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Sunday, 27 October 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 11 Health Benefits of Phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate)

Phytic acid (Inositol hexaphosphate) are phytichemicasl of the organic acid found abunadantly in nuts, sesame seeds, soybeans, wheat, pumpkin, beans, almonds, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Alzheimer's disease (AD)
In the evaluation of the protective and beneficial effects of phytic acid against amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology in MC65 cells and the Tg2576 mouse model, showed that there was a significant increase in brain levels of cytochrome oxidase and a decrease in lipid peroxidation with phytic acid administration. In a treatment paradigm, 12-month old Tg2576 and wild type mice were treated with 2% phytic acid or vehicle for 6 months. Brain levels of copper, iron, and zinc were unaffected. The effects of phytic acid were modest on the expression of AβPP trafficking-associated protein AP180, autophagy-associated proteins (beclin-1, LC3B), sirtuin 1, the ratio of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (PAMPK) to AMPK, soluble Aβ1-40, and insoluble Aβ1-42. These results suggest that phytic acid may provide a viable treatment option for AD, according to "Phytic acid as a potential treatment for alzheimer's pathology: evidence from animal and in vitro models" by Anekonda TS, Wadsworth TL, Sabin R, Frahler K, Harris C, Petriko B, Ralle M, Woltjer R, Quinn JF.(1)

2. Colorectal cancer
In the investigation of the effect of phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate, IP6) as a potential adjuvant in treatment of colorectal carcinoma, found that all employed concentrations of IP6 or IP6/Ins decreased proliferation of the cell lines, with the maximum decrease being observed in HT-29 cells. Metabolic activity of treated cells differed in response to IP6 and IP6/Ins treatment; in HT-29 and SW-620 significant decrease was observed only at the highest concentration, whereas in SW-480 cells metabolic activity was lower at each concentration except 0.2 and 1 mM IP6 or IP6/Ins in 24-h incubation, according to "Effect of phytic acid and inositol on the proliferation and apoptosis of cells derived from colorectal carcinoma" by Schröterová L, Hasková P, Rudolf E, Cervinka M.(2)

3. Glucose Metabolism
In the evaluation of the effect of dietary feeding of rice bran and phytic acid on the glucose metabolism in high fat-fed C57BL/6N mice fed, the tested mice were given with either a high fat diet only (HF group) or a high fat diet supplemented with rice bran (HF-RB group) or phytic acid (HF-PA group) for 7 weeks, found that The control mice (NC group) received a normal diet. At the end of the experimental period, the HF group exhibited substantially higher blood glucose level than the NC group. However, the HF-RB and HF-PA groups showed a marked decrease in the blood glucose level relative to HF mice. Furthermore, significantly higher glucokinase (GK) activity and lower phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity were observed in HF-RB and HF-PA mice compared with that of the NC and HF ones. It was also found that the glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase) activity and hepatic glycogen concentration were considerably higher in HF-RB and HF-PA groups, respectively, than that of the HF mice, according to "Modulatory Effect of Rice Bran and Phytic Acid on Glucose Metabolism in High Fat-Fed C57BL/6N Mice" by Kim SM, Rico CW, Lee SC, Kang MY.(3)

4. Cholesterol-lowering effects
In the investigation of the effects of four types of antinutritional factor (phytic acid, stachyose, soy saponins and soy isoflavones) on lipoprotein levels in plasma of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, found that addition of 0·2-0·8% phytic acid or 0·4-1·5% stachyose decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, increased plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, thereby increasing the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio. By contrast, supplementation with 0·35-0·7% soy saponins generally depressed plasma TC levels and the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio. Supplementation with 0·35-0·7% soy isoflavones, however, increased plasma TC and TG levels. These results indicate that soy saponins may be partly responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effects of soybean meal, according to "Effects of antinutritional factors on plasma lipoprotein levels in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus" by Deng JM, Mai KS, Ai QH, Zhang WB, Wang XJ, Xu W, Liufu ZG, Cai YH, Chen W.(4)

5. Antiaging
In the evaluation of the anti aging effects of of the gel and cream containing niosomes entrapped with the rice bran bioactive compounds, including ferulic acid (F), γ-oryzanol (O), and phytic acid (P), found that the formulations containing niosomes entrapped with the rice bran bioactive compounds gave superior clinical anti-aging activity which can be applied as a novel skin product, according to "Anti-aging efficacy of topical formulations containing niosomes entrapped with rice bran bioactive compounds" by Manosroi A, Chutoprapat R, Abe M, Manosroi W, Manosroi J.(5)

