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Monday, 28 October 2013

Popular Herbs - @Cayenne




Cayenne
is also known as Cayenne Pepper, a red, hot chili pepper, belonging to Capsicum annuum, the family Solanaceae, native to sub-tropical and tropical regions. It has been used in traditional medicine to increases metabolism, enhance circulatory system and stomach and the intestinal tract, adjust blood pressure, lower LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, treat frostbite, muscles, arthritis, rheumatism, low back pain, strains, sprains, bruises and neuralgia, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Anti-fungul activity
CAY-1, a novel saponin from Capsicum frutescens(cayenne pepper) has demonstrated the activity of against 55 mammalian cell lines at up to 100 microg ml(-1). Importantly, CAY-1 appears to act by disrupting the membrane integrity of fungal cells, according to the study of "CAY-1, a novel antifungal compound from cayenne pepper" by Renault S, De Lucca AJ, Boue S, Bland JM, Vigo CB, Selitrennikoff CP.(1)

2. Weight loss
Bioactive ingredients Capsaicin(red pepper), green tea, CH-19 sweet pepper has demonstrated the effects when used in combinations and in positive energy balance. Energy balance did not affect possible treatment induced energy intake, but did affect appetite by supporting negative energy balance. Bioactive ingredients may therefore be helpful in reducing energy intake and might support weight loss periods by relatively sustaining satiety and suppressing hunger, according to the study of "Effects of capsaicin, green tea and CH-19 sweet pepper on appetite and energy intake in humans in negative and positive energy balance" by Reinbach HC, Smeets A, Martinussen T, Møller P, Westerterp-Plantenga MS.(2)

3. Antimicrobial activities
Capsicum annum (red pepper) has exhibited the inhibition zone 7-18 mm 30microl against Klebsiella pneumonia 13883, Bacillus megaterium NRS, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 27859, Staphylococcus aureus 6538 P, Escherichia coil ATCC 8739, Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 13047, Corynebacterium xerosis UC 9165, Streptococcus faecalis, accoprding to the study of "Studies on antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of different spices" by Keskin D, Toroglu S.(3)

4. Nonallergic rhinitis
ICX72 or Sinus Buster, a proprietary homeopathic preparation of Capsicum annum and Eucalyptol has rapidly and safely improved symptoms in rhinitis subjects with a significant nonallergic rhinitis (NAR), according to the study of "A randomized, double-blind, parallel trial comparing capsaicin nasal spray with placebo in subjects with a significant component of nonallergic rhinitis" by Bernstein JA, Davis BP, Picard JK, Cooper JP, Zheng S, Levin LS.(4)

5. Antioxidants
C. annuum var. cerasiferum has showed a significant antioxidant activity evaluated by the β-carotene bleaching test (IC(50) of 3.1 μg/ml). The lipophilic fraction of both C. annuum var. acuminatum and C. annuum var. cerasiferum exhibited an interesting and selective inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC(50) of 6.9 and 20.1 μg/ml, respectively), according to the study of "Comparative study on the chemical composition, antioxidant properties and hypoglycaemic activities of two Capsicum annuum L. cultivars (Acuminatum small and Cerasiferum)' by Tundis R, Loizzo MR, Menichini F, Bonesi M, Conforti F, Statti G, De Luca D, de Cindio B, Menichini F.(5)

6. Sympathetic nervous activity, body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure
the non-pungent pepper CH-19 Sweet and of hot red pepper activates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and enhances thermogenesis as effectively as hot red pepper, ant that the heat loss effect due to CH-19 Sweet is weaker than that due to hot red pepper. Furthermore, we found that intake of CH-19 Sweet does not affect systolic BP or HR, while hot red pepper transiently elevates them, according to the study of "Effects of CH-19 Sweet, a non-pungent cultivar of red pepper, on sympathetic nervous activity, body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure in humans" by Hachiya S, Kawabata F, Ohnuki K, Inoue N, Yoneda H, Yazawa S, Fushiki T.(6)

