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Thursday, 31 October 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 8 Health Benefits of Sulfides

Sulfides are phytochemicals in a class of chemical compounds containing anion of sulfur in its lowest oxidation state of 2s, belonging to the group of Organosulfides found abundantly in Beer, cocktail mixes, wine, fresh potatoes, garlic oil, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Colon cancer
In the investigation of diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) are presented in the Alliaceae family particularly in garlic and their effects on chemo-resistance of human cancer cells, a major obstacle in the treatment and management of malignant cancers, found that DADS and DATS induced Mdr1 and MRP1 gene expression (p<0.05). DADS promoted MRP3 gene expression (p<0.05) as well as DADS and DATS increased MRP4 and MRP6 gene expression (p<0.05) in the colo 205 xenograft mice. Based on our in vitro and in vivo results, diallyl polysulfides (DAS, DADS and DATS) affected the gene expression of the multidrug resistance in colo 205 human colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, according to 'Diallyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide affect drug resistant gene expression in colo 205 human colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo" by Lai KC, Kuo CL, Ho HC, Yang JS, Ma CY, Lu HF, Huang HY, Chueh FS, Yu CC, Chung JG.(1)

2. Skin cancer
In the investigation of Diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), and diallyl trisulfide (DATS), extracted from crushed garlic by steam-distillation and it anticancer activity in several cancer types, found that DATS revealed better growth inhibition of A375 and BCC cells than DADS and DAS did. Further demonstrated that DATS increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, induced cytosolic Ca(2+) mobilization, and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim). Western blot results showed the concordance for the expression of molecules involved in G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis observed by cell cycle and cell viability analysis, according to "Allyl sulfides inhibit cell growth of skin cancer cells through induction of DNA damage mediated G2/M arrest and apoptosis" by
Wang HC, Yang JH, Hsieh SC, Sheen LY.(2)

3. Lung adenocarcinoma
In the valuation of the anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic effectsfrom DAS (diallyl sulfide), DADS (diallyl disulfide), and DATS (diallyl trisulfide), major oil-soluble allyl sulfides (OAS) represent major garlic constituents, found that OASs DADS and DATS induce significant apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, whereas DAS does not. Differential modulation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) may account for the apoptotic effects of DADS and DAT, according to "Apoptosis induction in human lung adenocarcinoma cells by oil-soluble allyl sulfides: triggers, pathways, and modulators" by Wu XJ, Hu Y, Lamy E, Mersch-Sundermann V.(3)

4. Cervical cancer
In the investigation of Diallyl sulfide (DAS), one of the main active constituents of garlic, for it inhibition of cancer cells in vitro and promotion of immune responses in vivo, found that DAS induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HeLa cells through caspase- and mitochondria and p53 pathways providing further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of DAS action in cervical cancer, according to "Diallyl sulfide induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HeLa human cervical cancer cells through the p53, caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathways" by Wu PP, Chung HW, Liu KC, Wu RS, Yang JS, Tang NY, Lo C, Hsia TC, Yu CC, Chueh FS, Lin SS, Chung JG.(4)

5. Thyroid cancer
In the investigation of whetherDAS could induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in ATC cells. In MTT assay, DAS treatment inhibited the proliferation of ARO cells in a dose-dependent manner, showed that DAS-induced apoptosis was associated with a decrease in the level of Bcl-2 expression and an increase in the level of Bax expression, and cytochrome c was remarkably released from mitochondrial into the cytosol by DAS. Furthermore, caspase-9 and caspase-3 were activated by DAS, and DAS cleaved PARP. Taken together, DAS decreased cell proliferation and induced apoptosis via mitochondrial signaling pathway in ATC cells, according to "Diallyl sulfide induces growth inhibition and apoptosis of anaplastic thyroid cancer cells by mitochondrial signaling pathway" by Shin HA, Cha YY, Park MS, Kim JM, Lim YC.(5)

6. Antioxidants and inhibits inflammation
in the elucidation of the role of a transcription factor, Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in inducing antioxidants and phase II enzymes during gentamicin toxicity in Wistar rats, showed that DAS enhances antioxidants and suppresses inflammatory cytokines through the activation of Nrf2, thereby protecting the cell against oxidative stress induced by gentamicin, according to "Diallyl sulfide enhances antioxidants and inhibits inflammation through the activation of Nrf2 against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats.' by Kalayarasan S, Prabhu PN, Sriram N, Manikandan R, Arumugam M, Sudhandiran G.(6)

7. Joint inflammation
Investigation of the effects of diallyl sulfide (DAS), a garlic sulfur compound, on joint tissue inflammatory responses induced by monosodium urate (MSU) crystals and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), found that DAS prevents IL-1beta and MSU crystal induced COX-2 upregulation in synovial cells and chondrocytes and ameliorates crystal induced synovitis potentially through a mechanism involving NF-kappaB. Anti-inflammatory actions of DAS may be of value in treatment of joint inflammation, according to "Inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 expression by diallyl sulfide on joint inflammation induced by urate crystal and IL-1beta' by Lee HS, Lee CH, Tsai HC, Salter DM.(7)

8. Neuroprotective effects
In the investigation of Diallyl sulfide (DAS), the main organosulfur component of garlic neuroprotective effects against ischemia/reperfusion injury, showed that for animals with induced ischemia/reperfusion, those pretreated with 200 mg/kg DAS showed an infarct volume (22.36 ± 0.67%) significantly lower than that of the non-treated ischemia/reperfusion group (38.23 ± 0.72%), and the percentage of terminal dUTP nick-end labeling-positive cells (23.46 ± 1.02%) of the DAS-pretreated group was also significantly decreased compared to non-treated (36.41 ± 1.58%). Fluorescence immunohistochemistry staining and western blot analysis indicated that DAS reduced caspase-3 expression and increased Bcl-2 expression, according to "Neuroprotective effects of diallyl sulfide against transient focal cerebral ischemia via anti-apoptosis in rats" by Lin X, Yu S, Chen Y, Wu J, Zhao J, Zhao Y.(8)

9. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22397993
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20459099
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19197990
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21424116
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20219414
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19374873
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18573668
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22196859