poated in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers wrote that In this model of postoperative inflammation, the anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin (diferuloyl methane) was investigated in comparison with phenylbutazone and placebo. Phenylbutazone and curcumin produced a better anti-inflammatory response than placebo.

4. Antioxidants
In a study of `Protective Role of Curcumin Against Oxidative Stress,Immunosuppressive and Cytotoxic Effects of Lead Exposure` by Mahmoud El-sherbiny, Azza Araffa, Mona Mantawy and Hany M. Hassan (Therapeutic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre - Dokki, Giza, Egypt. Immunology Department, Animal Reproduction Research Institute (ARRI), Giza, Egypt), posted in World Applied Sciences Journal 12 (10): 1832-1838, 2011, researchers found that
ground, curcumin's benefits on tumorigenesis are thought to be mediated by its antiinflammatory activity; however, these effects have not been well characterized in a mouse model of colon cancer. Briefly, curcumin is efficacious for chronic nonbacterial prostatitis in rats and the action mechanism may be associated with its decreasing effect on the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-alpha in the blood and tissues. Curcumin has protective effect on DNA of pulmonary cells. There was direct evidence for an involvement of curcumin in reducing arsenic and lead induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice by virtue of its antioxidant potential and trapping of free radicals. The current investigation concluded that curcumin has protective role against cytotoxic, immunosuppressive , oxidative and immunosuppressive profile that perform due to lead acetate exposure.

5. Amyloidosis
In a study of `Curcumin inhibits formation of amyloid beta oligomers and fibrils, binds plaques, and reduces amyloid in vivo.`by Yang F, Lim GP, Begum AN, Ubeda OJ, Simmons MR, Ambegaokar SS, Chen PP, Kayed R, Glabe CG, Frautschy SA, Cole GM. (Source from Department of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.) posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that curcumin labeled plaques and reduced amyloid levels and plaque burden. Hence, curcumin directly binds small beta-amyloid species to block aggregation and fibril formation in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that low dose curcumin effectively disaggregates Abeta as well as prevents fibril and oligomer formation, supporting the rationale for curcumin use in clinical trials preventing or treating AD.

6. Chronic anterior uveitis
In a study of `Efficacy of curcumin in the management of chronic anterior uveitis.`by Lal B, Kapoor AK, Asthana OP, Agrawal PK, Prasad R, Kumar P, Srimal RC. (Source from Department of Ophthalmology, K.G. Medical College, Lucknow, India.) posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that the efficacy of curcumin and recurrences following treatment are comparable to corticosteroid therapy which is presently the only available standard treatment for this disease. The lack of side effects with curcumin is its greatest advantage compared with corticosteroids. A double blind multi-centric clinical trial with this drug in CAU is highly desirable to further validate the results of the present study.

7. Improve Learning and Memory Ability
According to the researcher of `Curcumin improves learning and memory ability and its neuroprotective mechanism in mice.`by Pan R, Qiu S, Lu DX, Dong J. (Source from Department of Orthopedics, the First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.) posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, the result of the study indicated that curcumin significantly improved the memory ability of AD mice in the step-through test, as indicated by the reduced number of step-through errors (P < 0.05) and prolonged step-through latency (P < 0.05). Curcumin also attenuated the neuropathological changes in the hippocampus and inhibited apoptosis accompanied by an increase in Bcl-2 level (P < 0.05), but the activity of Bax did not change (P > 0.05). AlCl(3) significantly reduced the viability of PC12 cells (P < 0.01). Curcumin increased cell viability in the presence of AlCl(3) (P < 0.01). The rate of apoptosis decreased significantly in the curcumin group (P < 0.05) when measured by flow cytometric analysis. Curcumin protected cells by increasing Bcl-2 level (P < 0.05), but the level of Bax did not change (P > 0.05)., researchers conclude that this study demonstrates that curcumin improves the memory ability of AD mice and inhibits apoptosis in cultured PC12 cells induced by AlCl(3). Its mechanism may involve enhancing the level of Bcl-2.

8. Gall-bladder function
In a study of `The effect of curcumin and placebo on human gall-bladder function: an ultrasound study.`by Rasyid A, Lelo A. ( from Source Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia.) posted in posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that The fasting gall-bladder volumes of 15.74 +/- 4.29 mL on curcumin and 15.98 +/- 4.08 mL on placebo were similar (P > 0.20). The gall-bladder volume was reduced within the period after curcumin administration. The percentage of gall-bladder volume reduction at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 h after 20 mg curcumin administration were 11.8 +/- 6.9, 16.8 +/- 7.4, 22.0 +/- 8.5 and 29. 3 +/- 8.3%, respectively, which was statistically significant compared to placebo.

9. Eicosanoidand Blood Platelets
In a study of `Curcumin, a major component of food spice turmeric (Curcuma longa) inhibits aggregation and alters eicosanoid metabolism in human blood platelets.`by Srivastava KC, Bordia A, Verma SK. (Source from Department of Environmental Medicine, Odense University Denmark.) posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that this compound inhibited thromboxane B2 (TXB2) production from exogenous [14C] arachidonate in washed platelets with a concomitant increase in the formation of 12-lipoxygenase products. Moreover, curcumin inhibited the incorporation of [14C]AA into platelet phospholipids and inhibited the deacylation of AA-labelled phospholipids (liberation of free AA) on stimulation with calcium ionophore A23187. Curcumin's anti-inflammatory property may, in part, be explained by its effects on eicosanoid biosynthesis.