7. Circulatory system
In a study of Thirty-six participants (22 women and 14 men), aged 46+/-12 (mean+/-s.d.) years; BMI 26.4+/-4.8 kg/m(2), consumed 30 g/day of a chilli blend (55% cayenne chilli) with their normal diet (chilli diet), and a bland diet (chilli-free) for 4 weeks each, researchers found that Four weeks of regular chilli consumption has no obvious beneficial or harmful effects on metabolic parameters but may reduce resting heart rate and increase effective myocardial perfusion pressure time in men, according to" The effect of 4-week chilli supplementation on metabolic and arterial function in humans" by Ahuja KD, Robertson IK, Geraghty DP, Ball MJ.(7)

8. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
Fermented red pepper paste(FRPP) has caused a modulation of cholesterol levels not seen in the placebo group, causing either no variation or a decrease in low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels, according to the study of "Hypoxanthine levels in human urine serve as a screening indicator for the plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein modulation activities of fermented red pepper paste" by Kim Y, Park YJ, Yang SO, Kim SH, Hyun SH, Cho S, Kim YS, Kwon DY, Cha YS, Chae S, Choi HK.(8)

9. Metabolic dysregulation (hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, etc.)
Dietary capsaicin has markedly decreased fasting glucose/insulin and triglyceride levels in the plasma and/or liver, as well as expression of inflammatory adipocytokine genes and increased in adipose tissue and/or plasma, accompanied by increased activation of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase, a marker of fatty acid oxidation., according to the study of "Dietary capsaicin attenuates metabolic dysregulation in genetically obese diabetic mice" by Kang JH, Tsuyoshi G, Le Ngoc H, Kim HM, Tu TH, Noh HJ, Kim CS, Choe SY, Kawada T, Yoo H, Yu R.(9)

10. Gastrointestinal protective effect
Cayenne pepper has found to alleviate the diminished activities of antioxidant enzymes in gastric and intestinal mucosa under conditions of ethanol-induced oxidative stress, according to the study of "Gastrointestinal protective effect of dietary spices during ethanol-induced oxidant stress in experimental rats" by Prakash UN, Srinivasan K.(10)

11. Airway Inflammation
Methanolic C. annuum L. extract (CAE) has attenuated ovalbumin-induced increases in NF-κB activity in lungs. Collectively, these results suggest that CAE may be an effective oral treatment for allergic airway inflammation by virtue of its antioxidant activity, according to the study of "Capsicum annuum L. Methanolic Extract Inhibits Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in a Mouse Model of Asthma" by Jang HY, Kim SM, Yuk JE, Kwon OK, Oh SR, Lee HK, Jeong H, Ahn KS.(11)

12. Anti inflammatory Effects
C. baccatum juice has significantly decreased leucocyte and neutrophil migration, exudate volume and protein and LDH concentration in pleural exudates of a pleurisy model and inhibited neutrophil migration and reduced the vascular permeability on carrageenan-induced peritonitis, according to the study of "Anti-inflammatory effects of red pepper (Capsicum baccatum) on carrageenan- and antigen-induced inflammation' by Spiller F, Alves MK, Vieira SM, Carvalho TA, Leite CE, Lunardelli A, Poloni JA, Cunha FQ, de Oliveira JR.(12)

13. Etc.

Side Effects
1. It may cause allergic reaction in young children, according to the study of "Severe pepper allergy in a young child" by Gimenez L, Zacharisen M(a)
2. It may also cause hypertense response if overdosed, according to the study of "Mechanisms underlying the hypertensive response induced by capsaicin" by Dutta A, Deshpande SB.(b)
3. It amy promote symptoms of acute anal fissure, according to the study of "Consumption of red-hot chili pepper increases symptoms in patients with acute anal fissures" by Gupta PJ.(c)
4. It may cause burning sensation to certain people in the first taste
5. Do not use cayenne pepper in young children
6. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12627807
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19345452
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21882663
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21802026
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21792679
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17341828
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16929238
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20797477
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21332406
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20383223
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21875363
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18380920

(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21748999
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20223533(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19149363