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Monday, 28 October 2013

@Healthy Foods- Pinto beans (Phaseolus)


Pinto bean is also known as common bean, genus Phaseolus and the family Fabaceae. It has a mottled appearance of darker reddish brown spots on a lighter brownish beige background, thus appearing painted or spotted.
Nutritional supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Dietary fiber
3. Protein
4. Vitamin A
5. Vitamin B1
6. Vitamin C
7. Copper
8. Iron
9. Manganese
10. Calcium
11. Magnesium
12. Potassium
13. Phosphorus
14. Etc.

Health Benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1.
iron absorption and oxygen utilization
Copper found in pinto bean is essential both concentration and bioavailability for efficient iron absorption and oxygen utilization and for aiding free-radical degradation, according to the study of "Pinto beans are a source of highly bioavailable copper in rats" by Saari JT, Reeves PG, Johnson WT, Johnson LK.(a)

2.
HIV-1
lectin of pinto bean had exerted the ability to evoke a mitogenic response from murine splenocytes and inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC50 of 3 microM, according to "Purification and characterization of a galactose-specific lectin with mitogenic activity from pinto beans' by Wong JH, Wong CC, Ng TB.(b)

3. Antioxidant effects
Phenolic acids and flavonols may play important roles on the overall antioxidant activities of pinto beans, while anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols may play important roles on the overall antioxidant activities of black beans, according to "Total Phenolic, Phenolic Acid, Anthocyanin, Flavan-3-ol, and Flavonol Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Pinto and Black Beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as Affected by Thermal Processing" by Xu B, Chang SK.(c)

4. Anti fungal effects
In the comparison of
the water-soluble extract of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto and theirs inhibition toward a large number of fungal species isolated from bakeries found that bread was made at the pilot plant scale by sourdough fermentation with L. brevis AM7 and addition of the water-soluble extract (27%, vol/wt; 5 mg of protein/ml) of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto. Slices of bread packed in polyethylene bags did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate, according to "Long-term fungal inhibitory activity of water-soluble extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto and sourdough lactic acid bacteria during bread storage" by Coda R, Rizzello CG, Nigro F, De Angelis M, Arnault P, Gobbetti M.(d)

5.
Cardiovascular disease
Pinto bean consumption has demonstrated in lowering serum HDL-cholesterol (P < 0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (P < 0.05) in both groups without affecting serum triglycerides, VLDL cholesterol, or glucose, according to "Pinto bean consumption changes SCFA profiles in fecal fermentations, bacterial populations of the lower bowel, and lipid profiles in blood of humans" by Finley JW, Burrell JB, Reeves PG.(e)

6. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to the concentration
1.
Molybdenum
Molybdenum cofactor is vital for human enzymes, including xanthine oxidase, sulfite oxidase, and aldehyde oxidase, Deficiency may cause Prenatal brain disruption, according to the study of "Prenatal brain disruption in molybdenum cofactor deficiency" by Carmi-Nawi N, Malinger G, Mandel H, Ichida K, Lerman-Sagie T, Lev D.(1)

2. Folate
In the investigation of the prevalence and multifactorial etiology of anemia among Indian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and its effect on anemia, found that Anemia, particularly iron deficiency anemia and anemia of inflammation, is highly prevalent among children with HIV infection. Micronutrient supplements (iron and, folate) combined with ART(antiretroviral therapy) improved anemia in HIV-infected children, according to "The prevalence and etiology of anemia among HIV-infected children in India" by Shet A, Arumugam K, Rajagopalan N, Dinakar C, Krishnamurthy S, Mehta S, Shet AS.(2)

3. Dietary fiber
Daily intake of right amount of fibers can prvent and treata. Diabetes, as Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(3)

4. Tryptophan
Tryptophan is one of the 10 essential amino acids which the body uses to synthesize the proteins for brain cells need, thus enhancing the nerve cells in information transmitting between themselves and cells in the parts of the body that reduces the risk of anxiety and depression, according to the study of "The effects of tryptophan depletion on neural responses to emotional words in remitted depression" by Roiser JP, Levy J, Fromm SJ, Nugent AC, Talagala SL, Hasler G, Henn FA, Sahakian BJ, Drevets WC.(4)

5. Manganese
It is one of important trace in preventing osteoporosis, according to the study of "[Study of estrogen deficiency impact on manganese levels in teeth and mandible of rats after ovariectomy]. [Article in Polish]" by Rahnama M, Błoniarz J, Zareba S, Swiatkowski W.(5)and regulating blood sugar level, according to the study of "[An inadequate intake of manganese may favour insulin resistance in girls]. [Article in Spanish]" by Rodríguez-Rodríguez E, Bermejo LM, López-Sobaler AM, Ortega RM.(6)

6. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Weigh loss
Since it is rich of fiber, it decreases the risk of food craving because it is hard to digest and makes you feel fullness for a long time., According to the study of Free-living, overweight and obese adults (N=204, body mass index 25 to 45) with baseline LDL cholesterol levels 130 to 200 mg/dL (3.4 to 5.2 mmol/L) were randomized; 144 were included in the main analysis of participants who completed the trial without significant protocol violations, conduceted by Provident Clinical Research, Glen Ellyn, posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20102847), researchers filed the conclusion that Consumption of a whole-grain RTE oat cereal as part of a dietary program for weight loss had favorable effects on fasting lipid levels and waist circumference.

2. Blood sugar
Sine the bean contains high amount of fiber, it protects the pancreas in production of insulin by releasing the glucose slowly into blood stream, thus reducing type II diabetes due to over work of pancreas, according to the study of "High-fiber rye bread and insulin secretion and sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal women" by Juntunen KS, Laaksonen DE, Poutanen KS, Niskanen LK, Mykkänen HM., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12540398), reserachers found that High-fiber rye bread appears to enhance insulin secretion, possibly indicating improvement of b cell function.

3. Potassium
Beside playing an important role in maintaining the desirable water balance in human body, it also is important in transmitting the electrical conductivity of brain properly in regulating neuronal excitability and behavior.s,, according to the study of "In vivo role of a potassium channel-binding protein in regulating neuronal excitability and behavior" by Shahidullah M, Reddy S, Fei H, Levitan IB., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19846720).

4. Free radicals
The trace minerals of manganese and copper in the bean is an important cofactor of the oxidative enzyme called superoxide dismutase, it helps to improve the immune system to disarms free radicals created inside the mitochondria, according to the study of "The role of manganese superoxide dismutase in inflammation defense" by Li C, Zhou HM., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21977313), researchers filed the conclusion in Abstract that Treatment of a rat model of lung pleurisy with the MnSOD mimetic MnTBAP suppressed the inflammatory response in a dose-dependent manner.

5. Heart diseases and stroke
Pinto bean also contains high amount of phytochemicals which is important for the immune system disarmed the forming of free radicals in the body and reduced the risk of cholesterol oxidation causes of plague building up against the arterial wall, leading to heart diseases and stroke, according to the study of "A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Associatio" by Barbara V. Howard, PhD; David Kritchevsky, PhD. posted in American Heart Foundation (http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/95/11/2591.full)

6. Etc.

Side effect
1. Purines
Since it contains a measure amount of purines, it can cause problem for people with kidney diseases because of uric acid accumulation.
2. Etc.
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Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17116710
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16600511
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19492791
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18849463
(e) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17951475

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21285035
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22009132
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20713332
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19539268