10. Cellular Processing
According to the research of `Evidence against the rescue of defective DeltaF508-CFTR cellular processing by curcumin in cell culture and mouse models.`by Song Y, Sonawane ND, Salinas D, Qian L, Pedemonte N, Galietta LJ, Verkman AS. (Source from Department of Medicine and Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA. Copyright 2004 American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.) posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that assay of serum curcumin by ethyl acetate extraction followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry indicated a maximum serum concentration of 60 nm, well below that of 5-15 microm, where cellular effects by sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium pump inhibition are proposed to occur. Our results do not support further evaluation of curcumin for cystic fibrosis therapy.

11. Chemopreventative blocking agents

In a study of Effect of the beta-diketones diferuloylmethane (curcumin) and dibenzoylmethane on rat mammary DNA adducts and tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene.
Singletary K, MacDonald C, Iovinelli M, Fisher C, Wallig M. by (Source from Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana 61801, USA.)
posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, reseachers found that Female rats provided diets supplemented with dibenzoylmethane at 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0% for 14 days prior to dosing with DMBA exhibited a significant decrease in mammary tumor development, compared with controls. However, tumor development for animals fed diets containing 1.0% curcumin was not different from that of controls. Therefore, dibenzoylmethane, and possibly other structurally-related beta-diketones, warrant examination as breast cancer chemopreventative blocking agents.

12. Lymphomas/Leukemias
In a study of `Effect of dietary curcumin and dibenzoylmethane on formation of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumors and lymphomas/leukemias in Sencar mice.`by Huang MT, Lou YR, Xie JG, Ma W, Lu YP, Yen P, Zhu BT, Newmark H, Ho CT. (Source from Laboratory for Cancer Research, College of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway 08854-8020, USA.) US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that the incidence of lymphomas/leukemias was completely inhibited by 1% DBM diet. In contrast, feeding 2% curcumin diet had little or no effect on the incidence of mammary tumors, and the incidence of lymphomas/leukemias was reduced by 53%.

13. Angiogenesis InhibitorAccording to the study of `Curcumin as an inhibitor of angiogenesis.`by Bhandarkar SS, Arbiser JL.(Source from Department of Dermatology, Emory University School of Medicine, Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. ssbhand@emory.edu) posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that Curcumin shows a dose-dependent inhibition on tumor necrosis factor, a versatile cytokine, which has its effect on angiogenesis through the signal transduction pathways, expression of proangiogenic factors, and cell adhesion molecules. Curcumin's effect on the overall process of angiogenesis compounds its enormous potential as an antiangiogenic drug.

14. Perisinusoidal Cells (Hepatic Stellate Cell (HSC))
In a study of `De novo synthesis of glutathione is a prerequisite for curcumin to inhibit hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation.`by Zheng S, Yumei F, Chen A. (Source from Department of Pharmacology, Nanjing Medical University, China.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that
De novo synthesis of GSH is a prerequisite for curcumin to inhibit HSC activation. These results provide novel insights into the mechanisms of curcumin as an antifibrogenic candidate in the prevention and treatment of hepatic fibrosis.

15. Liver Disease
According to the study of `Curcumin prevents alcohol-induced liver disease in rats by inhibiting the expression of NF-kappa B-dependent genes.`by Nanji AA, Jokelainen K, Tipoe GL, Rahemtulla A, Thomas P, Dannenberg AJ. (Source from Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4283, USA. amin.nanji@uphs.upenn.edu) posed in PubMed, researchers found that
Treatment with curcumin prevented both the pathological and biochemical changes induced by alcohol. Because endotoxin and the Kupffer cell are implicated in the pathogenesis of ALD, we investigated whether curcumin suppressed the stimulatory effects of endotoxin in isolated Kupffer cells. Curcumin blocked endotoxin-mediated activation of NF-kappaB and suppressed the expression of cytokines, chemokines, COX-2, and iNOS in Kupffer cells. Thus curcumin prevents experimental ALD, in part by suppressing induction of NF-kappaB-dependent genes.

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B. Quoted From The World Most Popular Herbs
1. Pancreatic cancer
In the study of the cytotoxic effect of Turmeric Force (TF), a supercritical and hydroethanolic extracted from turmeric, alone and in combination with gemcitabine in two pancreatic carcinoma cell lines (BxPC3 and Panc-1), found that TF induced cell death in 96% of the cells at 50 microg/ml. The combination of gemcitabine and TF was synergistic with IC90 levels achieved in both pancreatic cancer cell lines at lower concentrations. CalcuSyn analysis of cytotoxicity data showed that the Gemcitabine + Turmeric Force combination has strong synergism with combination index (CI) values of 0.050 and 0.183 in BxPC3 and Panc-1 lines, respectively at IC50 level, according to "Potentiation of gemcitabine by Turmeric Force in pancreatic cancer cell lines" by Ramachandran C, Resek AP, Escalon E, Aviram A, Melnick SJ.(1)

2. Cancer Therapy
In the investigation of the effect of an ethanol extract of turmeric ("Curcuma longa") as well as an ointment of curcumin (its active ingredient) in relieving symptoms in patients with external cancerous lesions, found that Reduction in smell were noted in 90% of the cases and reduction in itching in almost all cases. Dry lesions were observed in 70% of the cases, and a small number of patients (10%) had a reduction in lesion size and pain. In many patients the effect continued for several months. An adverse reaction was noticed in only one of the 62 patients evaluated, according to" Turmeric and curcumin as topical agents in cancer therapy" by Kuttan R, Sudheeran PC, Josph CD.(2)

