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Wednesday, 30 October 2013

Popular #Herbs - Elder(Sambucus)



Elder also known as Common Elder, is a shrub or small tree of the genus Sambucus of 30 specie, belonging to the family Adoxaceae, native to the temperate-to-subtropical regions of both the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere.The herb has been used in traditional and herbal medicine to treat constipation, colic, diarrhea, colds, flu, bronchial and upper-respiratory, irritation of the skin, rheumatism, etc.

Health Bnenefits
1. Swine
influenza H1N1 virus
In the research of the Sialic acid and sialyl-lactose glyco-conjugate and it effects on swine influenza H1N1 virus found that (sequential oligopeptide carrier)SOC(4) -glyco-conjugate bearing two copies of the α2,6-sialyllactose is specifically recognized by the biotinylated Sambucus nigra (elderberry) bark lectin, which binds preferentially to sialic acid in an α2,6-linkage, according to "Sialic acid and sialyl-lactose glyco-conjugates: design, synthesis and binding assays to lectins and swine influenza H1N1 virus" by Zevgiti S, Zabala JG, Darji A, Dietrich U, Panou-Pomonis E, Sakarellos-Daitsiotis M.(1)

2. Influenza A and B viruses
In the evaluation of Black elderberries (Sambucus nigra L.) and it effects on influenza virus (IV) infection that can lead to severe pneumonia found that a standardized elderberry liquid extract possesses antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria of Streptococcus pyogenes and group C and G Streptococci, and the Gram-negative bacterium Branhamella catarrhalis in liquid cultures. The liquid extract also displays an inhibitory effect on the propagation of human pathogenic influenza viruses, according to the study of "Inhibitory activity of a standardized elderberry liquid extract against clinically-relevant human respiratory bacterial pathogens and influenza A and B viruses" by Krawitz C, Mraheil MA, Stein M, Imirzalioglu C, Domann E, Pleschka S, Hain T.(2)

3. Immunostimulatory propertie
In the study of five herbal remedies--Sambucol Black Elderberry Extract, Sambucol Active Defense Formula and Sambucol for Kids (with known antiviral properties), Protec and Chizukit N (containing propolis and Echinacea, claimed to be immune enhancers) and their anti-inflammatory cytokines effects found that The three Sambucol formulations activate the healthy immune system by increasing inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines production, while the effect of Protec and Chizukit N is much less. Sambucol could therefore have immunostimulatory properties when administered to patients suffering from influenza (as shown before), or immunodepressed cancer or AIDS patients who are receiving chemotherapy or other treatments, according to "The effect of herbal remedies on the production of human inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines" by Barak V, Birkenfeld S, Halperin T, Kalickman I.(3)

4. chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome(CFIDS)
In the investigation of elderberry extract, called Sambucol, with olive leaf extract and their effect on HIV found that Sambucol led to a rapid recovery from influenza and inhibited replication of nine other strains of the flu virus. A theory is that elderberry renders viruses nonfunctional by staining and coating them. Another promising treatment is soil based organisms, which improved Natural Killer cell function in a person with chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome(CFIDS), accoring to the study of "A new triple combination therapy" by Konlee M.(4)

5. Anti-inflammatory effects
In the demonstration of Mucin-specific lectin from Sambucus sieboldiana (SSA-M) and it effect onanti- chronically inflammatory diseases found that an additional mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of ursolic acid by demonstrating its ability to inhibit TNFα-stimulated expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 and support the traditional use of extracts and preparations of Sambucus ebulus L., rich in ursolic acid, for the treatment of chronically inflammatory processes, according to "Identification and pharmacological characterization of the anti-inflammatory principal of the leaves of dwarf elder (Sambucus ebulus L.)" by Schwaiger S, Zeller I, Pölzelbauer P, Frotschnig S, Laufer G, Messner B, Pieri V, Stuppner H, Bernhard D.(5)

6. Rheumatoid arthritis
In the evaluation of "Relative sialylation and fucosylation of synovial and plasma fibronectins in relation to the progression and activity of rheumatoid arthritis" by found that Plasma fibronectin reactivity with lectins showed different dynamic alterations. In the early RA group, the reactivity of fibronectin with the alpha2-6 (Sambucus nigra) lectins used was similar to that of healthy individuals, whereas it increased significantly in the established RA group compared with the early and normal plasma groups. In the late RA group it decreased to a level similar to that of the normal group(6)

7. Etc.

Side effects
1. Overdose may cause Nausea or stomach upset.
2. Elder may cause allergic effect
3. Do not use the herb in children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without permission of related field specialist
4. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22052803
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21352539
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12455180
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Sambucol%20and%20HIV
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21040770
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17610063