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Wednesday, 30 October 2013

Popular #Herbs - #Garlic (Allium sativum)

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Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, belonging to family Amaryllidaceae, native to central Asia. It has been used popularly in traditional and Chinese medicine in treating common cold and flu to the Plague, blood pressure cholesterol levels, natural antibiotic, etc.

Health benefits
1. Anti cancer
In the evaluation of Garlic (Allium sativum) its consumption to reduce cancer risk and its extracts and components effectively block experimentally induced tumors found that allicin inhibited the growth of cancer cells of murine and human origin. Allicin induced the formation of apoptotic bodies, nuclear condensation and a typical DNA ladder in cancer cells. Furthermore, activation of caspases-3, -8 and -9 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase were induced by allicin, according to "Allicin (from garlic) induces caspase-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells" by Oommen S, Anto RJ, Srinivas G, Karunagaran D.(1)

2. Colon cancer
In the identification of Allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate) of freshly crushed garlic extract and its effect against colon cancer found that allicin induces Nrf2-mediated luciferase transactivation activity. SiRNA knock down of Nrf2 significantly affected the capacity of allicin to inhibit HCT-116 proliferation. These results suggest that Nrf2 mediates the allicin-induced apoptotic death of colon cancer cells, according to "Allicin purified from fresh garlic cloves induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via Nrf2" by Bat-Chen W, Golan T, Peri I, Ludmer Z, Schwartz B.(2)

3. Gastric cancer
In the classification of
Diallyl disulfide (DADS) a organosulfur compound from garlic and it inhibits the proliferation of several tumor cells found that DADS decreases the viability of AGS cell lines and induces apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. But the relationship of the anti-proliferative effect of DADS and related molecular changes were not clearly proportional to the concentration of DADS, according to "Induction of apoptosis with diallyl disulfide in AGS gastric cancer cell line" by Lee JE, Lee RA, Kim KH, Lee JH.(3)

4. Breast cancer
In the analyzing Garlic-derived organosulfur compounds (OSCs) and its antitumor effects found that Garlic constituent diallyl trisulfide (DATS) suppresses viability of cultured MCF-7 and MCF-12a cells respectively by decreasing the percent of cells in G(2)/M and inducing apoptotic cell death. DATS-induced apoptosis was markedly elevated in MCF-7 cells compared with MCF-12a cells and this was correlated with elevated levels of cyclin B1, according to "Garlic constituent diallyl trisulfide induced apoptosis in MCF7 human breast cancer cells" by Malki A, El-Saadani M, Sultan AS.(4)

5. Lung cancer
In the observation of the Garlic-derived organosulfur compounds (OSCs) and its protection against chemically induced pulmonary carcinogenesis found that garlic constituent diallyl trisulfide (DATS) suppresses viability of cultured human lung cancer cell lines H358 (anon-small cell lung cancer cell line) and H460 (a large cell lung cancer cell line) by causing G2-M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death. On the other hand, a normal human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B was significantly more resistant to growth inhibition and apoptosis induction by DATS compared with lung cancer cells, according to "Diallyl trisulfide selectively causes Bax- and Bak-mediated apoptosis in human lung cancer cells" by Xiao D, Zeng Y, Hahm ER, Kim YA, Ramalingam S, Singh SV.(5)

6. Blood pressure
In the assessment of garlic extract and its effect of hypertension. found that Aged garlic extract was generally well tolerated and acceptability of trial treatment was high (92%) and aged garlic extract is superior to placebo in lowering systolic blood pressure similarly to current first line medications in patients with treated but uncontrolled hypertension, according to "Aged garlic extract lowers blood pressure in patients with treated but uncontrolled hypertension: a randomised controlled trial" by Ried K, Frank OR, Stocks NP.(6)

7. Atherosclerosis
In the demonstration of aged garlic extract therapy with supplements (AGE+S) and theirs effect on cardiovascular diseases found that CAC progression was significantly lower and TR significantly higher in the AGE+S compared to the placebo group after adjustment of cardiovascular risk factors (p<0.05). Total cholesterol, LDL-C, homocysteine, IgG and IgM autoantibodies to MDA-LDL and apoB-immune complexes were decreased, whereas HDL, OxPL/apoB, and Lp (a) were significantly increased in AGE+S to placebo and concluded that AGE+S is associated with a favorable improvement in oxidative biomarkers, vascular function, and reduced progression of atherosclerosis., according to "Aged garlic extract supplemented with B vitamins, folic acid and L-arginine retards the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomized clinical trial" by Budoff MJ, Ahmadi N, Gul KM, Liu ST, Flores FR, Tiano J, Takasu J, Miller E, Tsimikas S.(7)