3. Anti cancer effects
In assessment of the anticancer activity of the rhizomes of turmeric, in vitro, using tissue culture methods and in vivo in mice, found that Cytotoxic effect was found within 30 min at room temperature (30 degrees C). The active constituent was found to be 'curcumin' which showed cytotoxicity to lymphocytes and Dalton's lymphoma cells at a concentration of 4 micrograms/ml. Initial experiments indicated that turmeric extract and curcumin reduced the development of animal tumours, according to "Potential anticancer activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa)" by Kuttan R, Bhanumathy P, Nirmala K, George MC.(3)

4. Antifungal activity
In the determination of the urmeric oil and curcumin, isolated from Curcuma longa L., effects against fifteen isolates of dermatophytes, four isolates of pathogenic molds and six isolates of yeasts, found that turmeric oil (dilution 1:80) was applied by dermal application on the 7th day following dermatophytosis induction with Trichophyton rubrum. An improvement in lesions was observed in 2-5 days and the lesions disappeared 6-7 days after the application of turmeric oil, accoridng to "Antifungal activity of turmeric oil extracted from Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae)" by Apisariyakul A, Vanittanakom N, Buddhasukh D.(4)

5. Anti prostate diseases
In the examination of the use of turmeric, derived from the root of the plant curcuma longa, for the treatment of various diseases in Ayurveda and in Traditional Chinese Medicine for thousands of years, indicated that extensive research over the last decade has indicated that this polyphenol can both prevent and treat prostatic diseases, according to "[Curcumin in the treatment of prostatic diseases].[Article in Chinese]" by Chen ZQ, Mo ZN.(5)

6. Anti inflammatory effects
In a systematic review of the literature was to summarize the literature on the safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin, found that curcumin has been demonstrated to be safe in six human trials and has demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. It may exert its anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of a number of different molecules that play a role in inflammation, according to "Safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin: a component of tumeric (Curcuma longa)" by Chainani-Wu N (6)

7. Antioxidants
In the research of a literature search (PubMed) of almost 1500 papers dealing with curcumin, most from recent years, with ll available abstracts were read and pproximately 300 full papers were reviewed, found that curcumin, a component of turmeric, has been shown to be non-toxic, to have antioxidant activity, and to inhibit such mediators of inflammation as NFkappaB, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), lipooxygenase (LOX), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Significant preventive and/or curative effects have been observed in experimental animal models of a number of diseases, including arteriosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, respiratory, hepatic, pancreatic, intestinal and gastric diseases, neurodegenerative and eye diseases, "Curcumin, an atoxic antioxidant and natural NFkappaB, cyclooxygenase-2, lipooxygenase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor: a shield against acute and chronic diseases" by Bengmark S.(7)

8. Neuroprotective effect
In the finding of the A Potential Neuroprotective Agent in treating Parkinson's Disease, found that curcumin exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, crosses the blood-brain barrier and is neuroprotective in neurological disorders. Several studies in different experimental models of PD strongly support the clinical application of curcumin in PD. The current review explores the therapeutic potential of curcumin in PD, according to "Curcumin: A Potential Neuroprotective Agent in Parkinson's Disease" by Mythri RB, Bharath MS.(8)

9. Antiarthritic efficacy
In the determination of the antiarthritic efficacy and mechanism of action of a well-characterized turmeric extract using an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), found that a turmeric fraction depleted of essential oils profoundly inhibited joint inflammation and periarticular joint destruction in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo treatment prevented local activation of NF-kappaB and the subsequent expression of NF-kappaB-regulated genes mediating joint inflammation and destruction, including chemokines, cyclooxygenase 2, and RANKL, according to "Efficacy and mechanism of action of turmeric supplements in the treatment of experimental arthritis" by Funk JL, Frye JB, Oyarzo JN, Kuscuoglu N, Wilson J, McCaffrey G, Stafford G, Chen G, Lantz RC, Jolad SD, Sólyom AM, Kiela PR, Timmermann BN.(9)

10. Gastrointestinal diseases
In the explore more systematically in various diseases of curcumin's therapeutic promise,
indicated that curcumin may be particularly suited to be developed to treat gastrointestinal diseases. This review summarizes some of the current literature of curcumin's anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer potential in inflammatory bowel diseases, hepatic fibrosis and gastrointestinal cancers, according to "Therapeutic potential of curcumin in gastrointestinal diseases" by Rajasekaran SA.(10)

11. Diabetes
In identification of turmeric, a water-soluble peptide in turmeric rhizomes,and its inhibitory potential against glucosidase and its antioxidant (AO) capacity, indicated that Turmerin showed good DPPH (IC(50) = 29 µg mL(-1)) and superoxide (IC(50) = 48 µg mL(-1)) and moderate ABTS (IC(50) = 83 µg mL(-1)) radical scavenging and Fe(II) chelation (IC(50) = 101 µg mL(-1)) capacities. The inhibitory potential showed by turmerin against enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes, as well as its moderate AO capacity, could rationalise the traditional usage of turmeric rhizome preparations against diabetes, according to "Turmerin, the antioxidant protein from turmeric (Curcuma longa) exhibits antihyperglycaemic effects" by Lekshmi PC, Arimboor R, Raghu KG, Menon AN.(11)

12. Wound healing
In the testing the effect of wound healing of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa) paste in a preclinical study in an animal model, found that Only tensile strength was measured on day 14 of treatment. It was observed that the wound healing was statistically significantly faster (P < .01) in both treatment groups compared to the control group, according to "Turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizome paste and honey show similar wound healing potential: a preclinical study in rabbits" by Kundu S, Biswas TK, Das P, Kumar S, De DK.(12)

13. Etc.

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C. Quoted Foods to prevent and treat diseases
1. Anxiety
In the study to evaluate the effect of curcumin (10 and 20mg/kg), an active constituent of Curcuma longa was evaluated for its antianxiety-like activity in mice subjected to immobilization-induced restraint stress for 6h, indicated that the combination of aminoguanidine and curcumin significantly decreased the plasma nitrite levels as compared to curcumin and aminoguanidine per se in stressed mice. Curcumin and aminoguanidine did not produce any significant change in brain GABA contents of the animals. Diazepam (2mg/kg) produced significant anxiolytic-like effect only in unstressed mice, but could not exert significant anxiolysis in stressed mice. However, diazepam significantly increased GABA contents in both unstressed and stressed mice as compared to respective control groups. These findings suggest the possible involvement of only inducible NOS and not neuronal NOS in antianxiety-like effect of curcumin(1).

