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Monday, 28 October 2013

#Popular #Herbs - Cleaver(Galium aparine)

http://www.isisherbs.co.uk/images/Cleavers.jpg


Cleaver
is a herbaceous annual plant, genus Galium, belonging to the family Rubiaceae, native to North America and Eurasia. The herb has been used over thousands of years in herbal and traditional medicine as mild diuretic and blood and lymphatic cleanser and to treat psoriasis, skin conditions, glands, tonsillitis, bladder infections, prevent small kidney stone, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Antifeedant activity
In the adminitration of 1,3-dihydroxy-anthraquinone-2-al) in Galium aparine L. and its effects aginst insects found that aldehyde group on the anthraquinone was more important than the quinone moiety for antifeedant activity against the common cutworm (Spodoptera litura), according to the study of "Antifeedant activity of an anthraquinone aldehyde in Galium aparine L. against Spodoptera litura F" by Morimoto M, Tanimoto K, Sakatani A, Komai K.(1)

2. Mastitis
In the administration in the use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock found that mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine, according to the study of "Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada" by Lans C, Turner N, Khan T, Brauer G, Boepple W.(2)

3. Phytochemicals
In the investigation of the phytochemical compounds in Galium aparine with various column chromatographic techniques in 95% ethanol extract of the plant, identified 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethanone (1), vanillic acid (2), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3), p-hydroxycinnamic acid (4), gallic acid (5), 4-hydroxytruxillic acid (6). according to the study of "[Phenolic compounds from Galium aparine var. tenerum].
[Article in Chinese]" by Yang J, Cai X, Mu S, Yang X.(3)

4. Melanoma cells
In the investigation of Gallic acid(GA) (found abundantly in cleavers) and its effects in Skin diseases found that the action of GA was involved in the Ras, p-ERK signaling pathways resulting in inhibition of MMP-2 in A375.S2 human melanoma cells. These data, therefore, provide evidence for the role of GA as a potential cancer chemotherapeutic agent, which can markedly inhibit the invasive capacity of melanoma cells, according to the study of "Gallic acid inhibits the migration and invasion of A375.S2 human melanoma cells through the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and Ras" by Lo C, Lai TY, Yang JS, Yang JH, Ma YS, Weng SW, Lin HY, Chen HY, Lin JG, Chung JG.(4)

5. Apoptotic effect
In the evaluation of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (protocatechuic acid, PCA) (found abundantly in cleavers) and it effects in gastric carcinoma cells found that PCA exhibited the antiproliferation effect on AGS cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The occurrence of apoptosis induced by PCA was confirmed by morphological and biochemical features, including apoptotic bodies formation and an increase in the distribution of hypodiploid phase. Molecular data showed the effect of PCA in AGS cells might be mediated via sustained phosphorylation and activation of JNK and p38 mitogen-activating protein kinases (MAPK), but not ERK and concluded that PCA is an apoptosis inducer in AGS cells, even in tumor cells of digestive organs, and provide a new mechanism for its anticancer activity, according to the study of "Apoptotic effect of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid on human gastric carcinoma cells involving JNK/p38 MAPK signaling activation" by Lin HH, Chen JH, Huang CC, Wang CJ.(5)

6. Antihypertensive and antioxidant activity
In the examination of vanillic acid (VA) in N(ω)-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) (found abundantly in cleavers) and it potential effects as an antihypertensive and antioxidant agent found that the effect at a dose of 50 mg/kg Bw of VA was more pronounced than that of the other two doses, 25 and 100 mg/kg Bw. These results were supported by histopathology studies. We conclude that VA possesses an antihypertensive and antioxidant activity in l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats, according to the study of "Antihypertensive and antioxidant potential of vanillic acid, a phenolic compound in l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats: A dose-dependence study" by Kumar S, Prahalathan P, Raja B.(6)

7. Bone healthIn the observation of Phytocomponent p-hydroxycinnamic acid(found abundantly in cleavers) and it stimulatory effect on bone formation and an inhibitory effect on bone resorption found that The decrease in diaphyseal alkaline phosphatase activity in STZ-diabetic rats was significantly prevented after administration of HCA (0.5 and 1.0 mg/l00 g). The diaphyseal DNA content was also significantly decreased in STZ-diabetic rats. Administration of HCA (0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/100 g) caused a significant increase in DNA content in the diaphyseal and metaphyseal tissues in STZ-diabetic rats. This study demonstrates that the intake of HCA has preventive effects on bone loss in STZ-diabetic rats, and that the intake has partially restorative effects on serum biochemical findings in the diabetic state, according to the study of "Oral administration of phytocomponent p-hydroxycinnamic acid has a preventive effect on bone loss in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats" by Yamaguchi M, Uchiyama S, Lai YL.(7)

Side effects
1. There were no well-known side effects but do not use the herb if you are pregnant or breast feeding with out approval of related field specialist.
2. Do not use the herb in children.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12009319
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17324258
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19894511
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21734530
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17304508
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22005341
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17390086