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Wednesday, 30 October 2013

Popular #Herbs - #Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis)

Goldenseal also known as Orange-root is a perennial plant, in the genus Hydrastis, belonging to the family Ranunculaceae, native to native to southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States. The herb has been used in traditional medicine to treat colds & flu, sinus and chest congestion, bladder infections and fungal infections, to promote wound healing, etc,.

Health Benefits
1. H1N1 influenza A
In the evaluation of whether the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine from glodenseal can inhibit the growth of influenza A, found that strong inhibition of production of both mediators and suggest that this effect is distinct from the anti-viral effect. Finally, we asked whether berberine-containing ethanol extracts of goldenseal also inhibit the growth of influenza A and production of inflammatory mediators. We found strong effectiveness at high concentrations, although upon dilution extracts were somewhat less effective than purified berberine, according to "Inhibition of H1N1 influenza A virus growth and induction of inflammatory mediators by the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine and extracts of goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis)" by Cecil CE, Davis JM, Cech NB, Laster SM.(1)

2. Carcinogenesis
In the classification of the major alkaloids in goldenseal are berberine, hydrastine, and canadine in Goldenseal root powder and theirs potential for human carcinogenicity found that some evidence of carcinogenic activity of goldenseal root powder in male B6C3F1 mice based on the increased incidences of hepatoblastoma and multiple hepatocellular adenoma, according to "Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of goldenseal root powder (Hydrastis Canadensis) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (feed studies)" by National Toxicology Program.(2)

3. Antibiotic resistance
In the investigation of new potential sources of antimicrobial agents to Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) resistance found that Extracts of Arctostaphylos uva ursi (kinnikinnick or bearberry), Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal), Prunus serotina (black cherry), and Rhodiola rosea (roseroot) inhibited the growth of all Ng isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 32 μg/mL, 4 to 32 μg/mL, 16 to >32 μg/mL, and 32 to 64 μg/mL, respectively. Extracts of Acorus americanus (sweet flag), Berberis vulgaris (barberry), Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh), Equisetum arvense (field horsetail), Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen), Ledum groenlandicum (Labrador tea), Ledum palustre (marsh Labrador tea), Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose), Sambucus nigra (elderberry), and Zanthoxylum americanum (prickly ash) had weak or no antimicrobial activity against the Ng isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations ≥256 μg/mL, according to "Extracts of Canadian first nations medicinal plants, used as natural products, inhibit neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with different antibiotic resistance profiles" by Cybulska P, Thakur SD, Foster BC, Scott IM, Leduc RI, Arnason JT, Dillon JA.(3)

4. Antibacterial activity
In the identification of Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) effect on inflammation and infection found that extracts from the aerial portions of H. canadensis contain efflux pump inhibitors, while efflux pump inhibitory activity was not observed for the root extract. The three most abundant H. canadensis alkaloids, berberine, hydrastine, and canadine, are not responsible for the efflux pump inhibitory activity of the extracts from H. canadensis aerial portions. according to "Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) extracts synergistically enhance the antibacterial activity of berberine via efflux pump inhibition" by Ettefagh KA, Burns JT, Junio HA, Kaatz GW, Cech NB.(4)

5. Liver cancer
In observation of ethanolic extract of Hydrastis canadensis and its anti-cancer potentials against p-dimethylaminoazobenzene (p-DAB) induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice, found that acritical analysis of results of these studies suggested anti-cancer potentials of the drug suitable for use as a supportive complementary medicine in liver cancer, according to "Anti-carcinogenic potentials of a plant extract (Hydrastis canadensis): I. Evidence from in vivo studies in mice (Mus musculus)" by Karmakar SR, Biswas SJ, Khuda-Bukhsh AR.(5)

6. Cytostatic agent
In the analyzing isoquinoline alkaloid berberine found in plants such as goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) and its exhibiting antiproliferative and tumoricidal properties found that Berberine displays multiphasic effects in these malignant cell lines, which are correlated with the concentration and intracellular distribution of this alkaloid. These results help explain some of the conflicting information in the literature regarding the effects of berberine, and suggest that its use in clinical development may be more as a cytostatic agent than a cytotoxic compound, according to "Different concentrations of berberine result in distinct cellular localization patterns and cell cycle effects in a melanoma cell line" by Serafim TL, Oliveira PJ, Sardao VA, Perkins E, Parke D, Holy J.(6)

