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Wednesday, 30 October 2013

Popular #Herbs - #Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)




Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a plant species of genus, belonging to Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), native to the Mediterranean. It has been used in traditional and herbal medicine as warming, carminative, antispasmodic, antidepressant agent and to stimulate the appetite, ease indigestion, soothe coughing, reduce intestinal spasms, to regulate the menstrual cycle and relieve PMS, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Antioxidant activity
In the study of Fennel and it antioxidant effects found that fennel seems a new antioxidant for use in sperm cryopreservation, but its particular effects on sperm physiology must be further studied, especially the causes of motility stimulation and its effect on lipoxidation, according to "Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) provides antioxidant protection for boar semen cryopreservation" by Malo C, Gil L, Cano R, González N, Luño V.(1)

2. Peptic ulcer
In the investigation of phenolic compounds of herbal plants, including to Foeniculum vulgare and theirs effect on human health found that various polyphenolic compounds have been reported for their anti-ulcerogenic activity with a good level of gastric protection. Besides their action as gastroprotective, these phenolic compounds can be an alternative for the treatment of gastric ulcer, according to "Role of phenolic compounds in peptic ulcer: An overview" by Sumbul S, Ahmad MA, Mohd A, Mohd A.(2)

3. Digestive system
In the investigation of ginger, peppermint, aniseed and fennel, citrus fruits, dandelion and artichoke, melissa and chamomile and theirs effect on digestive disturbances and ailments found that The plants that have a substantial body of data in support of their digestion-enhancing activities mainly belong to one of three groups: bitter, aromatic and pungent plants, including fenel, according to "Functional foods with digestion-enhancing properties" by Valussi M.(3)

4. Anti cancers
In the observation of methanolic extract and volatile oil of fennel seeds and its anti cancer effect found that the FSME exhibited an antitumor effect by modulating lipid peroxidation and augmenting the antioxidant defense system in EAC-bearing mice with or without exposure to radiation, according to "Antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects of methanolic extract and volatile oil of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare)" by Mohamad RH, El-Bastawesy AM, Abdel-Monem MG, Noor AM, Al-Mehdar HA, Sharawy SM, El-Merzabani MM.(4)

5. Antimicrobial activity
In the identification of The essential oils extracted from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and carraway (Carum carvi L.) and theirs anti microbial effects found that the majority of the tested essential oils exhibited considerable inhibitory capacity against all the organisms tested, according to "Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils against bacterial and fungal species involved in food poisoning and/or food decay" by Lixandru BE, Drăcea NO, Dragomirescu CC, Drăgulescu EC, Coldea IL, Anton L, Dobre E, Rovinaru C, Codiţă I.(5)

6. Urinary system
In a historical review of urological pharmacotherapy including drumstick tree, agaricus, mechoacan, lupine, fennel, acacia gum, myrtle, Armenian bole, oleum scorpionum, hartshorn plantain, cantharides found that The basis of general and urological pharmacotherapy was concentrated on nature. Medicines of plant origin were the most used. The therapeutic inventory that mankind has accumulated throughout history is the result of a lengthy process of combining practices and knowledge of different cultures and societies, according to "[Contribution to the history of urological pharmacotherapy].[Article in Spanish]" by Mercant J.(6)

7. Antiadhesive activity
In the analyzing herbal medicine, including Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and theirs anti-Campylobacter effects found that twenty-one herbal extracts were screened for antiadhesive activity against C. jejuni using modifications of previously published antiadhesion assays, according to "Investigations into the antiadhesive activity of herbal extracts against Campylobacter jejuni" by Bensch K, Tiralongo J, Schmidt K, Matthias A, Bone KM, Lehmann R, Tiralongo E.(7)

8. Parasitic effects
In the observation of the nematicidal activity and the chemical composition of essential oils (EOs) isolated from seven plants grown in Greece and their anti parasitic effects found that the activity of F. vulgare, P. anisum, E. meliodora and P. terebinthus, and additionally on synergistic/antagonistic nematicidal terpene interactions, against M. incognita, providing alternative methods for nematode control, according to "Synergistic and antagonistic interactions of terpenes against Meloidogyne incognita and the nematicidal activity of essential oils from seven plants indigenous to Greece" by Ntalli NG, Ferrari F, Giannakou I, Menkissoglu-Spiroudi U.(8)

9. Immunotoxicity activity
In the demonstration of The extract and essential oil composition of leaves of Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae) the major essential oil composition and theirs Immunotoxicity activity found that indicate that major compounds interaction may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil against the F(21) laboratory strain of A. aegypti, according to "Major essential oils composition and immunotoxicity activity from leaves of Foeniculum vulgare against Aedes aegypti L.' by Chung IM, Ro HM, Moon HI.(9)

10. Diabetes
In the investigation of , rho-isoalpha acids, Acacia nilotica bark, fennel, and wasab and theirs anti diabetes effect found that All 21 subset samples inhibited TNFalpha-stimulated free fatty acid release and attenuated TNFalpha inhibition of adiponectin secretion. Both rho-isoalpha acids and A. nilotica reduced nonfasting glucose in the db/db mouse model, whereas A. nilotica also decreased nonfasting insulin levels, according to "Antidiabetic screening of commercial botanical products in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and db/db mice" by Babish JG, Pacioretty LM, Bland JS, Minich DM, Hu J, Tripp ML.(10)

11. Estragole metabolism
in the research of the metabolism of the potent carcinogen estragole after consumption of fennel tea found that an excess of the major fennel odorant trans-anethole principally does not interfere with estragole metabolism, whereas influences on the quantitative composition of metabolites cannot be excluded. The presence of a sulfuric acid conjugate of estragole could not be confirmed, possibly due to its high reactivity and lability, according to "Study of the metabolism of estragole in humans consuming fennel tea" by Zeller A, Horst K, Rychlik M.(11)

12. Obesity
in the consideration of L-carnitine and an Egyptian Herbal mixture formulation (HMF) (consisting of T. chebula, Senae, rhubarb, black cumin, aniseed, fennel and licorice) and theirs effect on the development of obesity in response to a high fat diet (HFD) found that Treatment with L-carnitine, or HMF extract improved obesity and its associated metabolic problems in different degrees. Also HMF has antioxidant, hypolipidaemic insulin sensitizing effects. Moreover HMF might be a safe combination on the organs whose functions were examined, as a way to surmount the obesity state; and it has a distinct anti-obesity effect, according to "Effect of Carnitine and herbal mixture extract on obesity induced by high fat diet in rats" by Amin KA, Nagy MA.(12)

13. Etc.

Side effects
1. Epileptic seizure
Essential oil may cause Epileptic seizure and should probably be avoided by patients with epilepsy, according to "Epileptic seizure induced by fennel essential oil" by
Skalli S, Soulaymani Bencheikh R.(a)
2. Overdose may cause nervous tension and vomiting , upset stomach & convulsions
3. Fennel may cause photo and dermatitis
4. Do not use the herb if you are pregnant or breast feeding without permission of related field specialist.
5. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22106928
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21966156
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22010973
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21812646
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21462837
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21292351
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21280113
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21170935
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21077804
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20521979
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19908891
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19835614