6. Antioxidant activities and skin hydration effects
In the evaluation of antioxidant activities [by in vitro ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and ex vivo lipid peroxidation inhibition assay] and in vivo human skin hydration effects of gel and cream containing the rice bran extracts entrapped in niosomes, found that Gel and cream containing the rice bran extracts entrapped in niosomes showed higher antioxidant activity (ORAC value) at 20-28 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE) per gram of the sample than the placebo gel and cream which gave 16-18 micromolTE/g. Human sebum treated with these formulations showed more lipid peroxidation inhibition activity than with no treatment of about 1.5 times. The three different independent techniques including corneometer, vapometer and confocal Raman microspectroscopy (CRM) indicated the same trend in human skin hydration enhancement of the gel or cream formulations containing the rice bran extracts entrapped in niosomes of about 20, 3 and 30%, respectively, according to "Antioxidant activities and skin hydration effects of rice bran bioactive compounds entrapped in niosomes" by Manosroi A, Chutoprapat R, Sato Y, Miyamoto K, Hsueh K, Abe M, Manosroi W, Manosroi J.(6)

7. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties
In the investigation of the nutritive and biological properties of the meal from Rapa Catozza Napoletana (RCN) (Brassica rapa L. var. rapa) cultivar seeds as a new and alternative source of proteins, found that RCN seed meal could be highly regarded as a component of human nutrition and animal feed for its good protein content, desirable amino acid profile and low antinutrient concentration. Results for the sample indicated appreciable antiradical activity and good properties for meal stability, according to "Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Rapa Catozza Napoletana (Brassica rapa L. var. rapa DC.) seed meal, a promising protein source of Campania region (southern Italy) horticultural germplasm" by Tenore GC, Troisi J, Di Fiore R, Basile A, Novellino E.(7)

8. Antioxidant and type 2 diabetes
In the evaluation of the antioxidant and type 2 diabetes related enzyme inhibition properties of phytic acid extract prepared from raw and traditionally processed local grains and vegetables collected from Kenya, showed that phytic acid extract from raw samples revealed 59%-89% of DPPH radical scavenging capacity, 27-3,526 mmol Fe(II)/g extract of reducing power, 20%-72% of α-amylase inhibition activity and 8%-91% of α-glucosidase inhibition activity. Cooking and roasting improved the antioxidant and health relevant functionality of phytic acid extracts obtained from Kenyan local vegetables and grains, respectively, according to "Antioxidant and type 2 diabetes related functional properties of phytic acid extract from Kenyan local food ingredients: effects of traditional processing methods' by Kunyanga CN, Imungi JK, Okoth MW, Biesalski HK, Vadivel V.(8)

9. Skin cancer
in the assessment of the protective effects of IP6 against UVB irradiationinduced injury and photocarcinogenesis by using HaCaT cells (human immortalized keratinocytes) and SKH1 hairless mice, found that treatment with IP6 also decreased UVB-induced apoptosis and caspase 3 activation. Topical application of IP6 followed by exposure to UVB irradiation in SKH1 hairless mice decreased tumor incidence and multiplicity as compared with control mice. Our results suggest that IP6 protects HaCaT cells from UVB-induced apoptosis and mice from UVB-induced tumors, according to "Protective effect of inositol hexaphosphate against UVB damage in HaCaT cells and skin carcinogenesis in SKH1 hairless mice" by Williams KA, Kolappaswamy K, Detolla LJ, Vucenik I.(9)

10. Cancer inhibition
A striking anticancer effect of IP6 was demonstrated in different experimental models, showed that IP6 holds great promise in our strategies for the prevention and treatment of cancer. IP6 plus inositol enhances the anticancer effect of conventional chemotherapy, controls cancer metastases, and improves the quality of life, as shown in a pilot clinical trial. The data strongly argue for the use of IP6 plus inositol in our strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. However, the effectiveness and safety of IP6 plus inositol at therapeutic doses needs to be determined in phase I and phase II clinical trials in humans, according to "Cancer inhibition by inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) and inositol: from laboratory to clinic' by Vucenik I, Shamsuddin AM.(10)

11. Bone mineral density
In the study of the influence of phytate consumption on bone mineral density, indicated that the results obtained seem to indicate that the adequate consumption of phytate may play an important role in the prevention of bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women, according to "[The influence of consumption of phytate on the bone mass in posmenopausal women of Mallorca].[Article in Spanish]" by López-González AA, Grases F, Marí B, Vicente-Herrero MT, Costa-Bauzá A, Monroy N.(11)

12. Etc.
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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20930278
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20127021
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20664725
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22268430
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22235888
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21449379
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22173690
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21895422
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21819680
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14608114
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21794821