2. Alzheimer's disease
Turmeric, principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice, a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, native to tropical South Asia, according to "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species" by E.W.C. Chan, Y.Y. Lim, S.K. Wong, K.K. Lim, S.P. Tan, F.S. Lianto and M.Y. Yong, posted in Science Direct. It has been used in traditional herbal medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent and to treat gastrointestinal symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome and other digestive disorders.
 Curcumin is a phytochemical found abundant in the plant. In acidic solutions (pH <7.4) it turns yellow, whereas in basic (pH > 8.6) solutions it turns bright red.
In other study of `NSAID and antioxidant prevention of Alzheimer's disease: lessons from in vitro and animal models.`by Cole GM, Morihara T, Lim GP, Yang F, Begum A, Frautschy SA. (Source from Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Veterans Administration Medical Center, North Hills, CA 91343, USA. gmcole@ucla.edu) posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, reseachers found that the unconventional NSAID/antioxidant curcumin was effective, lowering oxidative damage, cognitive deficits, synaptic marker loss, and amyloid deposition. Curcumin proved to be immunomodulatory, simultaneously inhibiting cytokine and microglial activation indices related to neurotoxicity, but increasing an index of phagocytosis. Curcumin directly targeted Abeta and was also effective in other models, warranting further preclinical and clinical exploration(2).

3. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) rhizomes contain two classes of secondary metabolites, curcuminoids and the less well-studied essential oils. Dr. Funk JL and research team at the University of Arizona, indicated that Crude or refined TEO extracts dramatically inhibited joint swelling (90-100% inhibition) in female rats with streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis when extracts were administered via intraperitoneal injection to maximize uniform delivery. However, this anti-arthritic effect was accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Oral administration of a 20-fold higher dose TEO was nontoxic, but only mildly joint-protective (20% inhibition). These results do not support the isolated use of TEO for arthritis treatment but, instead, identify potential safety concerns in vertebrates exposed to TEO(3).

4. Polymalagia Arthritis(PMR)
Turmeric, principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice, a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, native to tropical South Asia.
a. Anti inflammatory effects
In a systematic review of the literature was to summarize the literature on the safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin, found that curcumin has been demonstrated to be safe in six human trials and has demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. It may exert its anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of a number of different molecules that play a role in inflammation, according to "Safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin: a component of tumeric (Curcuma longa)" by Chainani-Wu N (4)
b. Antioxidants
In the research of a literature search (PubMed) of almost 1500 papers dealing with curcumin, most from recent years, with ll available abstracts were read and pproximately 300 full papers were reviewed, found that curcumin, a component of turmeric, has been shown to be non-toxic, to have antioxidant activity, and to inhibit such mediators of inflammation as NFkappaB, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), lipooxygenase (LOX), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Significant preventive and/or curative effects have been observed in experimental animal models of a number of diseases, including arteriosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, respiratory, hepatic, pancreatic, intestinal and gastric diseases, neurodegenerative and eye diseases, "Curcumin, an atoxic antioxidant and natural NFkappaB, cyclooxygenase-2, lipooxygenase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor: a shield against acute and chronic diseases" by Bengmark S.(4a)

5. Chlamydia
In the study to evaluate the Berberine of a plant alkaloid with a long history of medicinal use in both Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine, presented abundantly in turmeric, found that erberine extracts and decoctions have demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity against a variety of organisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans, helminths, and chlamydia. Currently, the predominant clinical uses of berberine include bacterial diarrhea, intestinal parasite infections, and ocular trachoma infections(5)

6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Cadmium is a toxic metal present in the environment and its inhalation can lead to pulmonary disease such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These lung diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation. In the study of Curcumin regulates airway epithelial cell cytokine responses to the pollutant cadmium, researchers found that the natural antioxidant curcumin could prevent both cadmium-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, curcumin could be used to prevent airway inflammation due to cadmium inhalation(6). 

7. Diabetes
In the evaluation of the effect of feeding 0.5% curcumin diet or 1% cholesterol diet  in albino rats rendered diabetic with streptozotocin injection, indicated that curcumin feeding improves the metabolic status in diabetic conditions, despite no effect on hyperglycemic status or the body weights. The mechanism by which curcumin improves this situation is probably by virtue of its hypocholesterolemic influence, antioxidant nature and free radical scavenging property(7).

8. Depression
Curcumin is a major active compound of Curcuma longa. In the study to investigate the effect of curcumin on endogenous glutamate release in nerve terminals of rat prefrontal cortex and the underlying mechanisms, suggested that curcumin inhibits evoked glutamate release from rat prefrontocortical synaptosomes by the suppression of presynaptic Ca(v)2.2 and Ca(v)2.1 channels. The inhibitory effect of curcumin on 4-AP-evoked glutamate release was completely abolished by the clinically effective antidepressant fluoxetine. This suggests that curcumin and fluoxetine use a common intracellular mechanism to inhibit glutamate release from rat prefrontal cortex nerve terminals(8).

