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Thursday, 31 October 2013

Popular #Herbs - Horsetail (Equisetum arvense)



Horsetail is a herbaceous perennial plant, of genus Equisetum, belonging to Equisetaceae, native to the arctic and temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. The herb has been used in traditional medicine to treat stop bleeding, heal ulcers and wounds, and treat tuberculosis, edema, kidney and bladder stones, urinary tract infections, incontinence, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Antioxidative and antiproliferative activities

In the investigation of the antioxidative and antiproliferative activity of different horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.) extracts found that ethyl acetate extract exhibited the most prominent antiproliferative effect, without inducing any cell growth stimulation on human tumor cell lines. The results obtained suggest that the horsetail extracts could be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants and as potential phytochemicals, according to "Antioxidative and antiproliferative activities of different horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.) extracts" by Cetojević-Simin DD, Canadanović-Brunet JM, Bogdanović GM, Djilas SM, Cetković GS, Tumbas VT, Stojiljković BT.(1)

2. Antioxidants
In the evaluation of antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of three different extracts (EtOAc, n-BuOH and H(2)O) of field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.) found that the highest RSC regarding both DPPH and NO radicals is expressed by EtOAc extract (EC(50)=2.37 microg/mL and EC(50)=90.07 microg/mL, respectively), and the lowest by H(2)O extract (EC(50)=37.2 microg/mL and EC(50)>333.33 microg/mL, respectively). n-BuOH extract showed the highest total reducing power (AEAC=13.40 microg/mL), according to "Phenolic compounds in field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.) as natural antioxidants" by Mimica-Dukic N, Simin N, Cvejic J, Jovin E, Orcic D, Bozin B.(2)

3. Anti fungal effect
In the assessment of The effectiveness of grape field antifungals (Switch, Flint Max and Equisetum arvense extract) found that the greatest reduction and E. arvense (0.02 g mL(-1) extract) the least. Higher temperatures affected OTA production by the isolates in different ways. In general, Switch and Flint Max reduced OTA production, while E. arvense stimulated it, according to "Ochratoxigenic moulds and effectiveness of grape field antifungals in a climatic change scenario" by García-Cela E, Ramos AJ, Sanchis V, Marin S.(3)

4. Anxiolytic effects
In the demonstration of the petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CH), ethanol (ETH) and water extracts of E. arvense stems and theirs anti-anxiety effects found that the ethanolic extract of E. arvense seems to possess anxiolytic effect with lower sedative activity than that of diazepam. The results could be attributed to the flavonoid content of the ethanolic extract, according to "Anxiolytic effects of Equisetum arvense Linn. extracts in mice" by Singh N, Kaur S, Bedi PM, Kaur D.(4)

5. Cytostatic activity
In the comparison of peptide extracts of medicinal plants and their Cytostatic activity found that the cytostatic effect was produced by peptide extracts of Camelia sinesis Kuntze, Inonotus obliquus, and a mixture Inula helenium L., Chelidonium majus L., Equisetum arvense L., and Inonotus obliquus, accoridng to "Cytostatic activity of peptide extracts of medicinal plants on transformed A549, H1299, and HeLa Cells" by Tepkeeva II, Aushev VN, Zborovskaya IB, Demushkin VP.(5)

6. Antitumor activity
In the investigation of a peptide extract PE-PM obtained from a mixture of Chelidonium majus L., Inula helenium L., Equisetum arvense L. and Inonotus obliquus and theirs antitumor activities, found that distinct antitumor activity of two local injections of the peptide extract PE-PM was detected by tumor growth inhibition and survival improvement of 33% of recipients bearing intraperitoneal form of ASF-LL, according to "[Antitumor activity of the plant remedy peptide extract PE-PM in a new mouse T-lymphoma/eukemia model].[Article in Russian]" by Chaadaeva AV, Tenkeeva II, Moiseeva EV, Svirshchevskaia EV, Demushkin VP.(6)

