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Wednesday, 30 October 2013

Popular #Herbs - Enchinanea


Enchinanea also known as purple coneflowers, is a flowering plant of the genus Enchinanea, belonging to the family Asteraceae, native to eastern and central North America. The herb has been used in traditional and herbal medicine to treat or prevent colds, flu, infections by stimulating the immune function, etc..

Health benefits
1. Common cold
In the evaluation of Echinacea preparations and its common cold effect found that Echinacea preparations are more effective than no treatment, more effective than placebo or similarly effective to other treatments in the prevention and the treatment of the common cold, depending to the use of different species, plant parts, extraction methods and addition of other components according to "Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold" by
Woelkart K, Linde K, Bauer R.(1)

2. Influenza infection
In the of demomstration of E. purpurea polysaccharide extract and its anti influenza infection effect found that E. purpurea alters the clinical course of influenza infection in mice through modulation of cytokines and not direct antiviral activity, according to "Echinacea purpurea aerial extract alters course of influenza infection in mice" by Fusco D, Liu X, Savage C, Taur Y, Xiao W, Kennelly E, Yuan J, Cassileth B, Salvatore M, Papanicolaou GA.(2)

3. Immune modulator
In the observation of ethanolic extract of fresh Echinacea purpurea and the changes in cytokine production in blood samples from 30 volunteers before and during 8-day oral administration found that Echinaforce regulates the production of chemokines and cytokines according to current immune status, such as responsiveness to exogenous stimuli, susceptibility to viral infection and exposure to stress, according to the study of "Effects of Echinaforce® treatment on ex vivo-stimulated blood cells" by Ritchie MR, Gertsch J, Klein P, Schoop R.(3)

4. Anti-viral properties
In the analyzing the extract from Enchinanea and its anti viral effect found that the extract interferes with the viral entry into cells. In sequential passage studies under treatment in cell culture with the H5N1 virus no EF-resistant variants emerged,according to "Anti-viral properties and mode of action of standardized Echinacea purpurea extract against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1, H7N7) and swine-origin H1N1 (S-OIV)" by Pleschka S, Stein M, Schoop R, Hudson JB.(4)

5. Anti fungal effects
In the research of Echinacea extracts and its anti fungal effects found that Echinacea-treated S. cerevisiae was significantly more prone to cell wall damage than non-treated cells. This study further demonstrates the potential of gene deletion arrays to understand natural product antifungal mode of action and provides compelling evidence that the fungal cell wall is a target of Echinacea extracts and may thus explain the utility of this phytomedicine in treating mycoses, according to "Disruption of fungal cell wall by antifungal Echinacea extracts" by Mir-Rashed N, Cruz I, Jessulat M, Dumontier M, Chesnais C, Ng J, Amiguet VT, Golshani A, Arnason JT, Smith ML.(5)

6. Anticolitic effect
In the study of caffeic acid (CA) derivatives from Echinacea and its antibiotic effect found that the anticolitic efficacy of CA was related to variability in CA bioavailability, which may be influenced by gut microbial metabolism of this compound, according to the study of "Plasma caffeic Acid is associated with statistical clustering of the anticolitic efficacy of caffeic Acid in dextran sulfate sodium-treated mice" by Ye Z, Hong CO, Lee K, Hostetter J, Wannemuehler M, Hendrich S.(6)

7. Recurrent upper respiratory tract in Children
In the research of immunostimulant herbal compound, including Echinacea angustifolia, Arabinogalactan, Acerola (Vitamin C), Beta- Glucan e Zinc (Imoviral® Junior) and its effect on recurrent upper respiratory tract infections found that the herbal compound of echinacea, beta-glucan, vitamin c, arabinoglactan and zinc (Imoviral® Junior) can improve the quality of life in pediatric patients affected by recurrent pharyngotonsillitis and otitis media without contralateral effects, according to "Efficacy of complex herbal compound of Echinacea angustifolia (Imoviral® Junior) in recurrent upper respiratory tract infections during pediatric age: preliminary results" by Minetti AM, Forti S, Tassone G, Torretta S, Pignataro L.(7)

