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Sunday, 27 October 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 7 Health Benefits of Anacardic acid

Anacardic acid are phytichemicals of the organic acid found abundantly in cashews, mangoes, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Breast cancer
In the investigation of Anacardic acid (AnAc; 2-hydroxy-6-alkylbenzoic acid), a dietary and medicinal phytochemical with established anticancer activity, found that AnAc inhibits cancer cell proliferation remain undefined. AnAc 24:1(omega5) was purified from geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) and shown to inhibit the proliferation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)-positive MCF-7 and endocrine-resistant LCC9 and LY2 breast cancer cells with greater efficacy than ERalpha-negative primary human breast epithelial cells, according to "Anacardic acid inhibits estrogen receptor alpha-DNA binding and reduces target gene transcription and breast cancer cell proliferation" by Schultz DJ, Wickramasinghe NS, Ivanova MM, Isaacs SM, Dougherty SM, Imbert-Fernandez Y, Cunningham AR, Chen C, Klinge CM.(1)

2. Anti Cancer and inflammatory effects
In the optimization of histone acetyltransferases (HATs), a novel drug targets for treatment of diseases like, for example, cancer and inflammation, showed that in derivatives synthesized using a novel synthetic route, one compound showed a twofold improved inhibitory potency for the PCAF HAT activity and a twofold improved inhibition of histone acetylation in HEP G2 cells, according to " Improved inhibition of the histone acetyltransferase PCAF by an anacardic acid derivative" by Ghizzoni M, Boltjes A, Graaf C, Haisma HJ, Dekker FJ.(2)

3. Prostate cancer
In the postulation of that anacardic acid affects multiple steps of tumor angiogenesis to contribute to tumor inhibition, showed that when anacardic acid (2 mg/kg per day) was subcutaneously administrated to mice bearing human prostate tumor xenografts (n = 6-7), the volume and weight of solid tumors were significantly retarded. Src, Ki-67, and CD31 immunohistochemical staining further revealed that Src protein expression, tumor cell proliferation, and microvessel density could be remarkably suppressed by anacardic acid. Taken together, according to "Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid) inhibits tumor angiogenesis by targeting Src/FAK/Rho GTPases signaling pathway" by Wu Y, He L, Zhang L, Chen J, Yi Z, Zhang J, Liu M, Pang X.(3)

4. Antimicrobial activity
In the investigation of a new anacardic acid, 6-[16'Z-nonadecenyl]-salicylic acid (1), along with seven known compounds, 6-[8'Z-pentadecenyl] salicylic acid (15:1 anacardic acid) (2), 6-nonadecenyl salicylic acid (anacardic acid 19:0) (3), 6-pentadecyl salicylic acid (anacardic acid 15:0) (4), masticadienonic acid (5), 3α-hydroxymasticadienonic acid (6), 3-epi-oleanolic acid (7) and β-sitosterol, isolated from the bark of Amphipterygium adstringens, showed that compounds 1-4 exhibited antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 7 to 104 µg mL and from 12 to 126 µg mL, respectively, according to "Isolation of the new anacardic acid 6-[16'Z-nonadecenyl]-salicylic acid and evaluation of its antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis" by Rivero-Cruz BE, Esturau N, Sánchez-Nieto S, Romero I, Castillo-Juárez I, Rivero-Cruz JF.(4)

5. Cell proliferation
In the evaluation of the role of lunasin, alone and in combination with aspirin and anacardic acid on cell proliferation and foci formation of transformed NIH/3T3 cells induced by chemical carcinogens 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene or 3-methylcholanthrene, found that lunasin, acting as a single agent, inhibits cell proliferation and foci formation. When combined with aspirin, these effects were significantly increased, indicating that this combination might be a promising strategy to prevent/treat cancer induced by chemical carcinogens, according to "Lunasin-aspirin combination against NIH/3T3 cells transformation induced by chemical carcinogens" by Hsieh CC, Hernández-Ledesma B, de Lumen BO.(5)

6. Pituitary tumors
In the investigation of the effect of anacardic acid (6-pentadecyl salicylic acid), a natural histone acetyltransferase inhibitor, on pituitary adenoma cells, showed that Anacardic acid reduced the expression of survivin and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, antiapoptotic proteins associated with cellular survival and radioresistance, and radiosensitized pituitary adenoma cells, according to "Anacardic acid induces caspase-independent apoptosis and radiosensitizes pituitary adenoma cells" by Sukumari-Ramesh S, Singh N, Jensen MA, Dhandapani KM, Vender JR.(6)

7. Antioxidant, larvicidal and antiacetylcholinesterase activities
In the evaluation of Anacardic acid, cardanol and cardol, the main constituents of natural cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), were obtained by solvent extraction and assayed for antioxidant, larvicidal and antiacetylcholinesterase activity, showed that cardanol as the most active, followed by cardol and anacardic acid. The three CNSL components demonstrated good larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti (LC(50)=12.40 for anacardic acid, 10.22 for cardol and 14.45 for cardanol) and exhibited inhibition zones for acetylcholinesterase enzymes in the TLC test similar to carbachol, which was used as standard, according to "Antioxidant, larvicidal and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of cashew nut shell liquid constituents" by Oliveira MS, Morais SM, Magalhães DV, Batista WP, Vieira IG, Craveiro AA, de Manezes JE, Carvalho AF, de Lima GP.(7)

8. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20197399
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20655754
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21828260

(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21815722
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21562729
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21275565
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20707981