7. Cholesterol
In the study of berberine (BBR), an alkaloid isolated from Goldenseal as a unique cholesterol-lowering drug that upregulates hepatic low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) found that ubstantial evidence to show that goldenseal contains natural MDR1 antagonist(s) that accentuate the upregulatory effect of BBR on LDLR mRNA expression. These new findings identify goldenseal as a natural LDL-c-lowering agent, and our studies provide a molecular basis for the mechanisms of action, according to "The medicinal plant goldenseal is a natural LDL-lowering agent with multiple bioactive components and new action mechanisms" by Abidi P, Chen W, Kraemer FB, Li H, Liu J.(7)

8. Antimicrobial activities
In the assessment of Two new C-methyl flavonoids, 6,8-di- C-methylluteolin 7-methyl ether (1) and 6- C-methylluteolin 7-methyl ether (2), were isolated from a commercially available sample of the roots of Hydrastis canadensis, along with seven known compounds, berberine (3), beta-hydrastine (4), canadine (5), canadaline (6), isocorypalmine (7), canadinic acid (8), and beta-sitosterol 3- O-beta- D-glucoside (9). and intesting theirs effect on microbial activities found that berberine (3) and, to a lesser extent, 1 and 2, showed antimicrobial activity when evaluated against the oral pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Berberine (3) exhibited an additive antimicrobial effect when tested against S. mutans in combination with 1, according to "Antimicrobial constituents from goldenseal (the Rhizomes of Hydrastis canadensis) against selected oral pathogens" by Hwang BY, Roberts SK, Chadwick LR, Wu CD, Kinghorn AD(8)

9. Cardiovascular effects
In the researches of Berberine, is an alkaloid from Hydrastis canadensis L., Chinese herb Huanglian and its cardiovascular effects found that Berberine has been shown to prolong the duration of ventricular action potential. Its vasodilator activity has been attributed to multiple cellular mechanisms. The cardiovascular effects of berberine suggest its possible clinical usefulness in the treatment of arrhythmias and/or heart failure, according to "Cardiovascular actions of berberine" by Lau CW, Yao XQ, Chen ZY, Ko WH, Huang Y.(9)

10. Immune stimulant
In the demonstration of the immune stimulant of Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadenisis) is a native American medicinal plant used as an . Astragalus (Astragalus membranaceus) is a widely used herbal product in China, found that both goldenseal and Astragalus exhibit abilities to modulate macrophage responses during stimulation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that their historical use as therapeutic agents may be due to reduction in the pro-inflammatory response that indirectly leads to limiting of clinical symptoms during infection. Both products differ in their immune stimulatory patterns, offering insight into differential use and therapeutic potential of these products to regulate macrophage immune responses and activation events, according to "Immune modulation of macrophage pro-inflammatory response by goldenseal and Astragalus extracts" by Clement-Kruzel S, Hwang SA, Kruzel MC, Dasgupta A, Actor JK.(10)

11. Relaxant effects
In the investigation of berberine (anticholinergic, antisecretory, and antimicrobial) and beta-hydrastine (astringent) from Hydrastis or goldenseal and its relaxant effects found that at concentrations between 0.01 and 0.1 microg/ml, potentiated the relaxant effect of isoprenaline on carbachol-precontracted isolated guinea pig trachea. These data, which are insufficient to draw definite mechanistic conclusions, indicate that the aforementioned alkaloids may act by interacting with adrenergic and adenosinic receptors "Relaxant effects of Hydrastis canadensis L. and its major alkaloids on guinea pig isolated trachea" by Abdel-Haq H, Cometa MF, Palmery M, Leone MG, Silvestrini B, Saso L.(11)

12. Etc.

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Side effects
1. The herb may cause allergic effect
2. Overdoses may cause nausea, vomiting, etc.
3. Do not use the herb if you are pregnant without approval from related field specialist
4. Do not use goldenseal in new born
5. Etc.

Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21683808
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21372858
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21301385
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21157683
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20843149
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17661039
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16885565
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12898417
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11607041
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18800897
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11129501