9. Crohn's disease
The up regulation of gut mucosal cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and oxidative stress have been related to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). In the study to investigate an immune-mediated model of colitis. TNF-α injected intraperitonally to mice induced a dose-dependent recruitment of neutrophils into abdominal mesentery, showed that AG and Cur treatments significantly attenuated the hallmarks of oxidative stress, neutrophils influx and ROS-related cellular and histological damages, in TNF-α-treated mice. Taken together, our results provide insights into the role of phagocytes-derived oxidants in TNF-α-colitis in mice. Cur and AG, by inhibiting neutrophils priming and iNOsynthase could be effective against oxidative bowel damages induced in IBD by imbalanced gut immune response(9).

10. Fibroids
Uterine leiomyomas are the most common gynaecological benign tumour and greatly affect reproductive health and wellbeing. Curcumin, a well-known component of turmeric, has been reported to prevent various diseases such as cancer, diabetes and obesity. Researchers at Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, suggested that curcumin significantly inhibited ELT-3 cell proliferation. PPARγ was expressed in ELT-3 cells and curcumin acted as a PPARγ ligand. This inhibitory effect of curcumin was attenuated by the treatment of cells with PPARγ antagonist(10).

11. Flu (influenza)
In the studt to investigate selected polyphenols for their antiviral activity against influenza A and B viruses. Among the polyphenols, isoquercetin inhibited the replication of both influenza A and B viruses at the lowest effective concentration. In a double treatment of isoquercetin and amantadine, synergistic effects were observed on the reduction of viral replication in vitro. The serial passages of virus in the presence of isoquercetin did not lead to the emergence of resistant virus, and the addition of isoquercetin to amantadine or oseltamivir treatment suppressed the emergence of amantadine- or oseltamivir-resistant virus. In a mouse model of influenza virus infection, isoquercetin administered intraperitoneally to mice inoculated with human influenza A virus significantly decreased the virus titers and pathological changes in the lung. Our results suggest that isoquercetin may have the potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of influenza virus infection and for the suppression of resistance in combination therapy with existing drugs.(11).

12. Hepatitis
Curcumin has not only shown anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antifungal, antibacterial and anticancer activities but also has had the ability to inhibit several factors like nuclear factor-kappaB, which modulates several pro-inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines as well as its anti-oxidant properties, provide a rational molecular basis to use it in hepatic disorders. Curcumin attenuates liver injury induced by ethanol, thioacetamide, iron overdose, cholestasis and acute, subchronic and chronic carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) intoxication; moreover, it reverses CCl(4) cirrhosis to some extent(12).

13. Genital herpes
In the study to investigate Curcumin, a phenolic compound from the curry spice turmeric in exhibiting a wide range of activities in eukaryotic cells, including antiviral effect, found that curcumin affects VP16-mediated recruitment of RNA polymerase II to IE gene promoters by a mechanism independent of p300/CBP histone acetyltransferase activity(13).

14. Irritable bowel syndrome
In the study to  assess the effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa) extract on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptomology in otherwise healthy adults, indicated that IBS prevalence decreased significantly in both groups between screening and baseline (41% and 57%), with a further significant drop of 53% and 60% between baseline and after treatment, in the one- and two-tablet groups respectively (p < 0.001). A post-study analysis revealed abdominal pain/discomfort score reduced significantly by 22% and 25% in the one- and two-tablet group respectively, the difference tending toward significance (p = 0.071). There were significant improvements in all bar one of the IBSQOL scales of between 5% and 36% in both groups, approximately two thirds of all subjects reported an improvement in symptoms after treatment, and there was a favorable shift in self-reported bowel pattern(14).

15. Liver disease
In the stdu8y to evaluate the protective role of soy against CCl(4)-induced liver damage in rats as four experimental groups were treated for 8 weeks and included the control group,showed that Supplementation with soy succeeded to restore the elevation of liver enzymes activities and improved serum biochemical parameters. Moreover, soy supplementation improved the antioxidant enzymes, decreased lipid peroxidation, and improved the histological picture of the liver tissue. It could be concluded that soy-protein-enriched isoflavones may be a promising agent against liver diseases(15).

16. Lupus Cerebritis
c. Anti inflammatory effects
In a systematic review of the literature was to summarize the literature on the safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin, found that curcumin has been demonstrated to be safe in six human trials and has demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. It may exert its anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of a number of different molecules that play a role in inflammation, according to "Safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin: a component of tumeric (Curcuma longa)" by Chainani-Wu N.

b. Antioxidants
In the research of a literature search (PubMed) of almost 1500 papers dealing with curcumin, most from recent years, with ll available abstracts were read and pproximately 300 full papers were reviewed, found that curcumin, a component of turmeric, has been shown to be non-toxic, to have antioxidant activity, and to inhibit such mediators of inflammation as NFkappaB, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), lipooxygenase (LOX), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Significant preventive and/or curative effects have been observed in experimental animal models of a number of diseases, including arteriosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, respiratory, hepatic, pancreatic, intestinal and gastric diseases, neurodegenerative and eye diseases, "Curcumin, an atoxic antioxidant and natural NFkappaB, cyclooxygenase-2, lipooxygenase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor: a shield against acute and chronic diseases" by Bengmark S.

c. Neuroprotective effect
In the finding of the A Potential Neuroprotective Agent in treating Parkinson's Disease, found that curcumin exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, crosses the blood-brain barrier and is neuroprotective in neurological disorders. Several studies in different experimental models of PD strongly support the clinical application of curcumin in PD. The current review explores the therapeutic potential of curcumin in PD, according to "Curcumin: A Potential Neuroprotective Agent in Parkinson's Disease" by Mythri RB, Bharath MS.