8. Antifungal antitumor cytotoxicity and blood coagulability effects
In the identification of organosulfur compounds and theirs effects on cardiovascular diseases found that in vitro antifungal antitumor cytotoxicity and blood coagulability effects of steroid saponins from garlic and related Allium species are provided. Animal studies on the cholesterol-lowering effects of the saponin fractions from garlic are also summarized, according to "Saponins in garlic as modifiers of the risk of cardiovascular disease" by .Matsuura H(8)

9. Cardiovascular diseases
In the review of the experimental and clinical studies confirm that the ancient experience with beneficial effects of garlic holds validity even in prevention of cardiovascular disorders and other metabolic ills, indicated that Garlic-derived organic polysulfides are converted by erythrocytes into hydrogen sulfide which relaxes vascular smooth muscle, induces vasodilation of blood vessels, and significantly reduces blood pressure. There are data on potential ability of garlic to inhibit the rate of progression of coronary calcification. Garlic as a dietary component appears to hold promise to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (Fig. 2, Ref. 46), according to "Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and cardiovascular diseases" by Ginter E, Simko V.(9)

10. Antioxidant effects
In the study of the Extracts of aged fresh garlic that are aged over a prolonged period and its antioxidant effects found that the ability of AGE to protect against oxidant-induced disease, acute damage from aging, radiation and chemical exposure, and long-term toxic damage. Although additional observations are warranted in humans, compelling evidence supports the beneficial health effects attributed to AGE, i.e., reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, cancer and aging, including the oxidant-mediated brain cell damage that is implicated in Alzheimer's disease, according to "Antioxidant health effects of aged garlic extract" by
Borek C.(10)

11. Diabetes
In the comparison of the effects of dietary ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) investigated in a type 2 diabetes model of rats found that that ginger and garlic are insulinotropic rather than hypoglycemic while overall anti-diabetic effects of ginger are better than those of garlic, at least in this experimental condition. Much better anti-diabetic effects of ginger and garlic may be obtained when feeding is with a normal rather than a HF-containing diet, according to "Comparative effects of dietary ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) investigated in a type 2 diabetes model of rats" by Islam MS, Choi H.(11)

12. Common cold
In the searched from January 1966 to September 2009 combining the key words common cold or influenza with echinacea, garlic, ginseng, probiotics, vitamin C, and zinc. Clinical trials and prospective studies found that for prevention, vitamin C demonstrated benefit in a large meta-analysis, with possibly increased benefit in patients subjected to cold stress. There is inconsistent evidence for Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) and North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius). Allicin was highly effective in 1 small trial. For treatment, Echinacea purpurea is the most consistently useful variety; it was effective in 5 of 6 trials. Zinc lozenges were effective in 5 of 9 trials, likely owing to dose and formulation issues. Overall, the evidence suggests no benefit from probiotics for prevention or treatment of the common cold, according to "Complementary and alternative medicine for prevention and treatment of the common cold" by Nahas R, Balla A.(12)

13. Tuberculosis
In the investigation of the garlic extracts and the increasing incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and particularly of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) found that Allium sativum offers a hope for developing alternative drugs. The involvement of traditional healers (TH) in the TB health management could facilitate the administration of garlic extracts to the infected patients, according to "The potential role of garlic (Allium sativum) against the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis pandemic: a review" by Dini C, Fabbri A, Geraci A.(13)

14. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Do not use the herb if you have ulcer
2. Raw garlic or overdoses may cause irritation of or even damage to the digestive tract
3. PLease consult with your doctor before taking garlic if you are taking blood thiner medication
4. It may cause allergic effect to some people
5. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14757128
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20924970
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22066106
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19823037
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18800351
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20594781
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19573556
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11238805
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21033626
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11238807
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18361751
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21322286
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22194081