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Wednesday, 30 October 2013

#Phytochemicals in Foods - 11 Health Benefits of Allyl isothiocyanate

Allyl isothiocyanate is phytochemical containing sulfur in the class of organosulfur compound, found abundantly in horseradish, mustard, wasabi, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Brain Cancer
In the investigation of that AITC significantly decreased proliferation and viability of human brain malignant glioma GBM 8401 cells in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 9.25+/-0.69 microM for 24 h-treatment, showed that Pretreatment with specific inhibitors of caspase-3 (Z-DEVE-FMK) and -9 (Z-LEHD-FMK) significantly reduced caspase-3 and -9 activity in GBM 8401 cells. Western blot analysis and colorimetric assays also displayed that AITC caused a time-dependent increase in cytosolic cytochrome c, pro-caspase-9, Apaf-1, AIF, Endo G and the stimulated caspase-9 and -3 activity. Our results suggest that AITC is a potent anti-human brain malignant glioma drug and it shows a remarkable action on cell cycle arrest before commitment for apoptosis is reached, according to "Allyl isothiocyanate triggers G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in human brain malignant glioma GBM 8401 cells through a mitochondria-dependent pathway' by Chen NG, Chen KT, Lu CC, Lan YH, Lai CH, Chung YT, Yang JS, Lin YC.(1)

2. Bladder cancer
Urinary concentrations of AITC equivalent are at least ten times higher than in the plasma, and tissue levels of AITC equivalent in the urinary bladder were 14-79 times higher than in other organs after oral AITC administration to rats. AITC may be most effective in the bladder as a cancer chemopreventive compound. AITC at high-dose levels also exhibit a low degree of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in animal studies, but such adverse effects are unlikely in humans exposed to dietary levels of AITC. Overall, AITC exhibits many desirable attributes of a cancer chemopreventive agent, and further studies are warranted in order to elucidate its mechanism of action and to assess its protective activity in humans, according to "Allyl isothiocyanate as a cancer chemopreventive phytochemical" by Zhang Y.(2)

3. Antimicrobial effects
In the investigation of the antimicrobial effect of a chitosan coating+allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) and nisin against Salmonella on whole fresh cantaloupes, showed that The same coating treatment completely inactivated mold and yeast on cantaloupe at day 1 and no regrowth occurred even up to 14days of storage. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that cell membrane damage and leakage of intercellular components occurred as a result of the chitosan-AIT coating treatments. No visual changes in overall appearance and color of cantaloupe rind and flesh due to coating treatments were observed. These results indicate that the application of an antimicrobial coating may be an effective method for decontamination of cantaloupes, according to "Inactivation of Salmonella on whole cantaloupe by application of an antimicrobial coating containing chitosan and allyl isothiocyanate" by Chen W, Jin TZ, Gurtler JB, Geveke DJ, Fan X.(3)

4. Stress response
In the examination of the effects of AITC on heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression in Caenorhabditis elegans and factors affecting the production of AITC from its precursor, sinigrin, a glucosinolate, in ground Brassica juncea cv. Vulcan seed as mustard has some potential as a biopesticide, found that AITC induced toxicity in C. elegans, as measured by HSP70 expression.• Conditions required for the conversion of sinigrin to AITC in ground B. juncea seed were determined.• The use of C. elegans as a bioassay to test AITC or mustard biopesticide efficacy is discussed, according to "Allyl isothiocyanate induced stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans" by Saini AK, Tyler RT, Shim YY, Reaney MJ.(4)

5. Anti cancers
In the review of whether AITC arrests human bladder cancer cells in mitosis and also induces apoptosis, suggested that AITC induced mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis, as shown by cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytoplasm, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and formation of TUNEL-positive cells. Inhibition of caspase-9 blocked AITC-induced apoptosis. Moreover, we found that apoptosis induction by AITC depended entirely on mitotic arrest and was mediated via Bcl-2 phosphorylation at Ser-70. Pre-arresting cells in G(1) phase by hydroxyurea abrogated both AITC-induced mitotic arrest and Bcl-2 phosphorylation. Overexpression of a Bcl-2 mutant prevented AITC from inducing apoptosis, according to "Allyl isothiocyanate arrests cancer cells in mitosis, and mitotic arrest in turn leads to apoptosis via Bcl-2 protein phosphorylation' by Geng F, Tang L, Li Y, Yang L, Choi KS, Kazim AL, Zhang Y.(5)

