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Monday, 28 October 2013

Popular Herbs - Calendula (Calendula officinalis)




Calendula
is also known as pot marigold, a annual or perennial herbaceous plants of about 12–20 species of genus Calendula, belonging to the family Asteraceae, native to Southern Europe. It has been used in herbal medicine as spasmolytic, spasmogenic, inflammatory effects and to treat abdominal cramps, wound healing, skin diseases, colitis, constipation, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Antimicrobial activity
Calendula
(Calendula officinalis) have shown antimicrobial activity against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures, according to the study of "Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis and chlorhexidine against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures after extraction of unerupted third molars" by Faria RL, Cardoso LM, Akisue G, Pereira CA, Junqueira JC, Jorge AO, Santos Júnior PV.(1)

2. Hydration and firmness of skin
Newly formulated topical cream of Calendula officinalis extract measured by Cutometer 580 MPA device has demonstration of significant improvements in hydration and firmness of skin, according to the study of "Calendula extract: effects on mechanical parameters of human skin" by Akhtar N, Zaman SU, Khan BA, Amir MN, Ebrahimzadeh MA.(2)

3. Wound healing
in rats study, researchers found that the percentage of wound closure was 90.0% in the extract-treated group, according to "Wound healing activity of flower extract of Calendula officinalis" by Preethi KC, Kuttan R.(3)

4. Protection against subacute cigarette smoke exposure
Extract of Calendula supplied relative protection against subacute CS-induced cell injury by elevating activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase activities and β-carotene, vitamins A and C, according to the study of "Subacute effect of cigarette smoke exposure in rats: Protection by pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) extract" by Ozkol H, Tülüce Y, Koyuncu I.(4)

5. Antimetastatic effects
Exyract of Calendula has demonstrated in reducing the lung tumor nodules by 74% with 43.3% increase in life span by inhibiting key enzymes involved in processes of metastasis, according to the study of "Inhibition of metastasis of B16F-10 melanoma cells in C57BL/6 mice by an extract of Calendula officinalis L flowers" by Preethi KC, Siveen KS, Kuttan R, Kuttan G.(5)

6. Gingivitis
Topic gel containing clobetasol, nystatin, Calendula officinalis L and pectin have delayed and presented as less severe symptoms in the two years follow-up. according to the study of "Management of two cases of desquamative gingivitis with clobetasol and Calendula officinalis gel" by Machado MA, Contar CM, Brustolim JA, Candido L, Azevedo-Alanis LR, Gregio AM, Trevilatto PC, Soares de Lima AA.(6)

7. Angiogenic activity
Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) ethanolic extract has exerted positive effect on involving the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels, according to the study of "Angiogenic activity of Calendula officinalis flowers L. in rats" by Parente LM, Andrade MA, Brito LA, Moura VM, Miguel MP, Lino-Júnior Rde S, Tresvenzol LF, Paula JR, Paulo NM.(7)

8. Degeneration diseases
Calendula has demonstrated the cardioprotection by stimulating left ventricular developed pressure and aortic flow as well as by reducing myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, according to the study of "Amelioration of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury with Calendula officinalis" by Ray D, Mukherjee S, Falchi M, Bertelli A, Das DK.(8)

9. Cheilitis exfoliative
The use of Calendula officinalis ointment 10% for ad libitum has exerted the potential therapy in cases of cheilitis exfoliative, according to the study of "Topical Calendula officinalis L. successfully treated exfoliative cheilitis: a case report" by Roveroni-Favaretto LH, Lodi KB, Almeida JD.(9)

10. Antioxidant activity

Calendula has shown to restore the redox balance in cells with plant-derived molecules as well as extending the possibility of antagonizing the oxidative stress generated in living organisms when the balance is in favor of free radicals as a result of the depletion of cell antioxidants, according to the study of "Antioxidant activity of Calendula officinalis extract: inhibitory effects on chemiluminescence of human neutrophil bursts and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy" by Braga PC, Dal Sasso M, Culici M, Spallino A, Falchi M, Bertelli A, Morelli R, Lo Scalzo R.(10)

11. Hepato and reno (Liver and Kinney) protective
Flower extract of C. officinalis against CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity and cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity and enhaced the kidney function markers like urea and creatinine, according to the study of "Hepato and reno protective action of Calendula officinalis L. flower extract" by Preethi KC, Kuttan R.(11)

12. Antibacterial and antiparasitic activity
Oleanolic acid and its glycosides isolated from marigold (Calendula officinalis) have exerted the affected nematode infectivity and reduced the rate of L3 survival during prolonged storage, according to the study of "Antibacterial and antiparasitic activity of oleanolic acid and its glycosides isolated from marigold (Calendula officinalis)" by Szakiel A, Ruszkowski D, Grudniak A, Kurek A, Wolska KI, Doligalska M, Janiszowska W.

13. Spasmogenic and spasmolytic activities
The crude extract of Calendula officinalis flowers contains both spasmolytic and spasmogenic constituents, exhibiting these effects through calcium channel blocking and cholinergic activities, that provides a scientific base for its traditional use in treating abdominal cramps and constipation, according to the study of "Studies on spasmogenic and spasmolytic activities of Calendula officinalis flowers" by Bashir S, Janbaz KH, Jabeen Q, Gilani AH.(13)

14. Anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activity
Laser Activated Calendula Extract (LACE), a novel extract of the plant Calendula Officinalis (Asteraceae) has demonstrated the function of anti-tumoral activity in nude mice against tumor growth of Ando-2 melanoma cells, according to the study of "A new extract of the plant Calendula officinalis produces a dual in vitro effect: cytotoxic anti-tumor activity and lymphocyte activation" by Jiménez-Medina E, Garcia-Lora A, Paco L, Algarra I, Collado A, Garrido F.(14)

15. Etc.

Side effects
1. Calendula may cause allergic effect to certain people, symptoms include rash, itching, swelling, dizziness, trouble breathing, etc.
2. Do not use Calendula if you are pregnant or breast feeding, diabetes, alcohol dependence or liver disease with out consulting with related field specialist
3. Overdose can be Poisson. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21986652
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21928714
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19601397
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21505008
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21338232
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21293545
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21271199
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20062714
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19420983
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19405380
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18951335
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16906636
(14) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16677386