17. Multiple sclerosis
In the study of Curcuminoids in Neurodegenerative Diseases, by Dr. Kim DS and research team at the Core LifeSource Inc., showed that curcuminoids found in turmeric prevent β-synuclein aggregation in PD; attenuate ROS-induced COX-2 expression in ALS; ameliorate the symptoms of MS, DE and traumatic brain injury, in addition to neurodamages caused by heavy metal poisoning(4). Others suggested that Curcumin, a dietary spice from turmeric, has outstanding anti-inflammation and neuroprotective effects(17).

18. Obesity
In the study to investigate the effect of curcumin, the major polyphenol in turmeric spice, on angiogenesis, adipogenesis, differentiation, apoptosis, and gene expression involved in lipid and energy metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocyte in cell culture systems and on body weight gain and adiposity in mice, found that in vivo effect of curcumin on the expression of these enzymes was also confirmed by real-time RT-PCR in subcutaneous adipose tissue. In addition, curcumin significantly lowered serum cholesterol and expression of PPARgamma and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, 2 key transcription factors in adipogenesis and lipogenesis. The curcumin suppression of angiogenesis in adipose tissue together with its effect on lipid metabolism in adipocytes may contribute to lower body fat and body weight gain(18).

19. Pelvic inflammatory disease
According to the study of evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of curcumin (diferuloyl methane) in patients with postoperative inflammation by Satoskar RR, Shah SJ, Shenoy SG., poated in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers wrote that In this model of postoperative inflammation, the anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin (diferuloyl methane) was investigated in comparison with phenylbutazone and placebo. Phenylbutazone and curcumin produced a better anti-inflammatory response than placebo(19).

20. Etc.

D. Quoted Foods to prevent and treat cancers
1. Bone cancer (Osteosarcoma(35%))
Curcumin the main ingredient of turmeric has shown to induce cell apoptosis in human osteosarcoma. Dr. Li Y, and scientists at the Qilu Hospital, Shandong University indicated that curcumin caused marked inhibition of osteosarcoma cell growth and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. This was associated with concomitant attenuation of Notch-1 and downregulation of its downstream genes, such as matrix metalloproteinases, resulting in the inhibition of osteosarcoma cell invasion through Matrigel. We also found that specific downregulation of Notch-1 via small-interfering RNA prior to curcumin treatment resulted in enhanced inhibition of cell growth and invasion(1).

2. Bone cancer (Chondrosarcoma(25%))
Turmeric, principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice, a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, native to tropical South Asia, Curcumin the main ingredient of turmeric has shown to induce cell apoptosis in human chondrosarcoma. Dr. Lee HP, and scientists at the China Medical University Hospital, found that Curcumin induced upregulation of Fas, FasL, and DR5 expression in chondrosarcoma cells. Transfection of cells with Fas, FasL, or DR5 siRNA reduced curcumin-induced cell death. In addition, p53 involved in curcumin-mediated Fas, FasL, and DR5 expression and cell apoptosis in chondrosarcoma cells. Most importantly, animal studies revealed a dramatic 60% reduction in tumor volume after 21days of treatment(2).

3. Bone cancer (Ewing's sarcoma(16%))
Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound found in the turmeric. Under investigation as a chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agent in adult cancer models at both pre-clinical and clinical levels. In this preliminary study, showed that curcumin is effective in causing cell cycle arrest, inducing apoptosis, and suppressing colony formation in the Ewing sarcoma cell line SK-NEP-1. Curcumin causes upregulation of cleaved caspase 3 and downregulation of phospho-Akt, producing apoptosis in Ewing sarcoma cells at an inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) of approximately 4 μM. (3)

4. Cervical cancer
Epidemiological and preclinical evidence suggests that polyphenolic phytochemicals exemplified by epigallocatechin gallate from tea, curcumin from curry and soya isoflavones possess cancer chemopreventive properties. Dr. Thomasset SC and scientists at the University of Leicester, in the review of above showed that the available evidence for tea polyphenols tentatively supports their advancement into phase III clinical intervention trials aimed at the prevention of progression of prostate intraepithelial neoplasia, leukoplakia or premalignant cervical disease. In the case of curcumin and soya isoflavones more studies in premalignacies seem appropriate to optimise the nature and design of suitable phase III trials. The abundance of flavonoids and related polyphenols in the plant kingdom makes it possible that several hitherto uncharacterised agents with chemopreventive efficacy are still to be identified, which may constitute attractive alternatives to currently used chemopreventive drugs(4).

5. Hodgkin's lymphoma
 Turmeric, a principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice, a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, native to tropical South Asia, according to "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species" by E.W.C. Chan, Y.Y. Lim, S.K. Wong, K.K. Lim, S.P. Tan, F.S. Lianto and M.Y. Yong, posted in Science Direct. It has been used in traditional herbal medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent and to treat gastrointestinal symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome and other digestive disorders. Curcumin is a phytochemical found abundant in the plant. In acidic solutions (pH <7.4) it turns yellow, whereas in basic (pH > 8.6) solutions it turns bright red. In the study to to find new therapies that specifically target the deregulated signaling cascades, such as NF-kappaB and STAT3, which cause Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (H-RS) cell proliferation and resistance of apoptosis, indicated that Curcumin is incorporated into H-RS cells and acts inhibiting both NF-kappaB and STAT3 activation, leading to a decreased expression of proteins involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis, e.g. Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, cFLIP, XIAP, c-IAP1, survivin, c-myc and cyclin D1. Interestingly, curcumin caused cell cycle arrest in G2-M and a significant reduction (80-97%) in H-RS cell viability. Furthermore, curcumin triggered cell death by apoptosis, as evidenced by the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, changes in nuclear morphology and phosphatidylserine translocation. The above findings provide a mechanistic rationale for the potential use of curcumin as a therapeutic agent for patients with HL(5).