7. Breast cancer
In the comparison of peptide extracts from plants on slowly growing mammary adenocarcinoma in CBRB-Rb(8.17)1Iem mice used as a model of breast cancer in humans, found that Peptides from Hypericum perforatum and a mixture of Chelidonium majus L., Inula helenium L., Equisetum arvense L., and Inonotus obliquus exhibited maximum activity, according to "Evaluation of antitumor activity of peptide extracts from medicinal plants on the model of transplanted breast cancer in CBRB-Rb(8.17)1Iem mice" by Tepkeeva II, Moiseeva EV, Chaadaeva AV, Zhavoronkova EV, Kessler YV, Semushina SG, Demushkin VP.(7)

8. Anti diabetes
in the assessment of the methanolic extract of Equisetum arvense was analysed for its antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats found that methanolic extract of Equisetum arvense produced a significant antidiabetic activity at doses 50 and 50 mg kg(-1)/b.wt. Concurrent histological studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by methanolic extract which were earlier, necrosed by streptozotocin, accoridng to "The effect of Equisetum arvense L. (Equisetaceae) in histological changes of pancreatic beta-cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic in rats" by Soleimani S, Azarbaizani FF, Nejati V.(8)

9. Genotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant effects
In the identification of the hydro-alcoholic extracts of five Equisetum species, E. arvense L., E. sylvaticum L., E. fluviatile L., E. palustre L. and E. telmateia Ehrh., growing-wild in Serbia and their genotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant effects found that All tested extracts at 62.5 microg/ml showed higher incidence of micronucleus formation than in the control sample. The obtained data allowed mutual comparison of examined species and their assessment as possible sources of antioxidants, antimicrobials and/or genotoxic substances, according to "Antioxidant, antimicrobial and genotoxicity screening of hydro-alcoholic extracts of five serbian Equisetum species" by Milovanović V, Radulović N, Todorović Z, Stanković M, Stojanović G.(9)

10. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
In the observation of four extracts from Chimaphila umbellata, Populus tremula, Pulsatilla pratensis and Equisetum arvense (coded as EVI-1, EVI-2, EVI-3 and EVI-4, respectively) and germ oil from Triticum aestivum (coded as EVI-5) and theirs effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide anion (O2-) and hydroxyl radical (OH*) found that the suppression of ROS by EVI-1, EVI-2 and EVI-4 may partly contribute to the anti-inflammatory action of eviprostat, and this action may be implicated in its therapeutic effect on BPH, according to "Relevance of anti-reactive oxygen species activity to anti-inflammatory activity of components of eviprostat, a phytotherapeutic agent for benign prostatic hyperplasia" by Oka M, Tachibana M, Noda K, Inoue N, Tanaka M, Kuwabara K.(10)

11. Sedative and anticonvulsant effects
In the evaluation of the hydroalcoholic extract of Equisetum arvense (HAE) tested at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg and its Sedative and anticonvulsant effects found that HAE presented anticonvulsant and sedative effects. Phytochemical analysis detected the presence of tannins, saponins, sterols and flavonoids, according to "Sedative and anticonvulsant effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Equisetum arvense" by Dos Santos JG Jr, Blanco MM, Do Monte FH, Russi M, Lanziotti VM, Leal LK, Cunha GM.(11)

12. Cognitive effects
In the study of the hydroalcoholic extract of stems from Equisetum arvense (HAE) reverses the cognitive impairment in aged rats found that HAE diminished the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances as well as nitrite formation, but did not alter catalase activity. Thus, the cognitive enhancement effects of the HAE may be attributed, at least in part, to it antioxidant action, according to "Cognitive enhancement in aged rats after chronic administration of Equisetum arvense L. with demonstrated antioxidant properties in vitro" by Guilherme dos Santos J Jr, Hoffmann Martins do Monte F, Marcela Blanco M, Maria do Nascimento Bispo Lanziotti V, Damasseno Maia F, Kalyne de Almeida Leal L.(12)

13. Etc.

Side effects
1. Horsetail may interact with other herbs and certain medication
2. Prolonged use of the herb may cause depletion of vitamin B1 (thiamin) and potassium
3. Do not take horsetail if you have heart or kidney disease, diabetes, etc.
4. Do not take the herb in children, or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without permission of the related field specialist.
5. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20170379
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18719517
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22131267
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21615059
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19526129
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19351037
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19110595
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19086577
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17676400
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17583488
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15972249
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15972233