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Tuesday, 29 October 2013

#Popular #Herbs - @Dandelion(Taraxacum officinale)


Dandelion is a herbaceous perennial plant, genus Taraxacum, beloning to the family Asteraceae, native to temperate regions of the world. It has been used in traditional and herbal medicine to treat gout, eczema, acne, gall bladder, kidney, liver and urinary disorders, hypoglycemia, dyspepsia with constipation, edema, blood pressure and heart weakness, chronic joint, skin diseases, etc.

Health Benefits
1. HIV-1

In the evaluation of aqueous dandelion extract and it effects on Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), found that The dandelion extract showed strong activity against HIV-1 RT and inhibited both the HIV-1 vector and the hybrid-MoMuLV/MoMuSV retrovirus replication, according to the study of "Inhibitory effect of aqueous dandelion extract on HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity" by Han H, He W, Wang W, Gao B.(1)

2. Hepatoprotective effects
In the study of a poly-phytocompound EH-1501 (containing grape leaf, wild strawberry, dandelion and milk thistle, EuroHealth, Italy) and it effects on chronic fibrotizing liver injury, found that " EH-1501 showed a significantly higher degree of gene down-regulation as compared to silymarine (p < 0.05). Taken altogether, these data suggest that a natural antioxidant-containing phytocompound EH-1501 exerts an effective hepatoprotective property in experimental chronic fibrotizing liver injury to a significantly higher degree than silymarin, according to "Hepatoprotective activity of a phytotherapeutic formula on thioacetamide--induced liver fibrosis model" by Kantah MK, Kobayashi R, Sollano J, Naito Y, Solimene U, Jains S, Catanzaro R, Minelli E, Polimeni A, Marotta F.(2)

3. Digestion-enhancing properties
In the analyzing the traditional societies' plant lore and their effects in treating digestive disturbances and ailments found that plants belong to one of three groups: bitter, aromatic and pungent plants, including ginger, peppermint, aniseed and fennel, citrus fruits, dandelion and artichoke, melissa and chamomile have a substantial body of data in support of their digestion-enhancing activities, according to the study of "Functional foods with digestion-enhancing properties" by Valussi M.(3)

4. Anti-inflammatory effects
In the analyzing luteolin and chicoric acid, two abundant constituents of the common dandelion and their anti-inflammatory effects found that luteolin plays a central role in ameliorating LPS-induced inflammatory cascades via inactivation of the NF-κB and Akt pathways, and that chicoric acid strengthens the anti-inflammatory activity of luteolin through NF-κB attenuation, according to the study of "Luteolin and chicoric acid synergistically inhibited inflammatory responses via inactivation of PI3K-Akt pathway and impairment of NF-κB translocation in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells" by Park CM, Jin KS, Lee YW, Song YS.(4)

5. Diuretic effect
In the observation of high-quality fresh leaf hydroethanolic extract of the medicinal plant T. officinale (dandelion) and its Diuretic effect found that there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the frequency of urination in the 5-hour period after the first dose. There was also a significant (p < 0.001) increase in the excretion ratio in the 5-hour period after the second dose of extract. The third dose failed to change any of the measured parameters, according to "The diuretic effect in human subjects of an extract of Taraxacum officinale folium over a single day" by Clare BA, Conroy RS, Spelman K.(5)

6. Diabetes
in the research of aqueous extracts and their effect on alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity found that Urtica dioica, Taraxacum officinale, Viscum album, and Myrtus communis with alpha-glucosidase inhibitor activity was conducted to identify a prophylactic effect for diabetes in vitro. All plants showed differing potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity, according to the study of "Inhibition of alpha-glucosidase by aqueous extracts of some potent antidiabetic medicinal herbs' by Onal S, Timur S, Okutucu B, Zihnioğlu F.(6)

7. Hepatoprotective effects
In the investigation of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) root against alcoholic liver damage were investigated in HepG2/2E1 cells and ICR mice found that ethanol plus hot water extract (TOH) from T. officinale root exhibited significant increases in hepatic antioxidant activities, including catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione. Furthermore, the amelioration of malondialdehyde levels indicated TOH's protective effects against liver damage mediated by alcohol in vivo, according to the study of "In vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) root against alcohol-induced oxidative stress" by You Y, Yoo S, Yoon HG, Park J, Lee YH, Kim S, Oh KT, Lee J, Cho HY, Jun W.(7)

8. Antifungal activity
In the analyzing seeds of 2S albumins of dandelion and it Antifungal effects found that dandelion 2S albumins possess inhibitory activity against phytopathogenic fungi and the oomycete Phytophtora infestans at micromolar concentrations with various isoforms differing in their antifungal activity. Thus, 2S albumins of dandelion seeds represent a novel example of storage proteins with defense functions, according to the study of "Antifungal activity of storage 2S albumins from seeds of the invasive weed dandelion Taraxacum officinale Wigg" by Odintsova TI, Rogozhin EA, Sklyar IV, Musolyamov AK, Kudryavtsev AM, Pukhalsky VA, Smirnov AN, Grishin EV, Egorov TA.(8)

9. Etc.

Side effects
1. Overdoses of Taraxacum officinale may increase the risk of male infertility, as a result of aqueous extract, according to the study of "Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) decreases male rat fertility in vivo" by Tahtamouni LH, Alqurna NM, Al-Hudhud MY, Al-Hajj HA.(a)
2. Dandelion may cause allergic reaction
3. Do not use the herb, if you have obstruction of the bile ducts
4. Do not use the herb if you are pregnant or breast feeding with out approval of related field specialist
5. Overdoses may cause gastrointestinal discomfort
6. Etc.


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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22078030
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22069962
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22010973
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21513709
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19678785
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15704495
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20347918
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19594427

(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21354287