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Wednesday, 30 October 2013

Popular Herbs - Grapefruit Seed Extract

Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) is a liquid extracted from the seeds, pulp, and white membranes of grapefruit. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as an anti bacterial, viral, fungal, parasites and to enhance immune system, protect against colds and flu and malignant disease.

Health Benefits
1. Antibacterial activity
In the investigation of GSE for its antibacterial activity at varying time intervals and concentration levels and tissue toxicity found that with the aid of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), the mechanism of GSE's antibacterial activity was revealed. It was evident that GSE disrupts the bacterial membrane and liberates the cytoplasmic contents within 15 minutes after contact even at more dilute concentrations, according to "The effectiveness of processed grapefruit-seed extract as an antibacterial agent: II. Mechanism of action and in vitro toxicity" by Heggers JP, Cottingham J, Gusman J, Reagor L, McCoy L, Carino E, Cox R, Zhao JG(1)

2. Antimicrobial activity
In the determination of antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae) seed and pulp found that ethanolic extract exibited the strongest antimicrobial effect against Salmonella enteritidis (MIC 2.06%, m/V). Other tested bacteria and yeasts were sensitive to extract concentrations ranging from 4.13% to 16.50% (m/V), according to "Antimicrobial activity of grapefruit seed and pulp ethanolic extract" by Cvetnić Z, Vladimir-Knezević S.(2)

3. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects
In observation of the glucose and lipid lowering effects of methanol seed extract of Citrus paradisi Macfad (MECP) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats found that Oral treatment with 100 - 600 mg/kg/day MECP, for 30 days, resulted in significant (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001) reductions in FPG, TG, TC, LDL-c, VLDL-c in the diabetic rats, effects which were comparable to that of metformin. The extract also caused significant (p < 0.05, p < 0.01) rise in HDL-c values in the alloxan diabetic rats. Phytochemical result showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins and saponin in varying concentrations. Results of this study lend support to the traditional use of grapefruit seeds in the management of type 1 diabetic patients and may suggest a role in orthodox management of the disease, according to "Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of methanol seed extract of Citrus paradisi Macfad (Rutaceae) in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats" by Adeneye AA.(3)

4. Blood glucose, lipids and cardiovascular disease
In the assessment of blood glucose and lipid lowering effects as well as cardiovascular disease risk factor-reducing effect of Citrus paradisi Macfad (100% methanol seed extract) found that
Results showed significant (p < 0.05, p < 0.001) dose related lowering effects of the extract on FPG, cardiovascular disease risk assessing indices and lipid parameters except HDL-c fraction which was significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.001) elevated. The extract also induced significant (p < 0.05) dose related weight loss in the treated rats in the latter 15 days of their treatment, according to "Methanol seed extract of Citrus paradisi Macfad lowers blood glucose, lipids and cardiovascular disease risk indices in normal Wistar rats" by Adeneye AA(4)

5. Gastroprotective effects
In the classification of plant-originated flavonoid substances from Solon (Sophoradin extract), Amaranth seed extract, grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) and capsaicin (extract of chilly pepper) amd theirs overprotective effects found that plant-originated flavonoid substances are highly gastroprotective probably due to enhancement of the expression of constitutive NOS and release of NO and neuropeptides such as calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) released from sensory afferent nerves increasing gastric microcirculation, according to "Gastroprotective effects of flavonoids in plant extracts" by Zayachkivska OS, Konturek SJ, Drozdowicz D, Konturek PC, Brzozowski T, Ghegotsky MR.(5)

6. Acute pancreatitis
In the determination of determine whether this GSE is also capable of preventing acute pancreatic damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) found that GSE administered alone increased significantly pancreatic tissue content of lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkens, and when administered before I/R, GSE reduced the pancreatitis-induced lipid peroxidation. We conclude that GSE exerts protective activity against I/R-induced pancreatitis probably due to the activation of antioxidative mechanisms in the pancreas and the improvement of pancreatic blood flow, according to "Extract of grapefruit-seed reduces acute pancreatitis induced by ischemia/reperfusion in rats: possible implication of tissue antioxidants" by Dembinski A, Warzecha Z, Konturek SJ, Ceranowicz P, Dembinski M, Pawlik WW, Kusnierz-Cabala B, Naskalski JW.(6)

7. Antioxidant activity
In analyzing the antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seeds glyceric extract dissolved in ethanol and in aqueous media found that grapefruit seeds glyceric extract utilized as aqueous solutions demonstrated antioxidant properties better than those displayed by alcoholic solutions. according to "Antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi seeds glyceric extract" by Giamperi L, Fraternale D, Bucchini A, Ricci D.(7)

8. Anti cancers
In the demonstration of isolation of five limonoids from red Mexican grapefruit seeds and theirs inhibition of the growth of cancer in colon, lung, mouth, stomach and breast in animal and cell culture found that radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and total phenolic content were also measured for comparison with the antioxidant capacity in the phosphomolybdenum method for the above extracts. Acetone and MeOH extracts, respectively, showed the highest (85.7%) and lowest (53.3%) radical scavenging activity, at 500 ppm. The total phenolic contents were found to be highest in the acetone extract (15.94%) followed by the MeOH extract (5.92%), ethyl acetate extract (5.54%) and water extract (5.26%). Antioxidant capacity of the extracts as equivalents to ascorbic acid (micromol/g of the extract) was in the order, EtOAc extract > acetone extract > water extract > methanol extract, according to "Red Mexican grapefruit: a novel source for bioactive limonoids and their antioxidant activity" by Mandadi KK, Jayaprakasha GK, Bhat NG, Patil BS.(8)

9. Etc.

Side effects
1. The herb may interact with other medicine due to its inhibition of certain liver and small intestine enzymes
2. Overdoses may effect the liver function of which can lead to weaken muscle
3. Etc.


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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12165191
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15610620
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19391322
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19062465
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15800396
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15613745
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15030930
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Grapefruit%20seed%20extract%20and%20cancer