6. Renal cell carcinoma (Kidney cancer/renal cells)
Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1E,6E-heptadiene-3,5-dione or diferuloyl methane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant, commonly known as turmeric.Dr. Kössler S and scientists at the  Paracelsus Medical University, in the study of Curcumin affects cell survival and cell volume regulation in human renal and intestinal cells showed that Curcumin exposure induces apoptosis in human kidney cells, and at a concentration of 5.0-10 μM induces the appearance of a sub-population of cells with a dramatically increased volume. In these cells the regulation of the cell volume seems to be impaired, most likely as a consequence of the ICl(swell) blockade. Similarly, 50 μM curcumin induced apoptosis, caused cell cycle arrest in G1-phase and increased the volume of human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells. The cell cycle arrest in G1 phase may be the mechanism underlying the volume increase observed in this cell line after exposure to curcumin(6)

7. Ovarian cancer
a. In the study to analyze  the impact of sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK-1) inhibition on ceramides production, and evaluated SphK1 inhibitor II (SKI-II) as a potential curcumin chemo-sensitizer in ovarian cancer cells, found that inhibition of SphK1 by SKI-II or by RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown dramatically enhanced curcumin-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition in ovarian cancer cells. SKI-II facilitated curcumin-induced ceramides production, p38 activation and Akt inhibition. Inhibition of p38 by the pharmacological inhibitor (SB 203580), a dominant-negative expression vector, or by RNAi diminished curcumin and SKI-II co-administration-induced ovarian cancer cell apoptosis, and, to restore Akt activation by introducing a constitutively active Akt (CA-Akt), or to inhibit ceramides production by fumonisin B1 also inhibited curcumin plus SKI-II co-administration-induced in vitro anti-ovarian cancer effect(7).
b. Others found that curcumin exhibited time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity against monolayer cultures of ovarian carcinoma cell lines with differing p53 status (wild-type p53: HEY, OVCA429; mutant p53: OCC1; null p53: SKOV3). In addition, p53 knockdown or p53 inhibition did not diminish curcumin killing of HEY cells, confirming p53-independent cytotoxicity. Curcumin also killed OVCA429, and SKOV3 cells grown as multicellular spheroids(7a).

8. Stomach Cancer/Gastric Cancer
Curcumin, a phytochemical compound found in Turmeric has exerted the inhibitory effect against Gastric Cancer. Dr. Sintara K and scientist at the  Chulalongkorn University, indicated that curcumin treatments for 3 and 20 weeks reduced the cancer incidence resulting in a decrease of phospho-IκBα expression in benign tumor-bearing rats compared with MNU + s-NaCl. Curcumin treatment for 20 weeks also decreased 8-OHdG expression in benign tumor-bearing rats compared with MNU + s-NaCl. Curcumin can attenuate cancer via a reduction of phospho-IκBα and 8-OHdG expressions, which may play a promising role in gastric carcinogenesis(8).

9. Skin cancer
In the study of  curcumin loaded chitin nanogels (CCNGs) were developed using biocompatible and biodegradable chitin with an anticancer curcumin drug. Chitin, as well as curcumin, is insoluble in water,
indicated that The CCNGs showed a 4-fold increase in steady state transdermal flux of curcumin as compared to that of control curcumin solution. The histopathology studies of the porcine skin samples treated with the prepared materials showed loosening of the horny layer of the epidermis, facilitating penetration with no observed signs of inflammation. These results suggest that the formulated CCNGs offer specific advantage for the treatment of melanoma, the most common and serious type of skin cancer, by effective transdermal penetration(9).

10. Prostate cancer
In the study to examine of a prospective study with 225 incident cases of prostate cancer in 12,395 California Seventh-Day Adventist men who in 1976 stated how often they drank soy milk.
suggests that men with high consumption of soy milk are at reduced risk of prostate cancer. Possible associations between soy bean products, isoflavones and prostate cancer risk should be further investigated(10). 

11. Pancreatic cancer
the study of Impact of curcumin, raspberry extract, and neem leaf extract on rel protein-regulated cell death/radiosensitization in pancreatic cancer cells showed that CUR, NLE, and RSE may serve as effective "deliverables" to potentiate RT in PC cure and further throw light that these phytochemicals-induced cell killing may involve selective regulation of RT-induced NF-κB(11).

12. Pharynx Cancer or pharyngeal cancer
In the study to investigate the mechanism underlying the curcumin-induced apoptosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell line NCE cells, indicated that Several evidences of apoptosis were obtained from curcumin-treated NCE cells by acridine orange and ethidium bromide stains, ultrastructure identification, DNA fragmentation assay and TUNEL staining. And the mean TUNEL-positive rates increased significantly at the 3 different time points (12 h, 24 h and 48 h; 25.6%, 40.3% and 54.5%, respectively). In the curcumin-treated-groups, delta psi m altered significantly and the positive rates increased in a time-dependent manner. At the 3 different time points, the mean positive rates were 26.8%, 42.3% and 68.2%, respectively. When caspase-3 activity was detected, 80.5% cells presented proteases activities after 12 h incubation with curcumin. Western Blot analysis showed that cytoplasmic cytochrome C increased significantly after incubation with curcumin. Flow cytometry and RT-PCR analysis showed that curcumin could up-regulate the Fas expression in time-depended manner , the positive rates of Fas protein increased from 33.6% to 89.9%(12).

