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Monday, 28 October 2013

#Popular #Herbs - Coltsfoot(Tussilago farfara)


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c9/Coltsfoot_(Tussilago_farfara)_-_geograph.org.uk_-_196076.jpg

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Coltsfoot(Tussilago farfara) is a perennial herbaceous plant, genus Tussilago, belonging to the family Asteraceae, native to Europe and Asia. The herb has been used over thousands of year to treat asthma, various coughs, bronchial congestion, respiratory disorders, headaches and obstruction in the nasal passage, etc.

Health effects
1. Phytochemicals
In the investigation of the chemical constituents of the flower buds of Tussilago farfara found that Seven flavonoids, quercetin (1), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), quercetin-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), hyperoside (4), rutin (5), kaempferol (6), kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), together with eight phenolic acid derivatives, caffeic acid (8), methyl caffeate (9), ethyl caffeate (10), (E)-2,5-dihydroxycinnamic acid (11), 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (12), 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (13), methyl4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate (14) and chlorogenic acid (15) were isolated from the flower buds of Tussilago farfara, according to the study of "[Flavonoids and phenolic acid derivatives from flos farfarae].[Article in Chinese]" by Wu D, Zhang M, Zhang C, Wang Z.(1)

2. Antioxidant activity
In the investigation of antioxidant capacities of 56 selected Chinese medicinal plants were evaluated using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays found that that the antioxidants in Dioscorea bulbifera, Eriobotrya japonica, Tussilago farfara and Ephedra sinica possess free radical scavenging activity and oxidant reducing power, and the high positive correlation between antioxidant capacities and total phenolic content, according to the study of "Total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of selected chinese medicinal plants" by Song FL, Gan RY, Zhang Y, Xiao Q, Kuang L, Li HB.(2)

3. Anti-inflammatory effect
In the evaluation of Tussilagone (TSL), isolated from the flower of buds of Tussilago farfara (Compositae), is a sesquiterpenoid that is known to exert a variety of pharmacological activities. found that TSL exerts anti-inflammatory activities in murine macrophages by inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, according to the study of "The anti-inflammatory effect of tussilagone, from Tussilago farfara, is mediated by the induction of heme oxygenase-1 in murine macrophages" by Hwangbo C, Lee HS, Park J, Choe J, Lee JH.(3)

4. Obesity and type 2 diabetes
In the investigation of Bioassay-guided fractionation of EtOH extract of the flower buds of Tussilago farfara and it effects in obesity, type II diabetes mellitus found that DGAT1(tussilagonone) inhibition with IC(50) values of 99.2 (1), 18.8 (2), 47.0 (3), and 211.1 (4) microM (for rat liver microsomes) and >1 mM (1), 49.1 (2), 160.7 (3), and 294.4 (4) microM (for HepG2 cell microsomes), respectively. Compound 2(tussilagone) showed the most potent inhibition against microsomal DGAT1 derived from rat liver and human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells and also significantly inhibited triglyceride synthesis by suppressing incorporation of [(14)C]acetate or [(14)C]glycerol into triglycerides in HepG2 cells, according to the study of "Sesquiterpenoids isolated from the flower buds of Tussilago farfara L. inhibit diacylglycerol acyltransferase" by Park HR, Yoo MY, Seo JH, Kim IS, Kim NY, Kang JY, Cui L, Lee CS, Lee CH, Lee HS.(4)

5. Immune system
In the observation of polysaccharides from coltsfoot, sweet flag, clover, Artemisia, marigold, and elecampane and their effects in IgE- and G1 dependent diseases found that induction of anaphylactic shock. In addition, injection of these substances reduced serum concentrations of IgE and IgG1. These substances can be regarded as promising agents for the treatment of IgE-dependent diseases (atopic dermatitis, asthma, atopic rhinitis, urticaria, food allergies, etc.), according to the study of "Effects of plant water-soluble polysaccharides on the production of immunoglobulins E and G1 by lymphocytes of mice sensitized with ovalbumin" by Danilets MG, Belska NV, Bel'sky YP, Uchasova EG, Trophimova ES, Ligatcheva AA, Guriev AM, Belousov MV, Ahmedganov RR, Usubov MS, Agaphonov VI.(5)

6. Phytochemical and pharmacological research
pharmacological research direction for the future on T. farfara have been put forward to evaluate the chemical constitutents including terpenes, flavonoids, and alkanoids of Tussilago farfara and it effectiveness to relief coughs and as an expectorant, blood pressure raiser, platelet activating factor inhibitor and anti-inflammatory agents, according to the study of "[Phytochemical and pharmacological research progress in Tussilago farfara].[Article in Chinese]" by Liu KY, Zhang TJ, Gao WY, Chen HX, Zheng YN.(6)

7. Neuroprotective effects
In the examination of The flower buds of Tussilago farfara L. (Compositae) and its Neuroprotective effects found that it significantly attenuated the neuronal damage induced by spermine NONOate, a stable NO generator. In addition, it inhibited the A(beta(25-35))-induced neurotoxicity and glutamate- or N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-induced excitotoxicity. It was found that the oxidative neuronal damage induced by H2O2, xanthine/xanthine oxidase, or Fe(2+)/ascorbic acid was also inhibited by the EA fraction, according to the study of "Neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of the ethyl acetate fraction prepared from Tussilago farfara L." by Cho J, Kim HM, Ryu JH, Jeong YS, Lee YS, Jin C.(7)

8. Etc.

Side effects
1. Carcinogenic activity
Overdoses of Coltsfoot for a prolonged period of time may cause liver cancer, according to the study of "Carcinogenic activity of coltsfoot, Tussilago farfara l" by Hirono I, Mori H, Culvenor CC.(a)
2. It may also cause allergic reaction
3. Do not use the herb if you are pregnant or breast feeding with out approval by the related field specialist
4. Do not use the herb in children.
5. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20707069
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20640157
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19800419
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18937486
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19526097
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17285977
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15744068
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1269853