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Sunday, 27 October 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 9 Health Benefits of Tartaric acid


Tartaric acid is a phytichemicasl of the organic acid found abundantly in nuts, apricots, apples, sunflower, avocado, grapes, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Improvement of intestinal absorption
In the investigation of the effects of D-tartaric acid (TA) on intestinal drug absorption under both in situ and in vitro, found that TA increases the intestinal absorption of P-gp substrates Rho123 and daunorubicin, possibly by modulating the P-gp function without changing the expression level of P-gp in the rat intestine, according to "Improvement of intestinal absorption of P-glycoprotein substrate by D-tartaric acid" by Iida A, Tomita M, Idota Y, Takizawa Y, Hayashi M.(1)

2. Antibacterial activity
Dentine and pulp ECM preparations were isolated with 10% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), pH 7.2 and sequential use of 0.5 mol L(-1) NaCl, pH 11.7 and 0.1 mol L(-1) tartaric acid, pH 2.0, respectively, with protease inhibitor inclusion throughout. Antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis and Enterococcus faecalis was assessed using turbidity as a measure of bacteria growth. The cytotoxicity of the extracts on primary pulp cells was also determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, according to "Antibacterial activity of dentine and pulp extracellular matrix extracts" by Smith JG, Smith AJ, Shelton RM, Cooper PR.(2)

3. Antioxidative activity
In the study of a starch ingredient with antioxidative activity, as measured by the DPPH method, was produced by baking corn starch with an organic acid, named ANOX sugar (antioxidative sugar), found that the phytic acid ANOX sugar preparation showed the highest antioxidative activity, but the color of the preparation was almost black; we therefore selected L-tartaric acid which had the second highest antioxidative activity. The antioxidative activity of the L-tartaric acid ANOX sugar preparation was stable against temperature, light, and enzyme treatments (α-amylase and glucoamylase), according to "Production of starch with antioxidative activity by baking starch with organic acids" by Miwa S, Nakamura M, Okuno M, Miyazaki H, Watanabe J, Ishikawa-Takano Y, Miura M, Takase N, Hayakawa S, Kobayashi S.(3)

4. Adjuvant-induced arthritis
In the investigation of the anti-inflammatory (AI) activity of a supercritical fluid extract (CO(2)-SFE) of tartaric acid-stabilised Perna canaliculus mussel powder, and of the free fatty acid (FFA) class separated from the CO(2)-SFE extract by column chromatography, in the rat adjuvant arthritis model, found that Administration of the CO(2)-SFE extract (100 mg/kg BW/day s.c.) for 15 days post-adjuvant inoculation significantly reduced rear paw swelling by 34% and the deterioration in total body condition by 52% in arthritic rats, according to "The CO2-SFE crude lipid extract and the free fatty acid extract from Perna canaliculus have anti-inflammatory effects on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats" by Singh M, Hodges LD, Wright PF, Cheah DM, Wynne PM, Kalafatis N, Macrides TA.(4)

5. Antitumor effect
In the study of Local injection of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) by the human serum albumin (HSA) and tartaric acid derivative (TAD) to human colon carcinoma (WiDr) implanted subcutaneously onto the immunodeficient mouse, found that the presence of DOX in blood of mice was detectable for up to 3days, and that the tumor volume was effectively minimized with injection of HSA- TAD, a tartaric acid derivative containing DOX. The in-situ forming DDS with the novel tissue adhesive containing DOX, therefore, is a useful technique for cancer chemotherapy, according to "Antitumor effect of an injectable in-situ forming drug delivery system composed of a novel tissue adhesive containing doxorubicin hydrochloride" by Kakinoki S, Taguchi T.(5)

6. Lowered glucose and A1C levels and improved glucose tolerance
In the conitued study of glycosphingolipids can modulate the activity of the insulin receptor, and studies in transgenic mice suggest a link between altered levels of various gangliosides and the development of insulin resistance, showed that an inhibitor of glycosphingolipid synthesis can improve glucose control and increase insulin sensitivity in two different diabetic animal models. In the Zucker diabetic fatty rat, the glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor (1R,2R)-nonanoic acid[2-(2',3'-dihydro-benzo [1, 4] dioxin-6'-yl)-2-hydroxy-1-pyrrolidin-1-ylmethyl-ethyl]- amide-l-tartaric acid salt (Genz-123346) lowered glucose and A1C levels and improved glucose tolerance., according to "Inhibiting glycosphingolipid synthesis improves glycemic control and insulin sensitivity in animal models of type 2 diabetes" by Zhao H, Przybylska M, Wu IH, Zhang J, Siegel C, Komarnitsky S, Yew NS, Cheng SH.(6)

7. Enhancement effect
In the evaluation of the effect of added organic acids on the calcium availability of vegetables, using the dialysis profiles obtained from an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion with continuous-flow dialysis method, indicated that citric acid was the most effective enhancer followed by tartaric, malic, and ascorbic acids. An enhancement effect from added organic acids was not clearly observed for Chinese kale, which itself contains a high amount of available calcium (52.9%), according to "Enhancement effect study of some organic acids on the calcium availability of vegetables: application of the dynamic in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion method with continuous-flow dialysis" by Shiowatana J, Purawatt S, Sottimai U, Taebunpakul S, Siripinyanond A.(7)

8. Cardioprotective effect
In the examination of if the flesh of grapes also possesses any cardioprotective abilities, dhowed that both flesh and skin of the grapes could protect the hearts from ischemic reperfusion injury as evidenced by improved postischemic ventricular recovery and reduced myocardial infarct size. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed that skin and flesh contained comparative amounts of glucose, fructose, tartaric acid, malic acid, shikimic acid, and trans-caftaric acid. In addition, the flesh contained reduced amounts (compared to skin) of cis-coutaric, trans-coutaric, caffeic, p-coumaric, cinnamics, and catechin/epicatechin, according to "Comparison of cardioprotective abilities between the flesh and skin of grapes" by Falchi M, Bertelli A, Lo Scalzo R, Morassut M, Morelli R, Das S, Cui J, Das DK.(8)

9. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus
In the examination of 3,4,5-Tricaffeoylquinic acid (TCQA) that is not found in intact plant of lettuce leaves, isolated from the cultured cells. The intact plant produced chicoric acid (dicaffeoyl tartaric acid: L-CCA) as well as chlorogenic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid: 3-CQA) as the major metabolites, showed that after subculturing of the cells for 40 days, the amount of 3,4,5-TCQA reached to 0.14 mg/g fresh weight. The inhibitory effect of 3,4,5-TCQA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Type 1 integrase was assayed. Anti-HIV activity using HIV and MT-2 cells was 1.15 microM and IC(50) against HIV integrase was 0.063 microM whereas cell toxicity of this chemical was expressed as 5% death of all living cells to be 18.4 microM. The HIV inhibitory effect of 3,4,5-TCQA was the highest in values among L-CCA, and other dicaffeoylquinic acids, according to "Anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity of 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid in cultured cells of lettuce leaves" by Tamura H, Akioka T, Ueno K, Chujyo T, Okazaki K, King PJ, Robinson WE Jr.(9)

10. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17072096
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22416895
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21897036
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17931921
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17493793
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17470562
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17117785
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16939317
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16598806