13. Multiple myeloma (Myeloma)
In the study of Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) down-regulates the constitutive activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and IkappaBalpha kinase in human multiple myeloma cells, leading to suppression of proliferation and induction of apoptosis, scientists at the The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, showed that Curcumin suppressed the constitutive IkappaBalpha phosphorylation through the inhibition of IKK activity. Curcumin also down-regulated the expression of NF-kappaB-regulated gene products, including IkappaBalpha, Bcl-2, Bcl-x(L), cyclin D1, and interleukin-6. This led to the suppression of proliferation and arrest of cells at the G(1)/S phase of the cell cycle. Suppression of NF-kappaB complex by IKKgamma/NF-kappaB essential modulator-binding domain peptide also suppressed the proliferation of MM cells. Curcumin also activated caspase-7 and caspase-9 and induced polyadenosine-5'-diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Curcumin-induced down-regulation of NF-kappaB, a factor that has been implicated in chemoresistance, also induced chemosensitivity to vincristine and melphalan(13).

14. Oral cancer
Curcumin, a major active component and principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice of turmeric, ,has been shown to have inhibitory effects on cancers. Dr. Kim JY, and scientists in the study of Curcumin-induced autophagy contributes to the decreased survival of oral cancer cells. indicated that curcumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and autophagic vacuoles formation by curcumin was almost completely blocked in the presence of N-acetylcystein (NAC), an antioxidant. Rescue experiments using an autophagy inhibitor suppressed curcumin-induced cell death in OSCC, confirming that autophagy acts as a pro-death signal. Furthermore, curcumin shows anticancer activity against OSCC via both autophagy and apoptosis (14).

15. Melanoma skin cancer
Curcumin is a phytochemical found abundant in the plant. In acidic solutions (pH <7.4) it turns yellow, whereas in basic (pH > 8.6) solutions it turns bright red. In the successfully incorporated curcumin into a bilayer of dodecanoic acid attached to magnetite nanoparticles in an effort to maximize solubility and delivery efficiency, found that fluorescent microscopy revealed that curcumin associated magnetite nanoparticles were internalized by the melanoma cells and remained in the cytoplasm. The curcumin/magnetic nanoparticles synthesized in this study possess magnetic and water solubility properties making this a novel curcumin formulation with therapeutic potential(15).

16. Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
In the study investigated a novel drug delivery nanovehicle enriched with the bioactive polyphenol, curcumin (curcumin nanodisks; curcumin-ND), showed that cells treated with curcumin-ND showed a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis. This was accompanied by enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, inhibited curcumin-ND induced apoptosis, suggesting that ROS generation plays a role in curcumin action on MCL cells. Curcumin-ND decreased cyclin D1, pAkt, pIκBα, and Bcl(2) protein. In addition, enhanced FoxO3a and p27 expression as well as caspase-9, -3, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage were observed. Curcumin-ND treatment led to enhanced G(1) arrest in two cultured cell models of MCL(16).

17. Leukemia
Curcumin is a phytochemical found abundant in Turmeric. In acidic solutions (pH <7.4) it turns yellow, whereas in basic (pH > 8.6) solutions it turns bright red. In the study to investigate the anti-cancer effect and action of curcumin on THP-1 cells, showed that Curcumin induced cell apoptosis of THP-1 cells as shown by cell viability, cell cycle analysis and caspase activity. Curcumin significantly increased the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and their downstream molecules (c-Jun and Jun B). Inhibitor of JNK and ERK reduced the pro-apoptotic effect of curcumin on THP-1 cells as evidenced by caspase activity and the activation of ERK/JNK/Jun cascades. On the contrary, the pro-apoptotic effect of curcumin was abolished in the differentiated THP-1 cells mediated by PMA(17).

18. Etc.

Side effects
1. Overdose may cause gastrointestinal discomfort such as nausea and diarrhea and liver damage.
2. Topical use may be allergic to skin such irritation to certain peoples
3. Do not use the herb in new born, children or if you are pregnant and breast feeding without approval from the related field specialist.
4. Etc.

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References
A. Quoted From Phytochemicals in Foods
B. Quoted From The World Most Popular Herbs
Sources(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20428806
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2435036
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4075289
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8824742
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18297817
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12676044
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16387899
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22211691
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17075840
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21607160
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21972920
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16286372

C. Quoted Foods to prevent and treat diseases
Sources 
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20633542
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22300765
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1771399
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12676044
(4a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16387899
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=turmeric%20and%20Chlamydia%20infection 
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22142850
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8609907
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21741425 
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22036766
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20672906
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20826184
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19811613
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16876885
(14) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15673996
(15) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22105803
(17) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20828641 
(18) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19297423 
(19) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3546166 

D. Quoted Frpm Foods to prevent and treat cancers  
Sources 
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22521131 
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22522053 
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19859844 
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17131309  
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18386790 
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22178266 
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22594559   
(7a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Curcumin%20also%20killed%20OVCA429%2C%20and%20SKOV3%20cells%20grown%20as%20multicellular%20spheroids
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22690125 
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22080352  
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10189040   
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21697760  
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17039805 
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12393461  
(14) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22554995
(15) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20974686
(16) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21699455
(17) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22443687