8. Breast cancer survivors
In the observation of on survival or health-related quality of life (QOL) related to herbal remedy use among long-term breast cancer survivors who ave been survive more than 10 years after breast cancer diagnosis found that fifty-nine percent of participants were herbal remedy users at baseline. The most commonly used herbal remedies were echinacea, herbal teas, and ginko biloba. Herbal remedy use was associated with non-statistically significant increases in the risks for all-cause (44 deaths, RR=1.28, 95% CI=0.62-2.64) and breast cancer (33 deaths, RR=1.78, 95% CI=0.72-4.40) mortality. Both herbal remedy users' and non-users' mental component summary scores on the SF-36 increased similarly from the first survey to the second survey (P=0.16), but herbal remedy users' physical component summary scores decreased more than those of non-users (-5.7 vs. -3.2, P=0.02), according to "The roles of herbal remedies in survival and quality of life among long-term breast cancer survivors--results of a prospective study" by Ma H, Carpenter CL, Sullivan-Halley J, Bernstein L.(8)

9. Embryonic palatal mesenchymal cells
In the demonstration of phenytoin and Echinacea purpurea extractand their effects in Cleft palate of most common birth defects found that mixture of phenytoin and E. purpurea extract increased the proliferation and decreased the apoptosis of MEPM cells as compared with treatment with phenytoin alone. The teratogenic effect of phenytoin on cleft palate is associated with the proliferation and apoptosis of MEPM cells, and E. purpurea extract may have a protective effect, according to "Effects of phenytoin and Echinacea purpurea extract on proliferation and apoptosis of mouse embryonic palatal mesenchymal cells" by
Hu X, Chen Z, Mao X, Tang S.(9)

10. Chronic-obstructive pulmonary disease
In the determination of Echinacea purpurea along with zinc, selenium and vitamin C and their efect in chronic-obstructive pulmonary disease found that The combination of EP, zinc, selenium and vitamin C may alleviate exacerbation symptoms caused by URTI in COPD. according to "Echinacea purpurea along with zinc, selenium and vitamin C to alleviate exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from a randomized controlled trial" by Isbaniah F, Wiyono WH, Yunus F, Setiawati A, Totzke U, Verbruggen MA.(10)

11. Anxiety
In the evaluation of five different extract from Echinacea preparationsand it effects on anxiety found that three of these decreased anxiety but two of them had a very narrow effective dose range. Only one extract decreased anxiety within a wide dose-range (3-8 mg/kg). Anxiolytic effects were consistently seen in three different tests of anxiety, the elevated plus-maze, social interaction and shock-induced social avoidance tests. No locomotor suppressant effects were seen at any dose, according to "The effect of Echinacea preparations in three laboratory tests of anxiety: comparison with chlordiazepoxide" by Haller J, Hohmann J, Freund TF.(11)

12. Etc.

Side effects
1. Enchinanea may cause allergic effects, such as rashes, increased asthma, gastrointestinal discomfort, etc.
2. If you are allergic to ragweed, chrysanthemums, marigolds, and daisies, you may also be allergic to the herb.
3. Enchinanea may interacts with other medicines, according to the study of "Herb-drug interaction between Echinacea purpurea and darunavir-ritonavir in HIV-infected patients" by Moltó J, Valle M, Miranda C, Cedeño S, Negredo E, Barbanoj MJ, Clotet B.(a)
4. The herb may cause eosinophilia, accoring to the study of "Hypereosinophilia associated with echinacea use" by Maskatia ZK, Baker K.(b)

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18186015
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20382242
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21726792
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19912623
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20429770
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21918060
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21654598
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21645383
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21312240
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21062330
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21031616

(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21078942
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20890257