6. Anti-inflammatory effects
In the evaluation of the underlying mechanisms of the potential anti-inflammatory properties of allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) were analysed in vitro and in vivo, showed that 1. AITC was slightly less potent than sulforaphane (used as a positive control) in down-regulating inflammation in LPS stimulated macrophages. A significant increase in nuclear Nrf2 and heme oxygenase 1 gene expression and only a moderate down-regulation of interleukin 1β and microRNA-155 levels due to AITC was found in mouse liver. Present data suggest that AITC exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity in cultured macrophages in vitro but has only relatively little anti-inflammatory activity in mice in vivo, according to "Anti-inflammatory potential of allyl-isothiocyanate-role of Nrf2, NFκB and microRNA-155" by Wagner AE, Boesch-Saadatmandi C, Dose J, Schultheiss G, Rimbach G.(6)

7. Colorectal Cancer
In the study conducted by Department of Biology, Science Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, AITC was shown to inhibit the proliferation of human metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma SW620 cells in vitro by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, according to "Allyl isothiocyanate induces G2/M arrest in human colorectal adenocarcinoma SW620 cells through down-regulation of Cdc25B and Cdc25C" by Lau WS, Chen T, Wong YS.(7)

8. Prostate cancer
In the demonstartion of that allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a constituent of cruciferous vegetables, significantly inhibits proliferation of cultured PC-3 (androgen-independent) and LNCaP (androgen-dependent) human prostate cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) of approximately 15-17 micro M, found that A significant reduction in the expression of cyclin B1 protein (approximately 45%) was observed only in LNCaP cells. A 24 h exposure of PC-3 and LNCaP cells to an apoptosis-inducing concentration of AITC (20 micro M) resulted in a significant decrease (31-68%) in the levels of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in both cell lines, and approximately 58% reduction in Bcl-X(L) protein expression in LNCaP cells. In conclusion, it seems reasonable to hypothesize that AITC, and possibly other ITCs, may find use in the treatment of human prostate cancers, according to "Allyl isothiocyanate, a constituent of cruciferous vegetables, inhibits proliferation of human prostate cancer cells by causing G2/M arrest and inducing apoptosis" by Xiao D, Srivastava SK, Lew KL, Zeng Y, Hershberger P, Johnson CS, Trump DL, Singh SV.(8)

9. Health benefits
In the research of nutritional significance of parent glucosinolate sinigrin 50 μmol/kg b. w./day and its degradation product allyl isothiocyanate 25 μmol/kg b. w./day and 50 μmol/kg b. w./day for their influence on some parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in an animal rat model in vivo after their single (4 h) and 2 weeks oral administration, showed that the effect of SIN and AITC is multidirectional, indicating its impact on many organs like liver as well as pancreas, intestine in vivo action and rat adipocytes in vitro. Whilst consumption of cruciferous vegetables at levels currently considered "normal" seems to be beneficial to human health, this data suggest that any large increase in intake could conceivably lead to undesirable effect. This effect is potentiated with time of action of the examined compounds, whose influence is rather adverse for the majority of metabolic pathways, according to "Multidirectional time-dependent effect of sinigrin and allyl isothiocyanate on metabolic parameters in rats" by Okulicz M.(9)

10. White Blood Cells (WBCs)
In the investigation of the effects of AITC (dose=20 mg/kg body weight/day for 10 days, subcutaneous: s.c.) on the number of WBCs (total WBCs, lymphocytes, monocyte, neutrophil, basophil and eosinophil) and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult male rats, showed that administration of AITC decreased significantly the number of total WBCs on days 1-4 post s.c. injection by 25-27%. AITC also decreased the number of lymphocytes on days 1-10 by 21-36% and monocyte on days 1-8 by 28-78%. However, administration of AITC increased the number of neutrophil on days 8-10 by 61-112%. AITC did not change the number of eosinophil and basophil. Plasma corticosterone concentrations during the experimental period were 4.7-8.4 times significantly higher in the AITC group than in the control group, indicating that AITC induced stress-responses, according to "Allyl isothiocyanate-induced changes in the distribution of white blood cells in rats" by Imaizumi K, Sato S, Sakakibara Y, Mori S, Ohkuma M, Kawashima Y, Ban T, Sasaki H, Tachiyashiki K.(10)

11. Liver cancer
In the investigation of the possible protective effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) in nitrite- and nitrosamine-treated human hepatoma cells (HepG2) with the evaluation by cytotoxic effects and genotoxic effects determined by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), showed that Allyl isothiocyanate treatment enhanced cell viability and reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in both nitrite- and nitrosamine-treated cells significantly. In SCGE, when compared to untreated control cells, all of the treated groups caused increases in the tail intensity (%) such as nitrite at 17%, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) at 279%, N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) at 324%, and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) at 288%, according to "Effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) in both nitrite- and nitrosamine-induced cell death, production of reactive oxygen species, and DNA damage by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE): does it have any protective effect on HepG2 cells?" by Erkekoğlu P, Baydar T.(11)

12. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20596632
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19960458
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22361025
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22093285
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21778226
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21692985
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21472349
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12771033
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20809411
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20686346
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20448263